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Full text of "Literature"

(OV 



Wittr^mt 



Published^ by 







Zbc Xlimcs, 



VOL. VII. 



JULY 7 TO DECEMBER -21), 1!)00. 








1r 



LONDON 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY (iEORGE KDWARD WRIGHT, 
AT THE TIMES OFFICE. PRINTING HOUSE SQUARE. 

1000. 




jttmfmire 



Published by 




Zbc Cinics. 



No. 142. SATURDAY, JULY 7. 1000. 



CONTENTS. 

 

HAnic 
NdTKS OK THE DaY 1, 2, .'< 

I'KusoNAf. ViKws -" History, Old and New" 4 

Wo.MKN I'dkts ok To-Day' 5 

'I'liK Dkcav ok Kaiii.k-Wiutino, bv a. T. Story 

TiiK DitA.MA. by A. n. Wallcley * 7 

A HlIir.KMIKAI'llY OF TIIK PARIS EXHIBITION (ColUpilfd 

by Mr. K. A. Reynolds IJiilll 8 

liKVIKWH — 

Diotioiuiry of Nntional Biography 9 

Volumes of Verse— 

The I'oeliciil \Vi)rk><of Mnlhlldn HHnd-Tho<'holrp of Aclilll.'^'- 
I'di'iiis for I'lcliirca— Drift -Till) Siityr—Kolciiio— The Struwnel- 
iwtcr Aliilmbcl 10, 11 

Mount aineei'in); — 

Tlin Asiimt of Mount Saint KIlaM -Tmvpls through the Alps - 
The Alps from Kiid to Knil ("hiimoiiix Zoririalt — Cycllnif in 

the Alps— Mounluirieerin;{ Ainont; the UiinaluyH^ ! 12, V.i 

Iluriiiu \:i 

The Oxford Texts 14 

Will- Hooks — 

.Mafi'kinfi — (icnerHl Macdonnlil — Yoxtcrdiiy iind Todav in 
KniKerV I^nd liillle History of Houlh Africa -KioldMarshal 
Lord liolH-rts— My Diwese IlurinR the War The New Rultlo 
of IlorkiiiK— Social Life in the Hritmh Army -KnKlanil's Armed 

N'eiitralil y H^ 15 

Aljidyof till' IteRpriry—The Swoni of the KinK-Tho Shadow of 
Allah Thi' Heart o' the I'eat—C'hristalla. an Unknown (jmiiillty 
-Little Iiidabas l", 

LlllHAUY NoTKH 10 

CORUKHiMiMiKNCK - KplKcopal RciciKtor« — Orammnr r. Idiom (Mr. 

W. H. U. Itouse) A MomoHuI to O. \Y. Steevona 10, 1" 

At'THOHS AMI Prill, ISllKKS H) 18 

List of New Books anu UiirBiNTs 18 



NOTES OF THE DAY. 



The Stage Society, wliieh has just hold another of it-* 
ineotings, certainly heljis on an intelligent interest in tlio 
many dramatic queiitions now in the air. And its exist- 
ence illcro»^ses our surprise that no really serious theatrical 
magazine is able to live. An attempt was made towamls this end 
liy tlio Tlieatre, which was fiuindod by Mr. Frederick Hawkins, 
whoso death this week wo road with much regret. Ho had been 
at one time di-amatic critic of Tlie Times, and had written several 
liooks oil drniiiatic subjects, such as " A Life of Edmund Kean," 
" Annals of tho French Stage from its Origin to the Death of 
Kacine," and " The French Stage in tho Eighteenth Century." 
 «  * 

We may perhaps conclude that the failure of tho Uteatre, in 
spite of the fact that it had such competent editors as Mr. 
Hawkins, Mr. Addison Bright, and Mr. Clement Scott, provetl 
that tliei-e is no room in England at the present time for a 
review devoted to the interests of the playhouse. The purely 
pivfessional oi-gaus which record every little provincial per- 
formance, generally with tho intimation that it was " much 
above tho average," are understood to be very pi-ofltablo pro- 
perties. So are some of tho organs that content themnelves 
with retailing the scandals of the couU»acs. But for the higher 
criticism of the drama there seema to be no great demand. 
Yet there is much wider interest iu drauuUic things than 

Vol. VII. No. 1. 



there n*ed to be. We follow and di^uM th« npw nioTMD«nt« 

and tho now men In French, Oerinan, It.illaii, S<-.indIimvlan, and 

Itelgian dranin, and we have theorien which utriiKxh' '■ '■■  — 

hion in " Elizabethan " and other " iitage wH-ietic>«." n 

less, those wlio have HOiiH'thiiii; lo nay on the drat- 

scramble for places in tho other higli-cla*!! magnzine*, ;■ 

their chance of being elbowed out by the wrlt«rs on the Chiapwi 

Crisis, tho Kottlemcnt of South Africa, Rltualimi, and C*d<*t 

Cori>s. 

• «  • 

How warmly tho public is concerned withdr.-tiiutlcquc«t!ou« 

in shown in the Fortniffiilly Review for July. One sign of that 

concern is the growing n-' " . not 

do ShakcsiKJai-o justice in .. val." 

Mr. Tree, however, who writes on " Tho Hissing of .Shake- 

s|H>aro," claims the public taste for his own method. H' '- - ' '■ 

does not oare what may bo tho opinion " of literary • 

revealed in print," ho is all for " public opinion as revealed by 

the coin of the realm." The despised litorary experts will 

probably turn with much more Interest to Professor Lewis 

Campbell's article in the - ( T 

especially if they have bi^. 

on " Tho Idea of Tragedy," alxMit which Mr. Walkley wrile* 

in another column. We can only here state tho jKtint ralnud by 

Professor Campbell — viz., tliat the so-called " Climax " of the 

classical tragedies is ne\-er tho close of the play. '1 

method is probably due to the introduction of a curtaiii ..„ . 

Professor Campbell docs not admit this. Anyhow, the old 

tradition was that a great production should end 

dramatist works up to a crisis, and then is ii" 

set|uel when excitement and curiosity may give way to sympathy 

and awe. Shakos|)eare was in the classical tradition — a fart 

those are apt to forget who complain of the lingering close of 

his tragedie.-s. 

« • • • 

The Stage Society iierfonuance brought an exbilarvting 
experienco. As Mr. George R '"' iw honKtroosly remarfccd 

on the fall of the curtain, tl. . for three hours or !k> 

in tho London of 1010. Candida, now produced for the 
llrst time on metropolitan boards is ono of the fiHir 
" Pleasant Plays " by Mr. Shaw. It was written in 180*. and 
at that time a ]■ mager p 

a quarter of a ccntur\ uld bo pi . 

fully to crowded houses. In his words of thanks at the close Mr. 
Shaw explainc<l another matter, namely, that the Bishop of 
London alluded to iu the play is not Dr. Creighton — ■x msn ttx> 
wide-minded to keep a  i " hout of li; vorrs 

. . . . although the p<'.. .... snot a bit m... .^..^.>\x*" 

than the Kov. James Mavor Morcll. Candida's wcll-mcaniug 

husband. Mr. Shaw's n 

stead at times ; more thai. 

as of more than average intcUigenoe — laughed at awkwaril 

moments. Tho cast was excellent. If we mistake not, Mr. 

Cirauvillc Barker, who as the scatter-brained, emotional boy- 



LITERATURE. 



[July 7, 1900. 



fort Encrm- M»r>.: <' «>ip only OIU' 

'--K lu lb<« pUy. Mr. th«rl<>« 

in|ct*>o hatl U-fore «|>pi>ari<«i ■• SJorall, Miu Jaix't Afhnrch 
,> I .kiidkla. Mr. lititirrt KaniuhmrMni u (bo curate. lit Mr. 
iWrnanl SInw wriouk In tlii* play or U bo ]aiishlng at u« all (ho 
tuDe? Aa to the antuvr (iK<n> may r«>r(a!iily bo (»x> o|iini<>iiit. 
For oor i«it, «Mlo wlnHtiuKthonnfortuiiad* pri'sonce ofcoHain 
Sha«iM»<s we raiii>o( Uiit (hiiik (hat the aim la to rcrcal the 



liiraktkmii ol Xlorrll'* H•lf•>ati^Alr: 
viiiU. Th«'n> U MunvthiiiR m. 



'i coney liiiililod 

ig niitl iiifi!>ivt' 

.U dcrelopittciit. After 

. "f TintagUe*, to nay 

,ii,<j of I'face — when-ill, 

by tte way. Fnn Bachner i* sappowd to fall iu lore with her 

.' »^-.--' .1 ' ., 1 -r, William— ('<i»idM". "■''" !'■< serious 



'. Mr. Walter Kalcigh, Prof<*ssor of Mo<Icrn 

^, Livcrp»K)l, ami !>niiic liiiii' Pro- 

tli<> Mahoiuedun AiiKlo-Orieiitnl 



rh, hat ' 
 lie Chair i>( l.n^- 
Mr. Kaleigh is Im-~i 



lintcd to sucocod Professor 

I.an^imfre and Literature at 

. .\Mi t.. tln> general reader by 

I :iianual dealing 

'Ut could liiive 



■J 

H<i|«mI 



f.r II 
:ti ail iixli;: 

■I a " S<i<l:i 



in a matter <>f lilerary ethics may bo 

humour of (heir cuiiioidence. Miss 

ii! eve on Mr. Kipling and others, 

N.ti- on the War " against the " solf- 

.',. i,..',i_- their names in l.trgo print on 

rA," ami liiiK tliem " stop bill-sticking while ho 

" Meanwhile another writer has been protesting 

"'•"<• in Miss Copelli's new romance " Boy," for 

>■ capital of contemporary death scenes in South 

^'1 far as to introduce the name of Lieutenant 

is writer bids the novelist stop sentimental izing 

. while the soldiers are dying. There 

•ut motes and beams in a bo<jk which 

' lok in tiio world which 

MOW." 



On th«> eighty-sixth anniTer^aly <>r the publication of 

 Warwley " it It plearaiit (o weleome (he app<'araiice of one more 

" '■ ■■;,-■:>-■■■ -r-H of new editions of (he "Waverley Novels." 

>rs. Macmillan, bu(, though it bears their 

 I'dition. It is, 

intriMluctimiii 



. •• Tis - 
r Mr. N 
iiur Mr. l^ng liiinsolf fall umlcr the 

.' »>t (ilK •lltH'I'^l I. II I III* 111 k)\ '>.l|-| I I'liillf' 



Mr. 



TV- (acr of C'baurer 

tfn» ttfO lirriv> >k fj,i,;i'. 



' • y^\ v.^v«-»^ v'l II'"..!.;!**! WHO v.i* Vliiii 



Thew) 11 will. Ii It apiXMi^ in CVdove Is, for the first 

time, .1 by Mr. M. H. Spiclniann ill a llrst article on 

I'l liis in the .\/<n;i>riiir of Art. Mr. Spielmann's 

eii iiich promiws to Ik- an instructive one, is to be 

issiUHl by the Koyal SiH-iely of Literatuiv. May wo suggest <o 
Mr. S|iielmanii that, should tlio essay bo i-eprinttnl, li<> might 
revise the following sontcneo :— " Tlio VM>st likeness that is pi-e- 
Hentod to' us of Chaucer, then, is th« limning, or what >\<e would 
nowadays call * wttter-<-olour drawing,' which ho lntro<lucod into 
his Unik ' Do Keginiiiie I'limipis " " ? The sentence is pre- 
c-«.'<le<l by a longish paragraph which has no reference to Occlcve 
at all ; and Chaucer did not write the " De Hogimlne Priu- 
cipis." Xor, for the matter of that, did Occlevc. His work was 
*• Dt> Kegimine Principum." 

» • • » 

The CiiniMOcfc Expre»» is very wroth with Literature for 
having dared to refer disparagingly to Covenantiug poetry. In 
.■\ sentence as persjiicuous as it is g^rammatical, the journal 
observes : — 

As a Cocknoy critic, ho (with the usual ignorance but full- 
blown presumption of his class) has just now lieen telling the 
world, the columns of Literature, thai " all Covenanting, or 
CiiiiKToiiiiiii jioetry, nivo ' The Caineroiiian Dream ' — the 
bartl of Crawick — is wretched stuff " (judging nil, wo suppose, 
from the low, grovelling, gutter standar<l of " The Absent- 
Miiidcd Beggar "). 
The Cumnock critic has not even taken the trouble to quote 
correctly. What was stated in Lifertifiirc was that " Most of 
the Cameronian and Covenanting poetry of Scotland is wretched 
stuff, almost the solitary exception, certainly the only out- 
standing exception," being Hyslop's poem " The Cameronian 
Dream." It may be unfortunate for the Covenanters, but the 
statement is strictly accurate. However, tast<'s differ. Tho 
Cumnock Expremt as " proof of the utter falseness of that 
vertlict " (of Literature ) gives some lines from a " stirring 
account of the Battle of Drumclog, by Mr. Hugh Brown, a 
(lalston schoolmaster of some sixty years ago." The following 
siimples lx!ar elo<iuent testimony to tho beauty of Covenanting 
lioctry : — 

Housed by the rolling of the distant drum. 
Breathless tho watcher cried, " The fwinen come ! " 
One short, but fervent, hurried sigh they breathed, 
Folded their Bibles, and their swords unsheathed. 
Along Drumclog the soldiers' proud array 
Of glittering armatui-e flung back the day ; 
The prancing war-steed proudly jiawcd the bcatb, 
.\iid felt afar the battle's burning breath ; 
Oppression's steelgirt bandit undismayed, 
With jest and scorn the peasant ranks surveyed. 

• • • * • 

But a moment they paused, and they lion-liko sprung 

From tho lair they were kne<.>ling uiKin ; 
And the glens and the rocks with the wild music rung 
As they cbante<l a psalm and rushc<l on. 



I lie I iimiKK-Jf Exprest is 
Literature will pronounce 
I  -' pix'trj', I 

«. But t 

11. 



(|iiitc correct in assuming that 
these lines " wretched stuff." All 
. it Is only fair to say, is not quite 
mo oven worse — for example, the 
I in " Old Mortality." Two 
•.ulHcicut for quotation : — 

They marched cut through Lithgow-town 

For lo enlarge their forces ; 
\iid iicnt for all the north country 

T.J come, both foot and horses. 



\Vli< 



well, 



I 



 hoy cone 
'111. 

Tb« fact U that the (cr««(«)<t kindness that can be thown to the 
' iilk of Covenanting jfoctry is to leave it alone. 



.Inly 7, 1900.] 



LITERATl'RE. 



It wan nn oxcollont Irtca to rcprosont Sir Tliniiin<i Morp'<. 
rMldencm at BiicklorHbury and ClKiUoa in tho memorial xtniiKNl 
glaa* window roocMilly iiiiv<>II(mI in tlio rliuri-li of St. Lavvrnnco 
Jewry. More wis Imrn in Mill<-!«tr<><>t, C'lii-apsidi", and livtsl in 
Bu(;l{l('r»l>nry for sorno yciirs aftor Iiix inarriiiK<\ prior to |iiirclia<<- 
itiR Crosl>y-pIaic. In Tin- Mi-rru ll'ircjt o/ Wiiitlmr Hhal»«>- 
spoaro inalfcs Kalstair iillndo to tho tradors in In-ihs for wlilch in 
his day Biicldorsbnry was fninoiis : " Conii>, I cannot oojt, and 
Bay tlioii art tills and tliat, llko a many of thoso lisping liawthorn- 
liiids, that coiMo like wonion in nu«n's apparol, and nniell lik<> 
Bucklorsbiiry in simplo time." Tho Chancellor's Iioiihu at 
Cholsoa, built in l.'»21, Htood at tho north end of Ik-anfort -row. 
KrasMiUH has loft a record of his life hi>re : -- 

lie I'onvcrses with his wife, his son, his dailKl>tcr-in-law, 
his tjiroo daiiBlit<>rs and thoir hn-.bands, with clovcii Rrand- 
clilldron— a K<x>dly household, in truth. TIkto is not any 
niati livinK so affect u>nate as ho, and ho lovoth his old wife as 
well as if she was a young maid. . . . I should rathor call 
his house a school, or a university of Christian relijtion, for 
though there is none therein but rea<leth or studieth the 
liberal sciences, their s|KH^-ial care is piety and virtue ; there 
is no quarrelling or intoMi|K>rate worils heard ; that worthy 
gontlenian doth not govern with pnnid and lofly words, but. 
with well-timed and courteous iHMievolence ; everylnxly |M<r- 
formeth his duty, yet there is always alacrity ; neither Is 
sober mirth anything wanting. 
This is n fusciiuiting woitl-picture of .More's life in his quiet 
Chelsea retreat, where Honry VI 11. often visited him. 
* * * * 

Ronan, the life-long friend of M. B4"rt helot, is s.iid to have 
written tho following epitaph for that givat chemist and 
philosopher : 

Ci-Cii 

.M. B.-rthelot. 

(Mere follow his nninemus lilies.) 

This is the only plac«> which he never soliciti-d. 

—a superscript ion, the exact opixisite of Piron's well-known 
epitaph on himself :— " II ue fut rien, pas memo acadi-micien." 
Anyhow, M. Borthelot has now another title to aild to tho 
prodigious list which Kenan so shortly summarizeil. Ho has 
been elected to the Froneli Academy. Nineteen votes were 
cast for him. Nine academicians abstaiiie<l, and eleven did not 
turn up to vote. Anutng tho latter was .M. ile Krcyciiiet, in 
.spite of his pretensions to be himself a man of science. This 
illustrates tho kind of bias which ever since Kenan's death has 
prevented M. B<-rthel<.ls entrance into the Academy. He had 
wished to siicceeil K'enan, but the Catholic and Conservative 
wing of tho Academy rallied round M. Briuietiere, whose views on 
"la faillitedo la science " had been demolished by .M. Berthelot, 
and black-balle<l one of the greatest scientillc men of tho day. 
To-day, M. Berthelot, In •^••U.. r,r < i... nationalist cabal against 
him, takes his revenge. 

The issue of the final vohimo of the " DIctionnry of National 
Biography," which wc notice elsewhere, leads one to look at the 

undertaking as a whole. Perhaps we can pay 

Thr" Jiiclioiiarii "" higher coniplinient to those who are lespon- 

of SiilioiKil sible for it than to say thai their achieveinenl- 

liiogi-(ii>hij." is by no means contlned to the produ<-tion of a 

standard dictionary of Kiiglish worthies. Tin' 
inception of the work, its steady and business-like execution, 
and its reception by the public mark .sonu'thlng like an epoch in 
English literary history. Never before, we may safely say, has 
the chief magistrate of the City of London found in the publica- 
tion of the last volume of a book an occasion which calb^l for 
public and honourable rei'ognition. Kew publications, even in 
an age when colliilHiration is the fashion, have brought tog»'lher 
so many distinguished writers; iu>ne certainly have done more 
to organize research and turn it to a practical use. Mr. Lee, 
who has himM<ir, in addition to his very exacting editorial work, 
written an anumnt ec|n:il to flins' volumes of the nictlnnarx . 
|;ivek » iuU Mtcui'd ul ikn uumum i4u«1 i»iti>kU'> ui kit wU»trir»rif 



y ; 
I'lix 



MaiuM>« of biatnrieal •vt<lon<<M, nnhr.<inl an/l ntithmt-kf nf by- 
older si M.l. 

and lie 

task of the <-• ,^, 

of data on ii • ,,y„ 

»|KMdal goal Ix'fore him, pn imo •piH^I nm 

place ti> place, from Imn.U ... , frnm manaM'n|.< i.. iii^nn- 

Hcripf, patching at every hint which may ojM-n up new IIimm at 

Inquiry, every gleam which may thniw a -' ' ',nt 

uiKin th<< subjts-t, and never iHTinitling .»» 

away into by paths or t<i roam at liirK.- i.v.r ng 

pastures of historical ;N>niiiiiii/iii. T>> tlH>s4. who d-, ,),, 

the Dictionary we owe this a j|, 

motho<ls of study, and In the .. ,| 

ni>sslike handling of, I i finiiiin- | 

by the exhaustive bii. . ;il matt<'i 

page, finally cre<lituble to Knglish culture Is the origin of thU 
great enterpris*-. The public, aceustomcti to ntv the rolanm 
appearing every quarter with utifailing regularity, have Imwu 
eontent to note the rapidity and c<impl<-t4>ne- ' ' ihv 

editor and his stalT were doing their wurk. in 

their admiration for the sut-cesnfiil ;uijuirr> 

too curiously how the sinews of . i. Mr. 

Tx>i>'s prvface gives us the story. Ti .if tb«- 

Dictionary was entindy that of .Mr. ».• After 

some forty years' exp<>rienc4- as a publislM-r in th«» flrm of 
.Smith, Elder, and Co., he was the first seriouvly to f»eo » 
task of national importance, the need of which had b<M!>n unimr- 

sally recognized. A certain l>oldmi>s in < ---i :...- new 

ventures is inseparable from the publish:  li«« 

magnitude of the undertaking t. ' ' ' M .nd 

eighteen years ago must have in 

the recent history of 111. .' he 

conditions of a merely . -,►- 

mised to involve, and did involve. Mr 

as material prolU wasconcerne<l, ..i .Is. 

Mr. Smith, however, put his hand to : -'k 

back. Throughiuit the progress of I |i. Mr. 

Lee, " ignored eonsideni lions of profit and lom in providing for 
its conduct to a succe».sful issue." The b>i-".«— - ■■' ....i.i:.!.:.,^^ 

like any other bn.sinciis, may lie eondu. Is. 

Some of them may provoke crilieisni. and hm- .-o 

authors and publishers may, as wo know, le . .y 

and misunderstanding. PublislH>rs n rs 

are not always mindful of what i» • iv 

assert that the |H>sitioii of th.- 

business agent of the author, n 

to a higher level the ilealings Immwinmi jnil. -r 

than tho public spirited claim made by Mr. <ii-. ' '.. 

right, when an opi>ortunity arises to do a great public >. 

to bo soiuething more than a mere agent of the author. W . ... 

far from saying that such a display of public spirit is unique 

among publishers ; but its magnitude certainly call- ' - 

recognition. It has often tK>en iK>iiite<I out that a II'. 

prise of this kind might well I '.. 

similar enterprises have bi-ei , •» 

in accordance with the inde|>('iiii<'ii> 4. ol the II. it 

should be due to the lilM-ralily and energy of • k- 

conclusion to Ih< drawn from the complet«Hl I 

iH'lieve, that the system on which it has Iks- 

the most likely to prisluce workmanlike results 

of the State-aide<! Historical Manus<Tipt» <'. 

conllmi this view. Certainly such a s|h>i 

part of private citizens exerts a highly -i.n 

on the literary life of .Kngland -whether «<• 

of the publisher who eonceivc<l and flnaiired III.- I '!.! .■  

at that of the ctintriliutors who hav<' iirmlin-cil »• 

monument of liti-rary skill and research, or 

Mr. Leslie Stephen, Mr. Sidney F,*^>. nixl 

have so well accomplished tho •' 

task of organizing, revising, and < -'« 

wf iiiographies. 

1 J 



LITERATURE. 



[July 7, 1900. 



personal Uicws. 



HISTORY— OLD AND NEW. 

Onw, »om<> tUty yearn ago, when * mitn wan Imrn into the 
«tirld, an pnthiiK!i<>Mi> relation tiirnetl to tbo mother anil hhWimI 
aiaioatly — tbo flr-t ami only vital ()uostion — " Will ho love his 
Maranlay ? " ^"i\\ any one in the eomins years spei<uhito 
eagerly on an (r.frnt'a prolmhle affection for — iihall wv say — 
kia 8c«l<>y ? Or !•> there any living hiMorian about whom the 
ordinary reader mron two Ktraini ? 

If «« eomc to think of it, this Is rather a M>rious question. 
nialory, we assame, is meant to be read, and not merely 
eraHiaed for i-i«Ml by a few specialists. 

Tet tke tt-ntl- : ii "rical School, the disciples 

at Frmnan eapecially, is ao to write that he who runs eertainly 
will not read. Imieed, to Judjre hy the tone of somn of the most 
modem historical teachers, they would prefer not to lie road 
»*T* by the initiated, and a literary prcvsontment of their real 
and indis|>utablc loaniinR is the last thing they desire. To 
h«ar them talk about " mere popniariting " one would think 
tb:r '-ry whose art w'as to 

cvi..  ilently, to the elect, 

•oaiethinf; vulgar in being readable ; and the resources of style, 
the ejfeets of rhetoric, all the light and shade of chosen 
language are the meretricious tricks of the sciolist. They do not 
" love their Macaulay," they positively abhor their Froude, 
they can aearcely tolerate even their Grote. 

We cannot help thinking that there must be aome- 
thing wrong about this. As it se<>ms to us, modem 
historical scholars are forgetting the essential in their 
leal for accurate detail. What Is history for (we are not 
Bo« • oral teaching or the preparation for ex- 

aniii ' ~s to give tlic mass of mankind broad and 

iDCtractlve views of how men lived and acted and dealt with the 
problcma of their age ? And how can the desultory reader of 
the«« days, )Ktm|>ered with periodical " piffle," l)e induced to 
take an interest in this vital and philosophic study, unless the 
results of reM>areh are sot liefore him with all the power of a 
great mind and all the fascination of 'a noble style ? No 
attmipt at such a presentment of history seems to be made by 
the modem " Kaclmiann." The new style of historian edits 
text*— « neeewiary preparation of material ; elaborates episodes 
ariT .eringwork: prepares short 

t«\ i facts — ns<'ful, no dnnbt, to 

the examinee, not to say his examiner. But all this no more 
makes a History than the squaring of stone, ami plumbing of 
walls, and designing at dados make a house. The master builder 
ry, like the Coroansian mason, appears to be an extinct 
• *. 
Ko one «1to has any true understanding of the work to l)e 
dona wilt » ' '<■ important taltonrs of the nin<l('rn 

■ekool of bi<'! Ii. The scrnpulouH e<litions of funda- 

■catat texts, the scholarly and unbiased examination and 
rollation of every authority and every statement, the collection 
and verittrati'Mi of doruments, the stern rejj-ctioii of glosses and 
inaatkeiillc records — all these are of incalculable service to the 
Hiatortan who is to Im*. Nor is it fair to reprooch the young 
icaearcbera for tnuirying themselves with the details rather than 
with the easmU^. The I rath i lion 

of new anierials, the tardy ope4< ions 

of all Europe to the inquirer, the monthly publication, in 



acieutiUc perio<licals devoted to research all over the world, of 
new discoveries o( documents and new liglits or new interpreta- 
tions of dispute«l (mints, have for the time overwhelmed conscien- 
tious students. Asa writer In Lilerfilurf sniil some time ago 
(11 .lune, 1898) " In wandering through untrmlden paradises, they 
have completely lost their way. They give us masses of undigested, 
incix>rdinnte facts, but no History. This is the natural result 
of too hasty, too indiscriminate absorption, and tho attacks 
which arc sometimes levelled at what is called tho Oxford 
School of History are scarcely philosophical. Historical students 
have to go through this stage, till they get abreast of their 
materials. Then comes the proc-ess of coordination, of generaliza- 
tion, of reflning tho gold from tho dro*-; tin- i.ia.c^s <if iiiln.-inn 
History out of ma<«!riati.r poi«r »«pt'ir." 

The uiistnke is to confuuiul the nuttci Utu.v poui- Hcrvir with 
tho resulting History. .\s well might one take tho tuning of 
tho tlddlos for the symphony itself. And the danger is that tho 
)x»ople who arc now tuning tho fiddles are Irj'ing to convince 
the world that all the old symphonies, coinpos<'d lieforo the new 
orchestra was perfected, are radically Im'd miLsic. One might 
equally arguo that liocauso various modern iniprovonwnts in 
wind instruments, or in organ stops, were not then invented, 
.lohn Sebastian Ba<'li could not write a Mass or an or^in fugiiel 
In music, whilst wo wonder and admire as wo hear tho marvel- 
lous new effeetJi pro<Iueed in the modern orchestra in tho hands 
of a Wagner or a Tchaikowsky, under tho baton of a Richtcr, wo 
do not dismiss as obsolete tho great conceptions of tho earlier 
composers, though exprosse<l in a more limite<l range. And it 
is so with History. Whilst wo welcome every new fact, every 
correction or veriftoation, every clearance of rubbish heaps and 
exploration of purlieux, wo cannot afford to neglect the great 
works in which the master-minds of the past have surveyed tho 
progress of tho world. Minor inaccuracies, inadequate 
materials, even jKilitical bias are as nothing in tho scale 
against the illumination which comics from the working of a largo 
mind upon the large facta of history. Lord Acton has well said 
that History is " not a rope of sand but a continuous develop- 
ment, not a bunlen on tho memory but an illumination of tho 
soul." There is too much microscopic jioriiig over grains of 
sand, nowadays, and too little " illtunination of the soul." To 
get large views and profouiul reflections we mast still turn back 
to the old masters. Thoroughly to grasp the historical teaching 
of men liko Arnold, Thirlwall, and tJroto is an education in 
itself, a veritable " illumination of the soul." Wo will not even 
part with our Motley, our Fronde, or our Macaulay. Oranted 
that there are mistakes in detail, personal ])reju(lices, and even 
serious misrepresentation, and that a vast amount of new 
material has come to light since their days, still their works 
remain imperishable, Ijccauso they are theirs. Whole shelves of 
accurate litllo lext-l)ooks by nimleni scholars will not train tho 
mind in history as it is trained by the study of the works of tho 
great Historians. These men, for tho most part, looked out 
upon the field of past events and developments from tho fortress 
of a mind de<'ply versed In hiunnn affairs, piYifonndly acquainted 
with all that was licst and wisest in tho literature and thought 
of the past. They approached their subjoct as philosophers, and 
treated it on tho grand scale. Work so conceived and prepared 
can never liecome obsolete, lot the s|>ccialists discover never so 
newly, Hi-nce the old masters are read, and will be read. 

Indeed, It seems to ns that specialism, developoil too early. 
Is at the root of tho present derirth of broad historians. Tho 
mind must l>c trained in great tliin;;s iMftirc it deals with small, 
must endeavour to grasp the universal before it descends to tho 



July 7, inon.] 



I.ITi:KATrKK. 



particular. In tho prcMCnt ilny wo nppeiir to ho rovcntInK th« 
lirucoHH. Wo LtlNiiir iin ncro U-fow wo try to iiiiilorHtniiU tho 
i-arth. Wo toil at a " in'rifwl," fUltonitc an iiicldont, iMtforo 
we oiuleuvoiir to Kmip tho hroad priiu-i|iloH and IniMintalilo 
laWN of luinian prtiKro"-*. An«l onr lack of philoHopliy is 
<-<|Ualifd by our want of imiIiui-o. Your nimlorn hislorii-ul 
student Is prond (o Ixi mnslor of a f<'w ycmrs, or a few rcl^nM, 
of a sinfflo brancli of a siii({Ii> raco of mankind. With tho 
litcratnro, tho tlionKlit, of tin- i-rst ho h»N no concorn. Tho 
inovlUiblo rostnit Im that his minor HtiidloH of dotaiU luck not 
only philOHopliic; Rrasp l>nt llt«Tary Hympalhy. His follmv 
studonta will i-oad and applaud — or doniolisli — his loarno<l 
lurtilirations, Init llio frroat mass of odnratcd nii>n will ni'vcr 
hoar of him. The hiHtorian roqniros nioro than tho <-lalH>r:tlo 
documentary apparatus of which ho is justly jiroud. Ho noo<Is 
:i philosophical trainiu;;, and a liU'rary culture ; and, tuitil tho 
niiHlorn historical scliool reali/.os those essential conditions, wo 
cannot expect that it will produoo a masterpiin-e. The last 
thinft wo would defend is snperflcial study or mere literary 
i-liarin. Tho more accurate in ilelail a history is, tho mor<> 
worlliy is it of its hiprli function. But it is lH'tt<T that gn'nt 
views of history, even if only approximately accurate, should ko 
homo to the minds of tho niasfl of educated men than that they 
nIiouIiI live on, i^'nornnt of the past. History is not an affair for 
<lilettanti.sm, nor yet for the private edillcat ion of the few. It is 
for all mankind. And to it^ich mankind it must Ik« treated 
largely and humanoly. It nnist not bo merely n collection of 
hare fads, hut pliilosophy and literatui-e in one — " an illumina- 
tion of tlio soul." L. 



WOMEN POETS OF TO DAY. 



t'rilii's, since (ho art of criticism iK'gan, liav<' puz/lcd over 
tho true nature of poetry, hut few of them have omitted from 
their attempted detlnitions tho word cMuotion. " Tlie true 
expression of trnefeelins; " is tho chosen formula of Mr. E<lniond 
Jlolmes, flio latest writer who essays to answer the ((uestion 
" What is poetry ? " Why, then, is pix-try the creation of one 
sex in so much larger degree than of tho other? Women surely 
have as true a gift of expression as men ; of sensitiveness to 
emotion they are acknowledged to possess a larger share. In 
iuiaginativo prose as represented hy Action they have for 
long moro than held their own, and [lerhaps in the higher art 
their day is yet to eomo. At any rate, it is inter»>sting to mark 
tho signs of tho times. Mrs. Humphry WanI, in her recent 
speech at the Women Writers' t'lub, was hopeful for the future. 
Spaeo forbade us to give any portion of tho speech rcrlxif iiii in 
our roferonco to it last we<>k, but as only a brief re|>ort of it has 
appeared in tho Press onr readers will, wo think, \>c interestc<l 
to read her review of tho past and her estimate of women |>oets 
of to-day. 

Mrs. Ward is ready to ailmit that they are" minor |KK>ts." 
yet " how much this means in a day when so much is demanded ! 
Look back at tho times ,'of Mrs. Hemans, of Caroline 
Bowles, and L.K.L. . . . Look back to tho nino women 
p<X!ts — tho nine Muses of their day — i-evicwetl by tho 
Qiiintfrlii in ISIO, in that tone of compassion half uuK-kiug, 
half patronizing, the uioro disapix>arance of which to-d.iy is in 
itself a landmark. Among these ixtets, indeed, was Mrs. Browning ; 
and for all his masculine scorn, let us just say in passing that 
the reviewer had no eyes whatever for Mrs. Browning's true 
place among his motley band. Take, however, some of tho 
rest — a certain Lady Kmmeline, for instance — for whoso ' talents,' 
tho Qiiartfrlij has ' sineoro respect ' — while it ventures to mo<.'k 
tho ' fevered woo ' of ' her ladyship's ' verso, and to urge ui>on her 
ladyship a littlo closer attention both to metro and to rhythm. 
Still, Lady Eunnelino gets her four pages from tho Qu<ti-tiTlij, 



and hail . . ,i|y narniHl theiu liv -:> ...■t..v.. ...t _ .j . .. 

much rellHlKHl l»y lh<* puhllc. O, 
give us the |*erH|>octivo. Llku alt oi 
tho lark, hut the •train of Woni 
iM'sidn I^idy Kmim '' ' 

ihfp ilrr;im« nt ],.\:,-r nml i>ritW 



And thou'«t 

Kveii from tl 

Deli^'lits. .111. 

S|H . • 

 ill 

l*a 

A.,. 

.Vii.l ........ .\ ^. 

Beiitilndi-s, and fcrviil 

.\nd bright Amazvtien! . vi-.l 

Yet with a nipturo of Alwurnnco Ihril 

" Prodigious I All one cm 

woulil nor tiwlay thrill \ 

an .Vnnnal of ISIWV- ' Kriendslni 

jxH-m by Kuskin. Macaulay's ' A 

Tennyson - gcxxl company enoii^sli I \v< 

Mrs. Howiti, -Mrs. Norton, and L.K.I.. : 

Sarah Siii-kney, who writ<^ on a  

artless vers*" that ii^':iiii vmi 

detect the public 



tiiUium, (ih«Mn«, 



i:m 



irk 
In 



M 

II  
llcii' in I 

Why 

Sin»t . .ii. ... ..... . 

Ho|)o to flnil brighter or happier lio«ir*. 



'M^ I ill' s«<-. t flowers ; 



C'O and tx* fre<", 

Like flic tiird nnd the ho«». 
Sport in I' the nwpot Bowert ; 

But 

Tho sport iiur • 

For this was the s. . /imt hoam. 

" Life was certainly letw hirenuous when thooe vcrtw 
emerged unabashed by the sido of Mr. .Alfrj-*! Tenny«on. Take 
up alnntst tho first volume under your hand fmm Mr. l..annor Mr. 

(irant liichards. ('om|>:ir« with the  ' •-' 'tno<i 

written hy a woman of tiwhiy — not >• vill 

l>e, when her gift is fully ripe, and >( -iie <ii"-^ not miUuly lorco 
her talent — 

APKIL. <By Nora Ilopp<>r.) 

I flooti with gold the gorsos. I o|>eii ill li-nt it.se. 

With rain the water-courses, I nui. -e ; 

.Vnil I restrsiin 'I - 

With silver r«'in !■ 

Tho wild sea-hors<~«. My n. 

I am the blackbird singin:;. 1 mi 

I am tho grasses swingin. 

I am tho spur 

S»>ts reetis astir 
.\nd bluelH^lls ringing. 

I quicken in their grave- 
See<ls that th<' winter saves ; 

Flags for me stoy ; 

Tho budding May 
My coining cr.ivcj". 

" It is true that by 1840 Kmilr Br.nite hid ^r-ritten tho 
sehool-girl poem containing tho e\. . ' .V 

little and a lone green lane," 1 la«I 

written ' Cowper's Grave.' But the gvnenl ^v»<i 

so low — for the women — that only ^.— i..- -■' •'.•• iml 

could nianngo to be tolerable N ■•"ic, 

what accomplishment in half a ou/.a-n »i.ni<'ii. vruiri^ In 
Kngland lixlay, that wo conid all of us name without raoch 
stopping to think;- ' ' ' ' 

iM'auty of which Mrs. M 
charm of Nora Hop|K>r, or i 
of Moira O'Neill, or the (.". 





the eiivep» : 


.\ 


. ^ »• high 




I)i.ro 


s«x>r, »s I 




Th.it Niii»- 


t.i lovers. 




1 fliKsl ^^ it 


Ii ... M ■'..• 


-..r--«. 


With nin 




axMraw, 


And i 






With 


silver r»'in 




Tho wild 


<ica-horv>s. 





LITERATURE. 



[.lulv 7, 1900. 



Tynan's verso, or the InteiiMty of imtioiinl fiM>lius tlint N|ir"jk» In 
Miss I^wlm, or the iinhic niul iN^atitifiil |HH<in?< that tliu world 
fMvm to the author of ' A VillaRo TraRwIy.' What in Mrs. 
Hcmans or Mnt. Norton — full of rhotorlcat striMij^th and itassion 
thouKh Mrs. Norton >\-as — is w-orth, judfttnl l>y any stnndani 
«if pupp llt«"' I '••I'la ' of Moira O'Nt'ill. or Mis. 

Wot^r* "Til I," or Mr>. MoynoITs ' H(>nonn<-<>- 

mciit ? ' It is iioi iliut till' oiilrr |>oots wt-n* not \voui<-n to fi.H>l and 
■CO the «Tirld : lint the ijrt'al sin;;i>rs of llit> lM>j;iiininK of tlii> 
century had not yet done their work ; the ' |iiire tlrt-ek wine ' 
of K«»at->». the niaKie of Shelley, the nnisie of theKlizultctlianN had 
Btill to freshen the |>oetie sense of Kii^land, and so create thos«» 
capaeititM and those delicate iK>ree|iti»iis of heart and ivir which 
•re at work for us to-<lay.  .\nd now how interesting to notice 
tho Celtic admixture in this growth of poetry union;; women ! 
Three or four of thoM^ I have nam«Hl are in fact Irl^liwoim-n, and 
the Cel' ilie Celtic s|)ell, is in their voices. 

" l'- If- —if wc an- in a critical moo<I — if we are 

mnslnj; i>u  • the future as well as its pnMuise — we 

may a«k oin . r the ranjre of this modern verse is 

yet wide and varied enou;;li. Wo may weary of its intro- 
spcotion. We may nay with the brutal Quarterlij of 1840 
that 'there i» a great difference between writing always /i"Oi» 
the heart and ain'ays about the heart, even the heart of a woman 
of genius * ; wv may ask soinel imes for u wider content , a sterner, 
more |>enetratiug n-flection of this astonishing or tragic world ; 
T»r may see in the |ioems of an Italian writer of the present day, 
Ada N' many new themes still await the hand of 

the En J. !>. themes torn — like Mrs. Browning's Italian 

jioeinH — fn>m ihi- living fibre of common and national life. 
But whatever wiinis and we«knessi>s the critical conscience 
will admit amongst onr poeta — and certainly not in the 
w^nien only I— there can be no ijuestion at all as to the 
astonishing rise of level and of standard. All round us, 
and in most arts. It i« not a day of great and solitary 
genius, it is a day of much high talent, of exquisitely- 
tn>ine<l faculty. The iKM'ins of our generation are shorter than 
of old; the mi1>j<hMs with which lln>y dciU are subtlety and 
lightni-ss it»«'lf. Our poets, men and women, have taken the 
advice that Corinna gave to Pindar — ' to sow from the hand, 
and not from the bag." to offer beauty in delicate measur«'. 
to avoid all gross suiH-rfluity. The latter half of the century 
has seen a growth of song ainong us like the Kliuiliethan. 
But — let us note this striking difference^ — in the Elizaliethan 
ontbunt the women of Kngland had no |>art. Research, 
indeed, may discover here and there a stray copy of verses 
by a woman: but. as a rule, you may search the KlizalH-than 
iiong-liooks —  Knglund's Heli<-on,' ' Tho Paradise of Dainty 
IV'vices,' Bri'ton's ' liower of IK-Iights,' and what not — yoii 
will tind no woman there to t^ike her part in that great 
kindling of YiTw> «tiich made Kngland, under the rule of one of 
til- . a nest of singing birdv.. Hut now in tin- 

gr> , . , ■..\ among us moderns— of the delight in it and 

tb*! jiowvr for it— wouk-o are no longer content to l>c sung to ; 
tboy also must niug. and sing with the liest. We will not <-laim. 
a* the women of old Greece might, that Corinna has defeated 
J idar !— but at U-ast she sp . in the same divine cun- 

!•• I with him. hh«' moves in ' A.irld of high and living 

niii I  y all uc iMMir mortals of a lower earth. 

w< ly ways of prosi'. are proud and glad." 



THE DECAY OF FABLE WRITING. 



It t ..le that llie two earliest forms of 

Ilterarx % have ImiiIi in these latter days 

fallen into OmtiM-. The Kpic is no loiigi>r writt<'ii for lack of 
Milijei-I. men sjy : while as for the fable the |Mior little 
fable '. it m-cui* iio\\ad;iys to Im; qulti' cleN|iiM«l. Ami yet It is 

in iMmie n-*!"" • ii it sbntild In* mi. For In truth a 

we|l-c<m»iil< lins more art to the M|uare Im-h 

than any otiKr i<m< and more \\lsdiHii 

too. Hut therein. |«- , wliy I il>le'\< riling 



is a negU'cfjsl if not a forgot tf>n art. For tlie art in it is not 
artiflee, nor the wisdom mere wiso-acreage. Tlie first fabulists 
were doubtless iiii>n who lived the simple lives of farmers, 
shepherds, gardeners, and the like ; who were brought daily in 
contact with Nature, with the birds of the air anil the beasts of tho 
llelil, that M'eiii to have Immmi tho work of her 'prentice hand ovo 
she tried it on man- the alpliaU^t, as it were, of which man, the 
eom|M)unil word, is made np. It was tho child-man of earliei- 
times, nature's own philoMipher, who, seeing this play-alphabet 
in animals, tricvl to put the letters together, in order to sjieM 
out the larger nieaning - himself, and in so doing ho hit ujion tlii< 
fable. And it was because he was so intimate with the animals, 
studied them so closely, and Iov<h1 them so well, that he was 
able to make such lH>autifiil fables. 

But the aiHilogue did not eomo all at once. There were 
steps and stages in its evolution. Some opine that it may 
have Ims'Ii he||M><l into existence by that doctrine, so im- 
plicitly mixcvl up with the life and thought of the East, whence 
the fable lli-st came, which sends the souls of men for 
their pnrincation into tho iKxlies of tho lowlier creatures. 
That doctrine must undo«bt<Mlly have added to the veri- 
similitude as well as to the intt^rost of the fable. It could not 
be otherwise when both the narrator and his hearers felt that 
iM^hind the animal mask one of themselves was speaking — 
one, iKTchance, who had been near if not known to them. 
From reganling animals in such a light it is an easy step 
to the iK'lief that they are endowed with language. Certain 
species of birds, like the rook, the swallow, seem to indicate it- 
possession. Whence comes their neoU of so<-iety if they have 
not tho i)ower of making themselves mntually underst<)o<l ? To 
the believer iu metempsychosis nothing would Ikj more natural 
than to credit them with such a gift, nor— bound as we are 
together in one long eluiin of moral being — to make them talk 
for the instruction and e<lifleatioii of men. 

Montaigne tells us that " our wistlom derives from tho 
animals the most useful instrnction in the greatest as well as 
the most necessary jiarls of life." .\nd in truth one can imagim- 
a philosopher who was in tho habit of contrasting the Ix-auty, the 
innocence, and the happiness everywhere manifest amongst the 
humbler members of creation, with man's intrigues, his hates 
and his crimes — com|>ariiig tho gentle and harmless squirrel, 
l)erclied on the swaying branch of a flr, with the mischievous 
schoolboy creeping stealthily behind with his ready catapult, or 
the graceful fawn, jieacefully cropping the foliage of a pendulou-s 
bough, with the gunner taking careful aim to lay it low ; one 
can imngino such a nature-lover figuring to himself the look of 
the stricken deer or the wounded squirrel as with failing 
breath it reproaches its slayer with his barbarism. So much 
only is it necessary to imagine— and Ix-hold the table invcnte<l ! 

Nor is it a forced imagination to 8up|iosc the first fabulist' 
was an Indian Brahmin -one of those to whom, more than any 
other, the lower world is chained in moral purixise with 
ourselves. Certain it is that the most ancient fables we have 
come frfmi Ilintlustan. A collection which has enjoyotl groat 
celebrity is the Arab vi-rsimi nain«l Kalila wa Dimna, which 
contains a number of apologues much more develoiXHl than those 
of the Greeks. They comprise a complete system of morals : 
and it is curious to note that, arising out of the diK-trine of 
tnitismigration, the animal dnimiid'n pTcoiKr are eiidowe<l with 
the most <lelicale sentiments, the loftiesl Ideas, anil thoughts the 
most complex and profound. But the Kalila wa Dimna is itself 
only a translation, lieiiig derived from another com|H>»ed in 
IlindiiHian at a time altogether U-yond mir ken. The Pancha- 
taiitra, as it is called, or the Five SaiTcd Bisiks, is reputed to 
have Ih'<mi originnlly written in Sanscrit by a niythii-al Brahmin 
niimed \ ishiiii Sariiu. This primitive work gave birth to another 
more miMU'rii, but still very ancient, and likewise written in 
Sanscrit, nainiMl tho Hitopndesa, of which there are several 
English tninslatlonH. It is a |M'rfe«-t chaplet of fabli"- 
strung together after the manner of the Arabian Nights 
tales. From this eollecllun, |Nipiilarl,v known as Bidpai's fables,, 
tratislalioiis were iiiailr into Ili'l)i-e«, Greek, Latin, Turkish, and 



July r, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



I 



Porslan. An Arnli version \v:\h prcxliiri'il iiiirtcr thi> Calif 
MiiMKOiir with tlio titir ulrf-ady ritfMl <>f Knlilii wit Dliniiii. The 
firoolt vcrttlon l« that known uh ^t^np'N. Thi»u> two forni the 
chief Moureo whonoo the iniHlornx hi\v« dcriviNl tlmir innterlnl. 

Mwtp Ih «nl(l to hnvo HvchI In tho nixth ci-iitiiry B.C., hut 
thrro !h conHlilornlilc (IciiiItt wlii'lhcr Htii-h n imm-sou i>vcr livcil. 
The nninn Im inferiirotoil iih Nitriiifylnp: the Wis<> Oiio. Onrloii'ily 
nnoiiKli thcro Ih niiothci' fahiilisl, well kiiimii whoi-<>vi'r thf.Xr.ilm 
hiivo set thoir fcot, niinxMl I^ikiiiiin, who, like .'Kmoii, is repiil<><l 
to have been a slave, liiinchlia<-ke<l, anil very n^ly. Some have 
Roiie so far as to hold that Lokinaii and .Vtuift are one and the 
same, and the sii|i|H>sition is tho more plunsilile IxH-atiso the 
name Lokinan, like the word .-Ksop, is s;iid to mean the Sngi' or 
Wise. But this ninzo of identideation (joj-s still further, for 
proofs ar«> drawn from etymology, as well as from the r<<som- 
Idanee of Pluenician, lTel>rew,and Aral> names, ti> show that this 

I^ikinan is as likely ns not to Im- Kiii(; Sol nii. Mor<s)ver, 

ninkinfc eomparison of iilentities anil the simihiriry of ani><-do|os 
relating to each, the eonelusion is reached that Snlmnon was no 
other than .losepli, who l>e<-ame (Governor of Kjrypt nnder 
Pharaoh. But, retiirniiiK to .Ksop, we are shown how (treat is the 
resenililanee lietween --Ksop and .losepli, not only as refoirds their 
names, but in respeet alsii to their fortune's ; Isith Immiik in their 
yontli sold into slavery, and brinKiiiR pros|)erity to the house of 
their masters ; lioth envied, persii-utiMl, and pardoning their 
enemies ; both foreseoinp i" dreams their future greatness, and 
)M)tli throHK'' those dreams beinp: freed from slavery : Iwitli 
exrelling in the art of interi>reliii}; hidden tliin>rs ; and, finally, 
lM)th favourites and ministers, the one of i'liaraoli. and the other 
of tho King of Babylon. Whether we acee]>t these |H>rhaps 
fanciful identilb-ations or not. it is nevertheless inleri^stin;; to 
note the fact that tho names Biilpai. Lokiiian, .-Ksop are all similar 
in siKiiitlcation, that each of the wise men so named rt^latoH 
identical fables, and that they an' in the main l>oast fables. 
They arc similar, too, in ronstriiction. Inasmuch as they are, 
bo«ly and sonl — that is, story and moral — so knit together as to 
be self-illuminin;;. 

But there is one particular in which the .Ksopian fable 
differs from the Indian. It has lost the sympathy, the pathos, 
the sentiment of its more ancient exemplar, of which " The Two 
Pipeons " is a }roo«l specimen. The narrator has no loncer in the 
l)ack of his head, so to s|M<ak, the feeling or lielief that his In-ast 
iiiterliHMitor may Im< one of his kith and kin. The .1?sopian 
npoloRiio is all pure wit and worldly wisdom. Still it was 
eminently suited to the Renins of the |>eopU< for whom it was 
fashioned. With them it was an aid to rhetoric. To that nso 
Aristotle reserves it ; and, as we know, Plato, whilst banishing 
Homer from his ideal Bepiiblir, admits .Ksop as an indispeiisjiblo 
tfaclier of morals. 

In this res|)ect the fable in modern hands has nnderKone a 
change ; it has passed over from rhetoric to |s>etry. No 
nnKlern writer of fables has attained to any eminence save by 
tho (|uality of his poetry, his humour, or his satire. The few 
who have excellcil may be numbered on the lingers of one hand, 
and prtveminent on the forethifjer stands Jm Fontaine. His 
fables are little ])oems, full of wit, humour, lK>auty, tinelinK 
with verve, so /iii.idiif with c'ipi-i* that every now and aKiiin in his 

Ample comeilie ii cent actes divers, 
Kt dont la scene est runivers, 

we seem to see as in the Indian apolojjue the human sonl 
lH>liind tho animal mask. How much is this the case in " 1^4 
Cigalo et la Kourini." and hardly less in " Maitre Corlteau." 
But the quality here noted is rare in the mixtern fable. All 
the i-ellnemonts anil elal>orations of later authors art> lieside tho 
fable ))ure and simple. They amusi-, entertain, ))Ossibly instruet, 
but by sometliinjj added, not essentially of the fablo. As Gay 
with us, so Yriartc in the Spanish, I'i^juotti with tho Italians — 
their fables are sraceful, spriffhtly, versatile ; but at l)est they 
can only be doscrilwd as clever literary exercises. Krilolf's 
stand somewhat apart, lifted to the height of genius by tho 
keenness of their satire on Kussian srcietv. • 



Other miMlern falile wrilero an- lilllc im. .<^ In 

(iermnii, HaipMlorii anil (iellert are ttliiiini f . ,i ».. 

would I>>H«|ii(( no fabiiliiit Iw forKntlen Iwt !■ 
eminence In other departinoiil*. HiirhBrroul' ■„■, 

occur in an nice of wlonee, in whirh iheorira i .»». 

nilKrathm are rei;nnl(xl as bile dream«. Ami >•   
and vital principle of the fable I* com-. It can I.  
and fiiKilive acc<-plnnce for the I. 
tx'ttiiilt it enjoys, whether as ; 
Kveii then, the truer the liteniry iiiliio.-. tl' 
artificial the fable Imm-omm-s —until, loadatl lhoi> 
ndornuH-nts of |MM-sy and fancy, it* linRrrinK ia, M It «MM, IMI 
a iM^uliful euthanasia. 

ALK. T. HTOMY. 



THE DRAMA. 

MR. W. L. COURTNBV ON TRAOBDV. 

Mr. W. L. Ciiurtney has prinletl (t'on»tnble) the Ihrpo 
lecturi's which he re<-ently deliveri'd at the Koyal Iiixliluliaa 
on " The Idea of Trageiiy," and very (t<««l re«diii|{ ihey make. 
They revwil, I think, a robust common wn«» rati-- •' • mjr 
eM|M>cial delicacy or flneness of |M>rception ; Ihcir !• to 

conflrm our familiar friend the nian tn the ^tn->i m hi* 
opinion. "Then-," he will say, "didn't I tell you mi ? 
Courtney, a n'-.il scholar, who has n-nil .¥, 
and ICuripid(>s, and all that lot, a(cr<<<>s \ 
to know !" Well, that kind of criticism ha< ii 
- -all kinds Is-inif go<Mt " sauf le (ct>nr»'  
" enniiyenx " Mr. Courtney never is. To " p- 
opinions is to do jiihkI work. I<et m<> not I- . 



Mr. 

-bt 

■»llK> 

" -and 
■ound 

>li'nit«)nd. 



.1 



l( 



In no way do I mean that Mr. Courtney faiU tn thinic for him- 

seif ; I only mean that l>y tem|M>minont and traiuini; ho think* 

— ind«>pendently and freshly and clearly -what are siira to lio 

(thrr>u(;h no fault of his) quite |>opnlar thnnKhtn. Kor 

instance, that is a prCH-niiiiently |>opular thought of his ahtiut 

tragedy, that it must not lie iiessiinistic. TIh> man ^ i<et 

desiix's to lie told that |M>ssimisin " will m-ver d<>." . «> 

told, in effect, by Mr. Court- .,n. 

" Such pessimism as this " (i.f.. i (i)r 

the miwt part fruitless, or if it liear fruit is nlr<>plii<><l. alxrfiro, 

bitter, like D<<aii Sen apples in the iiioiiih. It i.< diltlcttlt, 

|M<rha|>N, to suggest a work of art which is i>«in«-ive«l in lhi« 

spirit, and is the din'ct fruit of Seho|M>nhauer'i •-•—•■"■■ 

lH<rhaps Mr. Hardy's ' Jiidc the OlwiMire' con 

it, a work which depn-ssos hnman ritnlity, nun. > 

take it, ains against humanity. Better examples i-:< 

found in some of /Cola's novels — ' L'A 

others." I fancy I can hear the . 

rustling with wTll-linil satisfaction iii 

eminently |Mipnlar thing to say : thotigli. 

quite sun- that Mr. Courtney say., it not Ixs-aiise it ■,■ 

but for the simple reavm that he honestly lH>lie%-es it. 

Well, it is itermiosible not t<i believe it, nr, at any rate to 
lM>lieve it only with a gisHl many rcMTvalions. Kor what is IJie 
jiarticiilar piei-e of (tessimisin in SclHqienhauer which Mr. 
Courtney is reproving ? It is this. " What givi>s to all 
tragetly, in whatever form it nuiy appear, flic peculiar temlenc/ 
towards the sublime is the awiikening of the kn.' tut 

the wiirlil, life, can affonl us no true pbwsurt". and . tly 

is not worthy of our attachment. I iisisls the irjgio 

spirit ; it, therefore, leads to r<- Tn this Mr. 

Courtney objc>ct.s that the artist '^-oc 

and joyous form of activity," nni i ic, 

an anodyne, a iiumIo ef MMiding to sleep a ceas<>less grumble of 
indignation and di-spair." But is he not confusing the moral, 
the philosophic meaning of a wmrk of art with the spirit, tho 
creative impulse of the artist ? Is he not, in a mumhilnmt way, 
arguing that who drives fat oxen must himself lie fat ? Alt 
artistic creation, all literary p ' ' n, is a form of activity, 
and that it must l>e whatever •-matter, whatever the 

tendency of its teaching. A work iiK-uloaling passivity is in 

2 



Rut 

to 

-I 

lie 
• id 

is an 
>e, I am 
Mipalar, 



8 



LITEKATURE. 



[July 7, 1900. 



itarir a »f>rk of activity. To 8<<ho|N>nluiuor hlninolf the ptwlno- 
tUm of "Tbf W.irld an Will and Idea " limit have Im>«'Ii a form of 
lr»-. v. IiidiH-ii, tlio urtiHt'n IM-Iiof ill his work 

in .' 'i;; AS oil nrtixt, and Iium nothing to do 

wi; <"<Mod or iiiiplii-tl in his work. If art 

** «!■ . . ■" it i* n«>t Imhmii«> of its |M>?<NiiiiiMii, 

but bccanHe <i( its woaknoxNtvt, its !ihortcoiniiif;<., as art. \ |>lny 
written by a rluiiisy, iiiarlioulato. vulKar-niindoU artist will dc- 
pmiH human vitality, tboiiKh itii author bo as iiivorriKiblo an 
optimist as PaucloMt. Dulni*ss, monotony, ciiuiinunncNs of spirit 
— thi<M* arc thf qualilit-a iu a work of art that dcpross. I a(;r«e 
— who will not 7 — with Mr. Courtney that " La Tern- " d<>prt>ss4js. 
But is that bcoaiiM* Zola is a iM-'ssiniist 7 No, I should say 
it is brcaiiso Zola is an Inferior artist. The works of Miss 
Marie ('on>lli doprcvm ino far inorv thoroii(;iily than thu 
worKt of M. Zola's. Yet wa« there over such au optimist as 
Miia Con>lli 7 

I submit, then, that Mr. Courtney docs not jrive Schopenhauer 
his duo. Wo nood not siil)s<*riU^ oursclvj-s i)ossiinista to rooojjuizo 
the onomMUs debt n>sthetics owe to that philosopher. His theory 
of art — the world as representation, onfranchlsi'd from the " will 
to live " — is surely one of the most luniinoiis eontrlbiitlons in 
mixi 1 the motit obsc-ure of suhje<-ts. Hlsth<s)ry 

of ; ..ir, showiiif; how all f;>^*at tragic work Is a 

rIeariuK vl the atmospbero, a ])assa|^ throii;;h storm and stress 
to peace, to th«> " slis-pliif; well " after " life's lltful fever," is 
a theory which holds true without the sllKhte»t reference to p€>8- 
simisni. It Is a development of that nui<!h debated Aristotelian 
adAa^tf, which was, no doubt, in it« origin, rather a lucky casual 
" shot " than an ordennl, thoroughly thought-out th«>ory. 
Arixtotle vraa Taguoly groping after tho truth, res«>rved for the 
nKNiern philosopher to put In Its full and true light, that the real 
iliffrrentiii of tragic " pity " and " terror " Is their " dis- 
intero»te<liies»," the fact that thi-y arc purged of the wlll-to- 
livo. Mr. Cimrtney, however. Is almost as hard on Aristotle as 
h€> la on Schop<>nhaiier. He »ays the Greek jilillosoplier, essen- 
tially a practical man, obje«'te<l to pity and fear as weakening 
human activities, and acc<irdingly " thimght it was Just as well 
that spoetatom should go to a theatre and s<>e what fools the 
trainc rharactera made of themselves liy indulging iu such emo- 
tions." Narrow the Aristotelian lesthetlcs may have liecn, but 
I hardly think they were quite so narrow as that. 

If Mr. Conrtney is unfair to thes** great men, he is, 
it seems to me, more than com|>lalsant to some ])<>ople 
who art- not — or not yet — quite so great, to Mr. Pinero, 
for instance, and to the writer who calls herself " Zack." 
Among younger dramatista he singles out two, Mr. 
Kamoiid and^ — Mr. Laurence Irving ! Iltsen ho trcata with a 
oonsideration all the mon; crtHlitablc iHi-auso it is evident 
that li« does not " fre<?ly and joyously " like that author. His 
objeetion to Ilisen's " provinciality"^" popular " though tho 
opinion is- will, I think, Ik- accepte*! as substantially true by all 
Kavc tho out-and-out Ibsenlte, a lio|M'lessly lm|>ossibl(; person, 
not to lj<" reasoned with. There in soiiiethiiig " (larochial " in 
Ibson at times. It is all very well to say that a humble ])arlsh 
may hold all the great ]iassions of hiitnanity. True ; but It Is 
also true that, other things Ix-ing equal, the larger tho stage tho 
greater the psHsions, and tho freer their play. That is tho real 
Justification of tho " heroes " and " princesses " of French 
classic tragedy ; if tho personages of the drama are chosen from 
» class aliovo ordinary law you get a l)etter ch.ince of se«'lng tho 
elcaicntal forces of natun; in tlieir naked truth. Our nuMlerii 
"borgo«s"tr ry well, but there is also much to lie 

■aid for «l»o I' m-o on " w-tto trlstessc nuijeKtueiiius 

 lie." And so, In the main, one 
l[ Mr. Courtney, I s<>c, has iMM'n 
nerc<?ly (anil f<»iliHhly) allacke<l for making :—" There nmy be 
ir.iL-<-<i;.s irj S.,ii!h Hamimtead, though experience iloes not 
'y to tho fact ; but at all events from tho 
..,■....,,■ -„..;,..,. .iioiul stand-point, tragedy is more likely to 
rcmcem Itself with GUmys Castle, Melroso Abbey, Caris- 
broofce, or eren with Carlton House Terrace." Bat whether ono 



agwvs or disagrees with this or that opinion of Mr. Courtney's, 
ono cannot lint tliaiik him for what is throughout a serious, 
tem|H'r.ite, and com|>otont discussion of u dinicult and unjustly 
neglecloil subject. 

A. B. WALKLEY. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PARIS EXHIBITION. 



[Compiled by Mr. E. A. REYNOLDS BALL.] 

Tho literaturo of tho liKK) Exhibition may be coiiveuiently 
classlntHt under fhroo heads. 

(1) (;ul<le-l»ooks (Knglish and French). 

('2) Serial Pulilicatlons. 

(:t) OHicial Jiejiorts, fVitn/ogiM?* Raixonm'x, &c. 

I.-OUIDE-BOOKS. 

(a) KiigliiOi. 

A Pii.c;KiMA<iK TO Pauik. By .\. V. Morris. Illiist. Ig. 
H. Cox. \n unconventional little eompanioii to Paris and the 
Exhibition, written in the somewhat old-fash iono<l narr.idve form. 

iOxiliiiiTloN Pauis, ISKXI. A Practical (luide, eo:itaining 
information as to means of Locoinotiim, Hotels, Kesiaurantti, 
Cafes, Theatres, Shops, Museums, Buildings and Monuments, 
Daily Life and Haliils, (lie Curiosities of Paris and of the 
Exhibition. 4.')(t pp. Illnst. Maps and Plans. Cr. 8vo. "Js. not. 
H<MnemHiiM. Bas(>(l inainlyon Ha<'liett«''s " ttiiido it rKxposition," 
" Paris-llaelielte," and " .\liiiaiiacli-Hachette," but consider.ibly 
enlarged. A llioroiiglily eoiiscieiitious compilation, certainly 
the Im-sI ill most resiMX-ts of any Eiiglisli guides. The Kxliibltion 
liortlon Is, liowever, a prosiss-live lallier tlian an actual account. 

In Paiiis. By K. S. Macquoiil. Is. Methnen. The informa- 
tlon, es|)ecially as regards the Exhiiiition section, Is almost too 
elementary. 

Haiii'Ku'h Uciuk to Pauis axo tiik Exi-ositiox. 2i)'i pp. 
(Rxhiliitlon 44pp.) 4s. Harper and Bros. A carefully compiled 
guide with giMxl lUustratluns. Deflciont, however, iu good maps 
or plans. 

Black's OnwE to Pahis. Exhibition E<litlon. 170 pp. "24 
Maps and Plans. Is. A. and C. Black. Tho Informntion is 
thoroughly up to date, even tho destruction of the Tlieiltro 
Fran(;aise last March iM-iiig duly recorded. The chief features 
of tile Kxliililtioii are well sumiiiari/ed within the limits of 47 pp. 
The maps and plans are a<-curato and distinct. 

DANfii.K'K ({fiiiK TO Paiiis ami thk Exiiinrriox, by A. M. 
Thompson. Illnst. Cd. Walter Scott, The tiH-atinent Is uncon- 
ventional, but the information Is evidently derived at llrst hand. 

Exi'iiKss GiiuK Til THK ExiiiniTioN, by K. Mayer. Illust. 
110 pp. Is. Expri'ss Oflice, 'ilt, Kii<! lioyale, Paris. 

Axci-o-Saxon GriDK. iip. 2(l'2. (Exhibition 108). 100 illus- 
trations, many plans. Is. not. B<X)t and Sons, Ltd. In a limited 
sensc> an oflic-ial gui<le, as it is the only English guiilc sold within 
tho Exhiliition. Well arranged and readable. Tho sc<>tloual plans 
are c-learly engr.ived aud accurate. 

Nearly every one of the old-ostabllshed guides to Paris 
(Baetleker', Caswll. Ward, Lock, Bradshaw, Cool;. &■<■■) h.is Im«ii 
n'printeil or rather n-pulilislied In view <f the Exhiliition year, 
with. In many cases, a rather meagi-e ap|M>ndlx <lealing with the 
Exhiliition. As a matter of fact, little reliable or oIllciaL Infor- 
mation was to lie obtained even by the most conscientious 
compilerearly in tliey<'ar. The most trustworthy and )iractical of 
thes<> guide-lKsiks is iM>rli:ips Ward, Lock's, which has a fuller 
section (40 pp.) on tho Exhibition than the generality of these 
handliooks. Baedc-ker devotes 8 iwges to a wcll-condonsod 
MUinmary of the Exhibilioii. 

(b) Frriwh. 

L'ExfOMiTioN I'ocn Tofs. 92 pp. Jllnst. CiOc Moutgredion, 
8, Hue S. .losi'pli, Paris. \n unpretentious but jiractical giiidi!. 

Gi'iDi'; A L'Exi'oHiTioN. Ha<;heite. A c<imprt!heiislve hand- 
book much In use with French people. 

GuiHK CoNTV. Illust. 1 fr. An Engljsh edition has recently 
l>een publislie<t at 'is. Od., by Dulau. Thoroughly popular in 
treatment. 

.J<iannk's Gt;il>K A Parih. 7 fr. ."iO c. Lust edition IIWO. 
Hachette. Has a fairly accurate description (;10 pages) of tlw 
Exhibition. 

II. SERIAL PUBLICATIONS, 
(a) Kiif/IMi. 

TllK Paiiis ExifiniTioN. Twelve monthly jiarts at Is. M. 
each. (Part 12 wilt not ap|M-ar till April, 11)01.) Edited by Iho 
editor of the .4 rt ./oil run/. Virtue and (!o. The Ih-sI features 
am the numerous exquisitely repro<luce<l photographs and 
engravln;f!% This is the liest of tho many Exhibition sorials in 



July 7, 1900.] 



LITEIUTLHE. 



9 



Kn(fli!«li. Tlio luttcrproHH in l>y viirimis <-x|M!rtH. It In tlii> only 
Kii);l>>*l> |><*i'ii><li<'i>l vvhii'li cuii ('(iiii|>ui'i< al nil withtliu luiiiiuiiK-iilat 
voi'k iif M(inl;{ri'<lii'ii i"l C'io. (Se«i Imlnw.)  tg^ 

TiiK NiNCTKKN llrvDitKK. WiM'kly, M. IlliiHt. Marl- 

liorim^;!! iiixl Co. Tliin is an aiiiMliims xviirk, nillicr ! i.i;...- 

and lia|>luiz;inl in its arraiiu:<>inont, wliidi cIuIimm to Ih) ■.\ 
llt«'niry anil pictorial history of llm KNliil)ition. It _ 
early us INI)'), anti will Imi <M>ni|>lot<>il at llio end nf Mm |irr>M-nr, 
your. Tli<M'oni|ili't«> issne will Itu pulilisliixl in llvi> volumes, prico 
:t7f. Tho text, is in KiikIihIi unil Krcncli In parallel <:oIuuiiin. 
Much of the information is of an ephemeral character, anil us n 
work of referenci- it. is inferior to the exhaustive anil thorough 
Hcriul cydopieilia of the Kxposition of MM. .Mi>iit;{ro<lit!ii et Cie. 

(b) Fn-nrh, >4I .r«f| 

L'K.xi'oMiTlON DE Parim. Montgroilien et CIp. Tlio eom- 

ploto work is t/o he piil)lishe<l in three volnnies at "JOf. (two have 

nlreiuly appearisd), and will contniii over ;!,00() cn){ravin;j«. I'nln 

lished also in weekly partft at 50o. 

In this nionninental work— ii vorltiiblo eyclopredla — innny of 
the l«!.st-knowii Kii'm-h authors and artists of the day have oi>- 
operat<!il. Anions the contrilnitors !ir<< MM. .Inles Cliiretie and 
Mi'/.ieivs, of the Kii'iich Academy, M. Lanssedat, r)ir«'ctor of tiMi 
Consorviitoire iles .\rts, and M. I'aniille Klanunarion. The llrst 
volume will Ixi devoteil to an exhaust ivo di'si-ription of the ^niit 
jiornianeiit nmnnments of the K\liil)ition. In the second volnnie 
the various palai-es of the nations and the lniildin;;s erect<'d liy 
private enterprise will lie dealt with. The lust volume will lie 
«levot<Hl to the principalcontt'nts of the palacesand ff.illeries, an<l 
tlio fjrcat " side shows," an<l will conclndo with an oxhaustivo 
comptr rcmlii, coinprisinfi a pictorial reooni of the Kxhiliition from 
its o|)eninK to its clojie, descriiiinft the /i-Zr-s, couKn'sses, &e. 

KiuAlii) E.M'Osri'loN. Five monthly iiarts at :tf. each. 2fl, 
Ruo Dronot, Paris. The numerous ilUistrations ore ailmirablo 
re|)ro<luctions by (ionpil and Co. 

Lk PaNIIHAMA UK L'K.Xl'OSITtON I'XIVWtliELLK. 12, Hue do 
I'Abbaye, Paris. In twenty parts at (50c. each, of which tlireo 
have already apiwared. 

Li: MoxriKin dks E.xi'ositioxh. 0, line ho Peletier, Paris. 
This is a M"nii-<>lticial pnblicatiini issued to sul)s<-ril>crsonly at 17f. 

III.- OFFICIAL PUBLICATION& 

A large unmlier of olllcial re|>orts and catalogues will bo 
issued towards the close of the Kxhiliition. 

The Kai'I'iuit (Ikxkuai. alone, edited by the Commissioner- 
Oeneral, Monsieur Picard, will consist of nine or ten volumes. 
There are also the reports, ennally voluminous, of the various 
eouKresses. and the IJaiiport of the .lury International. When 
it is reiucmlieri'il that there will be some seventy distinct con- 
ferences or eoiiKivsses in the various departments of Science, 
Applied Science, Industry, Fine Arts, Hygiene anil Medicine, 
Political anil SiM-ial Kcononiy, Kducation, itc, covering, in 
short, the whole tleld of siK'ial and intellectual progress, it will 
bo understood that the literature of the purely educational 
aspect of the UXH) Kxhiliition will be surticiently voluminous. 

It will he convenient to give here a summarj'of the principal 
■fopograiihical, historical, and soi-ial works on Paris jteuerally 
which have Im-ou published within the last twelve months. 

lJKl.l.of, HuAiliK. A History of Paris. 4(58 pp. Five sketch 
maps. 7s. Oil. Arnold. liKK). Descrilx's tlio development of 
Paris up to the Kevolution. 

BiMox, PiKuUK. Lectures snr I'Histoire do Paris. 212 pp. 
Illust. If. .')0c. E. Flaimuarion. Paris. 18W. 

Bts.si>x, A. Paris Intime. 322 pp. Illust. .Ifr. .V)c. E. 
Flannnarion. Paris. 181)1). Deals with the various phases of 
tlio I'lV iiih'iiic of the Fiviicli capital. 

Dk Cot iiKirriN, lUiiox Pikuuk. France since 1814. Os. 
Chapman. llKK). A i-eprint of articles which appeared in 1808-1)1) 
in the Fortiiiijlitlii Itrrifir. 

Db FoitK.sT, Kathaiiixk. Paris as it is. 284 pp. Many 
illustrations. .")s. Brentano. Paris. 11K)(>. Well-informeil chapters 
on the literary, artistic, and social life of Paris. 

Hauk, a. .1. C. Paris. .V>8 ))p. Numerous woodcuts, tis. 
G. Allen. 11)00. An adminible boi>k, absolutely indispensable for 
all who wish to learn something of the anti^unrian aud archico- 
logical asi>ects of Paris. 

Maciminai.ii, .1. F. Paris of the Parisians. 108 pp. 5s. 
'Grant K'ichards. 11)00. 

Maiitin. B. E. The Stones of Paris in History and lyotters. 
pp. 571). (')2 illustrations. 2 Vols. 18s. Smith, Elder, and Co. 
1900. An exhaustive and conscientious work, dealing with the 
liistoric and literary assix'iations of Paris. 

Mdhiiow. W. ('. Bohemian Paris of To-day. 100 illust ra- 
tions, 'is. Chatto aud Windus. 181)1). (iives an unusually full 
description of tlio literary aud eccentric cafes. 



Pai r 
II. c. 

Pralium-. Ill 
Fisher L'nwiii. 

„.' ,i'....K' ..iill,....., 



Pari. 



II. 



miliar." MO pp. 



L..S..\. I'.MX). (Am : 
by Fisher Lii"iii.l 
niid prest-til. Ii 
Vol. II. deni rtf ^ 

lie. 

\ ASDAM, A. Al 

lections iluring the I. 
Km)*ire. :ts. (hi. Dth huir ,.,ii. 
ViTf, At(il»fr»:. Paris. '.V' 



»imI Itiiw iD Ittaa ia t^ria. 

IINMI. 



"-"1. 

. Pari*. 



IRcvicws. 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY. 

Vol. LXIII. of the IJllTlllXAUV OK .\aI|i>.NA1. J....... <ifl«T 

(Smith, Elder) bringa this grt'at work to » eloma ; ami we imu m 

debt of homage and gratituik- r 

making of it. This branch of 1 1 

in another column. 11- 

pla<*e, with con.siderii.. 

show the scope and uiati»it>i' 

tionary " supplies notices of ; 

larger numlicr than ar<3  

published in other eouni: 

Biographic " has only 23,273 articlen, tl> o( 

American Biography only alNnit 2U,0UO, wl '"' 

Swedish National biogniphies lag far iK'hii ^ 

aud 4,000 articles resiiectivcly. Tin' ' 

scale of the English Men i>f Lett' 

been given to Sli i by Mr. Sulu'-.v L<<'. M 'k- 

of Wellington by K. M. I.loyd, ami .*tl t<i by 

Mr. C. H. Firth. A ; 

the names which IV^-ii: 

are not the iianii' 

of celebrities. 1'\  • 

of 1U5, and the Joni^tes are » fair seeond with i 

Browns — whom .ludge Hughes averre*! to l»e ivt 

thing that is great and gotNl in British hist' 

aback to And thenisidves Ixniton in th-- .... .... 

Stewarts and the Haiuiltotis ; whilit tli< i will Iw 

disappointisl with a |H>sition ' ' 

Taylors, Thompsons, luid WiK 

Moorcs, CaniplMills, Murrays, l>uu^iu.M.'s, L);iviM.'», WiImuu, muX 

Howards. 

The editoi-s rightly resolvi>il to err, if at  • (Me of 

over-comprehensiveness. Their principleaaretJi . , iinded: — 

Every endeavour has iH-en made to accnitl admiiMoa to 

I'vcry statesnuin, lawyer, divine, painter, author, invrntor, 

actor, physician, surgism, inau of »<-ieiict>. traveller, municiaii, 

soldier, s;iilor, bi'i 

wliosi- career pri>vi. 

tiou from oblivion. No > 

i)verlooke<l. Niches I' 

leaders of society who have eonimai' -o. 

Malefactors whoso crimen excite a p- 'Vc 

received hardly less attention than bvnefarlon. 

Striking exainpU-s of 111 • • 
volume lH>for»> lis; and tl>. 
more st  
Wyatt. 

any other aniiy surgeon ; ot .Sir Charles lj>- 
niatist, whose can'<'r was hanlly differ»'nt t 
i-aroor, baldly chr<micle»l in the Fonngn Ofllce list : of Worth, 
the dressmaker; Zaehnsdorf, tlie bookbiii<l«"- ^'"' Znt. riort. ii»i 



10 



LITERATURE. 



[July 7, 1900. 



cteaa plajwr, fiuKNiMfor his " irrofnilnrnprnlnirH " : while Kdmund 
YatM (Ata lv« eolumiiii and u-half l>y Mr. Tlioiiuis S<m-<>(iiiiIm^. 

A fair ;" ';<«> full iti tho 

Toluiuo. Tho. A onlswiirth, whU'h 

M\ an It wcrp by ri^ht to ihp jx-n o( .Sir. L(>>ili<t .Stophon. It is 
extrrioply iiitcn>stiii);. and it <M>iitainH a cH>liiinn of t<>rM> and 
jiidifinUH rriticiKin. HiinuninR up what thorp is to my and what 
has bfon Kaid over and over aicnin abi>ut WonWworth — a ctduniii 
rpmarkable, wboii wi« rt>ntcmbpr thp writpr, for itfl i;rpat 
rv«tniint. On one littlo imint Mr. Stephen siinOy jpxw ustmy — 
viz., uhcn ht> N)M'«ks iif the inspimtinn which the |M><>t derived 
from *' the Vr^ nier Hiinuinil." li.-onnnd (inori> corr«>otly 

K.iiiiond lie t <) woiilil h.irdly know hjnineir under this 

fie*' I* liis rt«l f.-inie was ns n writer of Al))ine l>»i(ks, 

an <  .1 I he PyreniH~«. and a man of science. He held a 

M-ienlillc prof<>^sorshi|i at Tsirlx-^i, nnti M^as a member of tho 
Inotitnt tie France. The oilier Woiilsworths trealtnl are Charles, 
Bishop of St. AudrewM, by the Bishop of Salisbury ; 
Christopher, Master of Trinity, by Mr. .1. Willis Clark ; and 
Christopher. Bishop of Lincoln, by Canon Overton. Another 
of Mr. Leslie Stephen's contributions is tho life of Ed«n»rd 
Toiini;, till- author of " Night Tlioufrhfs" — a sympathetie study, 
which illustr!»t«»s the c.-itholicity of the writer's tastes. Mr. 
Sidney Lee is res|M>nsil)li> for the lives of Henry Wriothesley, 
thirti Kirl of Soulh.tmpton, ShakesiK-an-'s patron, and of .Sir 
Henry Wotton. The former is a contribution of preat imimrt- 
ance both fnini an historical and a literary point of view, and 
we must not jierhaps complain that Mr. Le«> states his own view 
of the de<lication to the sonnets as nn established theory. The 
life of Wotton is another example of the can'fnl scholarship of 
Mr. Lee, though we r.ithor regret that he do»>s not give more 
• isual n-ference to Sir Henry Wotton's relations with 
I. All the facts are in Mark Pattison's Life of Casanbon, 
uliiih Mr. Lee (|Uotes. and they an- verj' pictures<|Ue. In his 
life of Sir liicluiid Worsley, Mr. Warvvick Wroth mak<>s a 
rurious omission. He does not mention his grand tour under 
the tutorship of (Jiblmn's Swiss friend Deyverdun, though 
Gibbon tells us in tlu- .\utobiography thathegot Deyverdun the 
appointment. Philip Stanhope Worsley, tho translator of the 
Odyss«-y, is written of Bympathctieally by Mr. Itichard 
(laniett. Other lives to which it seems proper to draw 
attention are those of William of Wykehaiii (hero Mr. 
James Tait haa Imn-u forestalletl by Mr. fJ. H. Moberly, whose 
excellent biography reaclie<l a second e<lition in 181KI) ; Chris- 
topher Wren (14 pages), by Mr. F. C. Penrose; William 
Wycherley, by Mr. G. A. .\itken ; .lohn Wyclillo (iM i)age^), by 
the Kit. Hastings Kashdall. 



VOLUMES OF VERSE. 



MmthUd* BUnd. 

The iKietess fo whose memory Mr. Arthur Symons has lately 
wndi-n-il n '«-nlnable service through his com|)lete edition of her 
prietn-— Tmk I»i.itu m. WoHirs ok M.vtiiii.dk Bum) (luwin, 
"»- ' contrast to her e<litor. The one 

*■•■■ life, the other with its oiitw-iird 

•nj' ~. 'I'he one, naturally giftiMl with a style, devotes 

•h'' 'fnl attention to its elaboration ; the other, far li-ss 

well endowiHl in this dini-tion, is, more often than not, quite in- 
attentive to form. Again, while Mr. Symons is for ever subtly 
V<>ilin|t his |ierw>nality, that <if Miss Blind stands reveale«l in 
•InHMt every one of her |KM-ms. Indeetl these, as Dr. (Jamett 
*my» at the eonelnsion of the ndmimble memoir which ho 
•Oil* to thi» volume, are tho faithful relliMtion 

o* '• 'er. At the same time he contends that " they 

arw lAr tfi»n expressing the eiilir<> forie and depth of her 
natur<'," and it is this conviction that makes his intrinluctory 
»keteh no hel|iful t.. a just appreciation of her work. After 
leartiliiL- the t lr< iiin.ianris* of her girliiood and of her ardout 
■•» lis trutbii few Mill fail to tind themsolTca 

^ <-■ •• train of thonght which renultod in after 



years in " Tho Prophecy of St. Ornn," while the glimpses 
alIonit<4l US of her enthusiasms for (iaribaldi, Mazaini, and the 
Polish patriot Langiewicz will tend to eiuphasl/.e the nobility of 
f«N«ling which prompte«l "The Heather on Kiiv " and help to 
tide over its def»H-ts. Chief among these is its dlflnseness, which 
is in greiit measure due to the unfoi-tunato seUs'tioii of an eight- 
lintxt stanza instead of the moiv manageable six-lined stanza used 
ill " St. Onin," the iiiost complete of alt li<>r longer |K)ems. As to 
" The Ascent of Man," it is hai-dly to Im> woiulensl at that the 
subject, as we have In-fore wild, provisl loo much for her. Tho 
effort sulwid(>s after prolongt><l and chaotic movement, eventually 
dying away with the last ver-.e of " Tli.' Leading of Sorrow " 
into thiH faint echo : — 

And l>eside me in the golden inoniing 

I iK'lield ray shrouded pliaiitom-giiide ; 
But no longer sorrow — veiled and mourning — 

It l><><-ame tr.insllgiin-d at my side. 
And I knew--as one eseais'd from jirison 

Sees old things again with fi-<\sh surprise — 
It was Love himself, Love re-arisen 

With the Kternal shining through his eyes. 
Miss Blind is on far surer ground in " Lovo in Exile," many 
of the poems in which have the iM'rsonal touch so characteristic 
of her. But iierhaps the sonnets are, of all her poems, the most 
instinct with a uiagnetio attraction. Tako this well-known 
aj>ecimcn, for instance : — 

Cleave thou the waves that weltering to and fro 
Surge multituilinous. The eternal Powers 
Of sun, mo(.>n, stars, the air, tlio hurrying lioui>s, 
The winged winds, the still dissolving show 
Of clouds ill calm or stonu, for ever flow 

.\1m)Vo thee ; while the abysmal wa devours 
The untold dead insatiate, wliei-e it lowoi-s 
O'er glooms unfathoiii'd, Itmitless, bolow. 

No longer on tho golden-fretted sands, 

Where many a shallow tide aliortivo chafes, 
Mayst thou delay ; life onwanl swe<>ping blends 

With fai-oll heaven ; the dauntless one who braves 
The perilous flootl with calm unswen-iiig hands, 
The elemonts sustain ; cleave tliou the waves. 
It was a spirit such as this that kept mniiy faithful friends 
l>eside her in spite of those tiefects of her ijualities to which Dr. 
Garnett so gently and sympathetically alludes in a memoirwhich 
should certainly tend to increase Miss Blind's i>opuIarity. 

Mp. a. O. Butlep. 

.\ll the piect's in Mr. A. O. Butler's Clloil'K ok Aciiii.i.fn, 
ASl» Otiikk Pokms (Krowde, '2s. (id.) In-ar witness to <|(iick sym- 
pathies and genuine feeling. The title |>oem and that called 
*' Tho Choice of Heracles " are both what wo should ex|KH-t 
from so well known a scholar and so cultivated a wTiter 
of verse. The sentiments expivsse<l in tho patriotic poems 
are of the right sort, and kindred to these in spirit is tho 
welcome to Nansen. That he has breadth of view will l)e plain 
to any one who has read " A ' Parson's l'leasiii-<>-groiind ' " and 
" HiMlgi', ' the Nateral Man,' " while " Love and learning," "A 
Hnined Cottage in the Highlands," and sev<'ral 4ither pieces art* 
full of tenderness. We (|Uote from the poem called " Tho Old 
Books," a very just appix<ciation of newer ones : — 

The new l>ooks, the new Inioks, the other nobler kind ! 

Straight from the heart they come and s|K-ak, and round the 
heart they wind ; 

Man-ella in her lovelier nuH>d, a Stevenson, a Thrums, 

A Kipling great in camp and woihI, a Besant in tht'sluius. 

Not theirs to hint that all is dark, the sun has fled the day ; 

Not theirs to stamp the fallen leaf more deeply in the clay ! 

Ill every life thiry find a strain of gcsxl as yet untold ; 

In simple hearts, a noble vein of unsuspected gold : 

They hold the mirror to otir times, they jiaiut in motley dyes 

The image of ourwanta and crimes ; they bid us sympathize. 

Anil not iu vain: so rich the art, ho rare thi! paint<>r's 8kill 

They wake in every sleeping heart the old knight -errant still. 



July 7, ir»00.] 



LriEHATLKE, 



II 



Wliiit Mr. niitlcr liaH lliinlly to suy aliout tho old iKiokH, and it i« 
quito worth Baying, wo must Icavti otlicrk to read for tliciiiMslvK^. 

"Po«nia fop Plotupaa." 

The till)' III Ml', \•^,,v^^ M. Jliiofrur'H little volitine Focmh run 
Picii Ills |Miicqiii<«ii, '2n. ii.)iit<>iK'o |irnvi(li»t a ccrluiii Ntuiid|M)iiii 
for criticisiii and dii'tH-lly iiltnti'tH tlm rt-udi-r to two |k«miiw in 
which, liy lulK>lliiiK tlioiii ciifh " For n (lictiiro," lie iiioro UH|M><-Ially 
draws uttoiil inn. The Miilijix-t of tho llrnt of tluiiii Ih thu wull- 
knowii Htory of St. KtliolhiirKu of Kent who, uoddod to the i>af(uii 
Kdwiii of Northiiiiibriii, with dillindty coiivortvd him, and after 
his death in Imttlu roturiiod to diu iiiiioiif; her own |>eu|ilc. Tim 
si'oiio Koluclod for tho |iii-tiiro is tlcscrilHNl in tho following vcnx', 
the rest of tho ihk'Iii Iii'Iiik di-sifjnod, iis wo tiiki- it, to timoli in tin- 
whole tall', to lii-iKhti'ii its loc'ul colour, iind giMiorully to briiiK 
our symimlhics into lino : — 

Qnccii, saint, ovanpclist ; swcoi |tati<-nt, fain to wait 
With criicitlx in hand, broad brow and halo<<<l crown 
Half hidden by tho coif, she ontcrs through that giitc. 
She enters through that door, where t«|M'stry<lrawn back 
I^eft siH>n, n moment since, an apple lawn ; but miKirs 
Hpread faraway beyond. That span of shorn g«.'en turf, 
Won liimi the heather's grasp, will wliisin-r of regn-t 
Kor far-oil swarded downs — 

For far-olt Kentish downs, soft sky and glint of son, 
Swoet chiiiio of convent Ix'lls and flower scents of home. 

We fancy that t ho iiiontal vision of any one reatling this vei-s*' 
earernlly would rest ilin'iiig the (Irst tlir(H< linos with the Que<Mi 
as she looks into the Saxon hall. In the llfth line, however, it 
liecomes iieoe.ssary rapidly to shift the jioiiit of view, for we are 
now looking out from the hall upon the glimpse of landsca|H' 
beyond it, while the last lines transfer ns with Ktliellnirga's 
home-sick hi"art to Kentlaml. There would be nothing notice- 
liblo in this but for the fait that Mr. HiielTer invites us to con- 
ceive, and to paint if we can, an actual picture. That l«'ing so, 
everything should he prcsentefl to us from one point of vision, 
iind the writer's effort concent nttedu)>on the one scene. But he 
distracts our attention a stanza or two later with the queslior- 
ing of the wisdom of the Queen's religion which subse<|uently 
occurred in the crowiU^I interior— a far more «lmmatic subject 
iuileeil, but one which we are not espei-ially iiivite<l to consider. 
Williont printing the whole |MK>m it is <lil1icult to illustrate its 
vagiH' ililTuseness. (iencrally sjieaking, however, we fancy that 
any deliberate attempt to " iM>se " a poi^'ui would Ik> no more 
likely to succeed than the converse attempt to paint a picture 
solely with the object of inspiring verse. .\nd if we were askiil 
to pick out the most pictorial piece in the b<x>k we should cite 
the little poem calle<l " The Pwllar Leaves the Bar Parlour at 
Dymchurch." which qviite unintentionally leaves a far completer 
picture in the mind than either of the more conscious efforts. 

But the little volume carries a sub-title — " Poems for Notes 
of Music '■ — which is amply justiflinl. The song-drama, " King 
C'ophetiia's Wooing," is a delicatelibretto which would admirably 
suit a dainty score : any one with an «'ar might improviw a 
nieloily to run with " A Lullaby " ; and " At the Bal Masqui' " 
also taps with an air upon a fanciful brain. These are three of 
many instances which prove Mr. lIuelTer's lyric gift. In the 
lirst of these we notice a little flaw which is often iliseernible- a 
" literariness," if we may so expn'ss il, |H<eping out iK'hind his 
puppets. " If I make you Que«>n," says the disguis(>d (.'ophetna. 
And I'hrislinc immediately catches him up with, " Make, why 
make, not made '{ " For a Iw'ggar maiden she w.->s uncommonl.v 
ciuick to catch at the subtle distinction. Yet sometimes the iioei 
is singularly liap]>y in blending mattei-of-factness with literary 
fancy : — 

When ye'vo got a child 'at's whist for w-.iiit of fixxl 
And a grate as git>y's y'r 'air for want of wooil, 
.\iul y'r man and you ain't nowise not much gixwl ; 

Oh - 

It's hard work a-Christmassing 

(.'arolling. 

Singin' son^s about the Babe whai'^ hoin. 



|M<o|n out IrOM 

i>f \ ■•r«#,ft, f >lill I 



Wo miKbt chniice iiim,i 

or country < 

of tliiit or the "t... . I.... ,.,-.- .., V,- 
llttUi |iO(>in. In One, Mr. Ilueffer'n •' 
is of more than areraKo lnt<<ro*l. 

Little i>( the hisliii'iun or the 
the pugen of .Mr. liomtio K. Bn. 
(fii-unt Hichards, 5k. n.), yet their aulh' 
Htudelll of the kiKlory of Venice aiol "- 
Tho nioHt inter<>Hiing piece* In ih' 
Song of Caednion " and the hcxaniei 
pleasant record uf flying M-enes ami 
sions, from the |H-niH.il of which we i 
slight fatigue which atteniN uii .>' 
away by u vtuily of the landM-»|M-. 

In his traiiBlated |iooni, Thk Sityh (Williuii. . 
Mr. Cliarlea Inniii Uowen haa ma<le a darini; aa<i 
unsuccetMful attompt to catch the spirit uf Victor Hu^'> < 
conceiveil ami Im)IiI1\' uxccutoil nll»uory. Tlie ^miviii tt.ll 



tiiivly 

I IujW 



foot, was 
..f thp < 



ihh 
< of 

•w 

•• : 
th« 

tliv 

ikl 

ait 
.•ir 
-.II.* 
II* • 



Pan, revelliii 

dragytsl up i' 

upon thb cliM 

to sing he co: 

ileitieH ]NiNt " : and ol Chaos and (.'reatKni and t 

fruitful Earth, and of tho lieaata who tyoif^ inr 

and, lastly, of .Man, more sentient and nu': 

possession of a soul, |iassing through ' " ' 

conception of a I>iriiii< Ideal l>efur« 

ilwimlle to naught— till his Iieau' 

conquere<l the Karth without  

hpBtIs in aninzcnieiit and iH'gaii to let 1 ' 

All. .\ll this Mr. Kowen has rendered ii.. 

rough-hewn couplets, of which the following am (air siwctn ' ' - 

O, Human Man, be you Humanity 

Man, Woman, Child— that glorious Trinity ! 

Seed of a King and larva of a Ood. 

Slave, demon, be transfigiirerl. Spirit-slioil 

And »!'• ■'!, on. on, usn 

.\v. SCI th<!> ■N»ii "T' I'd bisfhwr, 

O »trong-wi 

Mount to t: 

L'|Hm the heavenly I 

And hurl to Hell yom 

Mr. William Gerard's tragetly r»ot.ct?w fKe^n Paul, ^ ) 
tells tlie old sad story of a ^ - Iwfoiv 

his time, first dreaming of I: '•«•• for 

the |>«ople aUrtit him, then striking « -i ormt- 

wheiming odds, lastly betrayed and di..^,...... .- ' ■« 'wiii 

the faithful few who love<l him l>«st, but len^ »•• 

better off and no worse off Uiao before. Tlwi e 

fail to bo many tine |>assages in 

tieranl handles Imtli his !■' ' ' 

but the action throui;hoiit » 

comprMsion. 

Ijaslly we may iioti' a miie \onmi,' .m .i 
kind. Thk Sriit wwhij-ctkii .Xu-iiahet (Cmnt I; 
naturally, like "the |M>litical Si I'l! -'>- 

of noiiM-nsc ver>es. the ven'os I  'id 

the illustrations by .Mr. K. <". IJouUI. t> i»- 

Ixwk lietter than by giving a «|>«-.-imen • ir. 

This is what wt find under " Z " 

Z is Zola, so« I 

Look at bini on 

He SI 

I.ay» ' 

tion-M^ till- 1.11, / 

K-terhaxy, too. 

Into the |>ot by (»•»• mihI (»,>^ 

He plunges all and crit-s, " J'accu'*' ! 



i,i iisidly 

play of this kiiul. antl Mr. 

- cbar«ct«rs w«ll, 

T a gooil (Ual of 



12 



literature; 



[July 7, 1900. 



MOUNTAINEERING. 




la 

We have in Thb AacxxT of Moint Saint Eliah, Dr. 
Filippo de Filippi's account of tlio Krval cliiiib orKiinixod 

aixl iiinlort;>k<>n l>y tlio 
^ Diiko of I lie .\l>ru7.7.i 

(('oiist.i)>lo, Ills. (I<l. II.), 
tlio story of tlio (li>t 
.\luskaii inountaiiiooriiiK 
••xiKslition that has ur- 
(■oiii|ili!tbc«l sonsntioiial 
roMuIts. The niouiitain in 
i|iipstion was cliscovrivcl 
.iiul ohrist«Mi«Ml liy BclirliiK 
in 1741. It wiis llrst 
iiiea>ur<><l (most inaccur- 
:ii. ly) in nst\, l)y tlio 
;i~t ioiiouier with Lii P<>- 
rouM', who rv|iifst'iito<I it 
as only 12,072 fovt hiftii. 
Tho S|>aniard Mala.s|>ina, 
whoso iiaiuo is now borno 
by the groat .Malaspina 
(ilaeior, also iiioasnre<l it 
ill 17iri, and assiKiio<l it 
tlio iiincli );rpatcr altitn<lo 
of I7,K.")1 foot. Then fol- 
lows a gap in flio history 
of tlieniountaiii until 1K,VJ, 
whon a Kussian roiKirt, 
liasoil on iufonnatioii ilc- 
I'ived from tradors, de- 
clares it to lie a volcano 
—a statoinent that was 
not d«>liiiitoly disjirovod 
I 111 iiiaiiy years afterwards. 
Mr. W. H. Dall, of tho 
L'liited States Survey, 
snpijortcd this erroneous 
view as reeeiitly as 1874. 
Mr. C. E. S. Wootl, who set out to explore the iiioiintaiii in 1877, 
failed to effect a landing on the coast. The llrst real attempts 
to climb tho mountain are those associated with the names of 
- ' - :)tka, ill 188U, Topham in 1888. and Kubsell in 180U ; but these 
• rs only attained tho heights, res|H'Otively, of 7,2(K>, 
ll.HK), and 14..VMI fe<>t. Bad weather and inadetfuate equipment 
wer«! their dinicultie-. The ascent of Mount .Saint Klias is 
r«"«lly an Arctic as well as an .Mpiiie journey, and is only to Imi 
nrhieve<l by carefully organized endeavour. Tho Diike of the 
/zi pre|»are«l himself for all einerK«>neies as dlli(;ently ns 
N.iMMMi when he started for tho Pole. His companions, 
I,. ... |)r. Fitippi, were Lieutenant C'agni, of the Italian Navy, 
('.•.dl.tix Francesco Gonella, president of the Turin S«'ction 
<if the Italian Alpine C'Inb, and Cavaliei^ Vittorio Sella, tho 
eminent mountain photographer. He took four lt»r 
and one Italian porter. Ten local |>ort4-rs were ei 

• ' 1 . four sailors, one gold diggci-, and 

• i-o also pr»>ss<nl into the s«'rvice. 

<l llio total weight carried was :<,l4tMb. 

y found the mountain easy — " just like 

•rn, only much higher "—and travelled from tlio coast 

ji and l>ack again in flfty-s<>ven day». They llxe<l tho 

height of their mountain at 18,W(t» feet, and from It they saw 
three other iieaku which neeoied to Imi still higher. One of these 
— Mount Logan — ha* had the height of 10,.^) feet assigned to 
it, *o that there are ulill, In thin region, fresh worlds for 
Alpinictn to conquer. 

The hook in v .y i^ told is a very luxurious 

Tolainc. Hignor S<-h lis would no doubt have lieen 

better if the stmovpberio conditions ha<l been more favourable ; 
tiul they arc very goiMl :is ii. it, rmd ;ill nr lUi. is iliii- t.i Messrs. 



I 



•WILL IT HuLDt' 

" MouDUinecriog " in th« Baiiminton 
JJtoaiT. Km BdlUoa, UOOi Lmcmuu.] 



Constable for tho xtylo in which they have had them rcpro- 
dnoe<l. There is a lilx'ral supply of maps, exeelleiilly diMWii, 
and there aro several iiistructivo apiXMidiees, iiu'linling a goixl 
bibliography, a complete tiiblo of meteorological observations, 
and a comploto account of the e(|uipmunt of the party. Dr. do 
Filippi may lie congratulated on having kept his book short — a 
mns merit with mounUtinocring writors. Tliu prollts of tho 
sale aro to lie given to a worthy obj<>ct — on insurance fund for 
Italian guides. 
In the Alps. 

.\n Alpine reprint of much interest and importance is 
.Tames D. Forljos* Travki.8 THitouiiii tiik Alts, e<litcd with 
notes and an intrmliiction by the Hev. W. .K. B. Ctwlidge (Black, 
20s. n.). " ForlK-s," says Mr. C. E. Mathews in the Badminton 
" Monntaine«'riiig,'' "was no mountaineer in tho modern sense, 
and never accomplishe<l any very dinioiilt feats; ho was certainly 
not an athlete, and would probably have broken down under the 
stress of what would now l«! considered a really arduous expedi- 
tion. He was pale, thin, and had indifTei-ent health, but his 
expression was singularly sweet and winning, and ho had the 
beautiful and relliied iiiaiiners of tho old school." Ho wan 
Professor of Natural Philosophy at E<liiiburgh, and afterwards 
Principal of St. Andrews — "a remarkable instanco of tho hold 
the mountains have over men of rare intellectual endowment." 
The new volume includes not only the well-known "Travels 
Through tho Alps of Savoy," but also tho Alpiiio chapters 
printed as an ap|>oiidi\ to Forties' book on Norway. Forties' 
work lay in what may be described as tho "middle period" of 
Alpine exploration — tho i«'riod when climbing was reviving after 
the check given to it by the Na|s)leoiiic wars, but had not yefc 
l)«>gun to lie a popular pastime. He mtis oiio of tho earliest; 
Britfsh explorers of tho high .\lps, and tho author of tho first 
dctailo<l liook in English relating to such explorations; he 
climbeil with Agassiz, Studer, and Desor, and was probably the 
llrst memlier of the English-speaking race to |)cnetrate to that 
ixijinlar climbing centre, .\rolla, whence ho made tho first 
passage of tho 
Col d'Herens to 
Zeriiiatt. Mr. 
Coolidge's notes 
aro the sort of 
notes that one 
expects from 
Mr. Coolidge — 
that is to say, 
tlicy are rich in 
historical and 
t opographical 
infurmalioii. Hi- 
missed an oppoi- 
t unity in noi 
treating the 
Mont Iseiaii 
myth more fully, 
as it has been 
.1 by M. 
Ferrand, 
jiitl Uy Mr. Coo- 
lidge himself ill 

his eilition of Ball's Guide : but |>erhaps he is reserving himself 
for the monograph which he is understood to lie writing on tho 
subject. .\s usual Mr. Coolldg<! provides a gotxl bibliography — 
a list, this time, of tho Alpine writers quoted by Forbes. 

Messrs. Constable have produced a second edition ((Is.), of 
Sir William Martin Conway's Tiik Ai.i-s khom End to End. 
This reduction of tho price should give a fresh life to an inter- 
esting Alpine hook which has not so far attained the popularity 
which it deserves. All Mr. MacCoriiiick's admirable wash 
drawings are included in this cheaper edition. 

We have previously praised Mr. Edward Whymper's guides 
fo CiiAMoNix and Zkhmatt (Murray, :1s. n. each), and wo aro 
glad to sec that they have re:i<lied a fifth and fourth edition 




I'lUN'CIPAL J. I). K0RB1':8. 

From " C'hjiinonix. " By Kdwkrtl WhjiniNfr. .Murrnjr.] 



July 7, 



1900.] 



MTKRATIJRE. 



13 



M-flpectively. They are the very boat suiiles ot the kind that 
wo know, intfiroHtinK aliko to t.ho i-IimlHT and tlio onlinnry 
toiiri»t, uiitl full of ({iwkI pictiiroN, ono of wliioli w«i ar» rt>- 
pro<lucin((. It iHriii-ioiiN, hmvcvrtr, that in tho new ulidon of lh« 
" Chnmonix " ruUIi" Mr. Whyniper makes no wfercneo to tho 
rooent fontrihiitionH matin by Mr. C K. MathcwN U) tho 
c-ontrovertty conecrninK tho llmt RM'ont of Mont Blanr. 

CYtXiNO IN TiiK AM'k. by V. L. Ftooston ((Jrant I{ii lianN, 
(on.), (loos not shincas a piiM-o of literary ooni|M>si(iun, but i( tolls 
s'ycUstii what thoy want to know about Mio roads, and that, 
aftvr nil, IN tlio main tiling. Tlioro is also :ibiind»n(.*o of usofnl 
information about biitkos, r<'pair tackle, and tho like ; nml 
(horoaroa conpli' of dozon fnll-pago drawings which at joiust 
!{ivo a Kood idea of tho zigza^pi. 

.\ now (3rd) wlition of Mountainek^iino, in tho Badrainton 
Library (I^inKniaiis, IOh. (!d.), contains a new chapter by Mr. 
Kryco on " Mountaineering in Kar-aw»y Countries," from which 
we n<'t a b<xkI idea of tho ranges that remain unexplored, and of 
tlio difficulties of climate, ex|iens»<, and hostile alx)rigines, which 
hinder their exploration. Climbers who ounnot Ije h.\ppy iiido^s 
they break new (rround will tlnd thr information hero snpplie<l 
invaluable, and will consi(U>r tho new edition a great improve- 
ment on the older ones. It seems a pity that Sir Frederick 
Tolloek di<l not take tho op|xirtunity of tho new edition to 
supplement his chapter on tho early history of moiuitaiixM-ring, 
which is excellent iis far as it goes, Init <loes not go ciiiito far 
enough. A few worils, for instance, alwiiit tho ascent of Iliemus 
by Philip of Mace<t(>u, of Topocatapctl by tho S4)ldiers of Cortex 
— doscribetl in Cortex's despatches to tho King of Spain^ — and 
tho exploits of tho Bishop of Gurk on tho Olokner, and Zinnstein 
and his companions on Monte Rosa, wouhl have added to the valuo 
of the essay. Room might have been found, too, for a word on 
the flrst ascent of Monto Corno in tho .\pennines by Orazio 
Delllco in 179(i. 

At a limo when tho interest in Himalayan exploraliim is 
being kept alive by the FreshHeld and Bull<M-k-\Vorkiuan ex|M>di- 
tions, Messi-s. Constable send us a now edition (Os.) nf .Major 
Ij. a. Waddells Amoxo thk Himalayas. Wo praised the liook 
two years :iir>i. anil have no r<\-ison to chango our minds almut It 
mm. 



A HAPPY LAND. 



Kveryouo who is so fortunate as to have read Mr. Fielding's 
Iwok, " Tho iSoul of a People," should get BlliMA, by Max 
and Bertha Ferrars (S;inipson Low, £1 U>s.). Although, fi-om its 
size, weight, and price, it comes into tho category of " gift- 
I)ooks," books which serve to decorate a table, and never get 
road, "Burma" should piMve tho exception to this rule. Our 
authors' detailed account of the outward life of the Rnrnies<» — 
an account which rounds off and completes Mr. Fielding's story 
of their inner life— is well worth ri'ading, and wequite appn'ciato 
the difliciilties of pi-odncing it in handier form. To have done 
so the full-page illustrations must have Ijooii sacrinccd. Many of 
these are very line, although, for tho enjfiynient of a certain 
number, tho Ixiok must bo turned sideways, always an exasjiera- 
tion to tho reader. 

Happy is the man who has lived in Burma. Happier still he, 
who, having read thesetwo l)ooks, is able to satisfy tho inevitablo 
desii-o they awaken, and start for Rangoon. But even those 
to whom tho strong wings of travel have iKs^n denie<l may, by 
means of this Ixwk, construct a fairly eomplcto picture of 
Barmose scenery, of tho various aspects ot life there, and of tho 
Burman's existence from the cradle to tho grave. The cradle 
and the flower-stand are tho two most conspicuous objects 
in every Burmese home : flowers and tho child are among tho 
most important factors ot life. You must not expect to 
live in Burma without .i close association with lx)th. Tho 
young child is tho welcome guest of the whole village, «-andoring 
at will through the neighltours' houses and gardens. The owners 
show him a kindly interest ; the grown-ups play with him, ajid 



*uub. 



■h 
it 

•n 

s| 

• -• 
•1 MUtt liiat 



moke hiiD toy*, i .nut n'tu«ulM«ni hla 

childhood, and Itelieves he will ti«<y>ui' 
Between tlw^ :il-i~> <>f i-li'lii n..! i.,. 
of the Bnddh 

writing, ami .■ ,■ ..' , | 

above nil, tho valuo of I' 

There is an interesling i ' 

inonastie schoolii. Xii,. 

crouch n|M)n ' i 

their slates, 1 

writing is done uilh a uli 

hvoking old monk, sitting \i\-' 

In the liackgrouuil aro sacn-d, Ijfi 

elal)orjitely ciirven wooden caiiopi< •■.  

Ix'ds. When his fu^hool-lifo is over, . 

enters fora time the inonastio iH>\ I'll'.', ju^i ,i^ 

<'ountriescvery young man nerves as a noldlcr. 'I 

back with him into secular life < ' 

reverence for tho truths of i. 

" Kiplingite " 

which the ctm 

Then come tho days or courtship, very iuijMrtant in Ilnrma, 
whore every one marries. From nine to ten ..'..1. . L .i i.ii.r ;, 
tho hour naino<l " courting-time." The . u 

her verandah, and tho suitors como oiio by <n><-. m in.- •••i-n, ..r in 
the moonlight, to ple.-ul their cause. She will give eaoh • 
cheroot of her own making, hut for the favour«<«l I*.. ;n 

light it herself, thus giving him a kiss by pm\ <<n 

bargain. Tho smalt illustrations of " 

at her toilet," and " The Suitor'- I 

intimate idea of this peri." s ,ii ■• 

chapter, "Manhood and c 

beautiful full-page illustration in the liook. In " ' •■< 

l{ice-erop on the Kwin," you get out of the m.-,. .,| 

white a really marvellous effect of colour, sm .r. 

After marriage, family cares and the acriou-.  
Iw'gin ; and when man's hfth age arrlvea, and 
revered . I list ic&s of tho Peac- 
always wise sentences, the H 
pagoila or a school; or, if ilioe un- 
at least to erect a humble «hn<l fnr ' 
and tho wayfarer's r' 
children " pr.iy him t.. 
forth they take his siipimrt entirely it\f 
never l)ecomes, however, tho mere " - 
for tho ageil in Bunna aro never idle, 
time in light occupations and in prayer, 
elasticity of mind and interest in others. N 
way to anger, but. stee|ic<l in tho spirit of Bii' 
for tho end. .\nd on his death-l>e«l a friend \' 

Bnrinan of all the good disMls which ho has done iii lilc. " Tluuk 
how you have given alms to the monks. . . , how ynii hotpe«l 
your brother in his neo<l. . . . ^ '■•a»ant 

things to remem Iter ? . . . Think 'sl .iml 

care<l for your wife and sho f. 11 your long life 

together. Sur<>ly this, t<x>, is a pi' 

Where we Westerns st.ite lialdly that such a person is 
dead, tho Burman says, tenderly, that for him the present I '•• '<•< 
endetl ; and that which we call " the cor]>se," tho " reii 
the Burman speaks of as " that which is almut to bo"- 
something higher and tietter. Thus, although tho r«l. 
for their own loss, the funeral it--^ •- • 
and this incongruity Ix'tween the 

hand, and the l "uts of the burial va the other, liudi lU 

iwint in a Bur.  : — 

Tho python snake was tho King of Serpents, and «o 
was hia venom that did ho »o in"'-i< •>- >'•>•• '''■> t 
creature it must die. One day he i 
who had offended him, and crept t- 
his revenge. But ho found there i • 
The whole villago was in gola o - 
and the people were dancing. Ai 



They 

I., I .,r... 



- ... ....rk 

our own 

> lid not 

•illda 



■r 
i« 

Ha 

.r 



14 



LITERATURE. 



[July 7, 1900. 



•setimively mortifltHl tlmi ho MiiiitM>i1 .i Inftv inf. niul Hint nil 
hto vonom forth. 

The f;»lil«> doos not mlil   il iM>iiitcnl. Imt \vr liki- lo 

h«>lipv« hi- clicl, nnd xn )>. .i<>u iiiuliT iiiijn'ovnt ooixli- 

liims, prol>al>ly :i> <l<i\f. Ami l<y this timcwp hope, h«> 

may have cl!ml>e<l - -in the tn-o of lifi' as to have 1k>ooiuo 

» Yahilii, or even a SadAw. 



OXFORD TEXTS. 



SanrTORi'M CiAsnicxiRi-M BiHi.KiTHn'A Oxoniesrim: — 

.AcHYl.t TitAr.lKDI.*: CIM KHAflMKSTIS. RfH-OIIHIlit A. SllKiWICK. 

(Pa|HT, :{s. : lini|i ololh, '.\s. 0<l. ; India iNi|><>r, Is. 0<l.) 
Abistoi'Hams i'(iM<Ki>i>:. K«H'OKnoveriint F. W. Ham., W. M. 

(fixiiAiiT. Tt>niii!. I. : A<-liiiriipnM»s, Ktjuites, Nultos, Vespee, 

I'ax. Avp>. Cls.. ;Vh. rui.. 4s. (Id.) 
Apoli.hxii Khodii AnrJoxAiTicA. Recognovit R. C. Seatox. 

(Pni>«<r. is. Od. ; cloth, .To.) 
Xenophoxtis Oi'kha. I. Historia Grieoa. Recognovit K. C. 

Mahchaxt. (2>t. M., 3s.) 

The design of this scries, whose first niinil»crs wc have dealt 
with already, is excellent ; but we are not sure that the choice of 
editor* is the most judicious in all cases. Perhaps it is too late 
to suggest tliat a wider sear<ih might have l)een better ; but we 
feci bound to nay it. No one will question Mr. Sidgwick's 
literary taste, or his high rank as interpreter ; but we do not 
feci quite the same coulldenee in his critical judgment. It is 
impos.sible to protlnce a text of ^schylus which will please 
every one ; and yet we cannot but think that the principle 
generally prescribe*! for this series, that the e<litor should try 
to restore the earliest tradition which the MSS. attest rather 
than to give what his author may have written, is sound. This 
principle would give us, for instance, tvxi^' uot tvx>)v in /'its. 0()2 ; 
iyojaXiiffOt, not d>caXii<r0( in (Yll ; wt tv<rlai^^ovt1, " as p<H)r wretches 
may," in .^j^nin. XW : Bipaot Uoicioy in SO^t. A strong example 
is the much-vexed autiarofOoptiv, Agnm. 048, where editors almost 
with one consent write tuiiaro^Boftiv, ignoto ignotius ; neither 
word is found elsewhere, and Mr. Verrall's int«'rpretation 8e«Mus 
to make the fonner iKwsible. In several other jilaces, Mr. 
Verrall, often so rash, shows a caution which Mr. Sidgwick would 
hare done well to imitate {e.g., .40iiiii. 79). Mr. Sidgwick's text 
has, however, the merit of making sense nearly always. His 
iihort account of the MSS. will Ije useful to young students, and 
it was a happy thought to add n detailed table of the MS. 
eridencc for each i)lay. 

The editors of " Aristophanes " have a less difllenlt ttisk 
than the editor of *' ^•Eschylus " ; yet not one that can l>o 
amiertaken with a light heart, when even Cobet has damned the 
Ravenna MS. as one of the worst in existence, and editors have 
been over-reaily to adopt conjectunil changr-s in the tradition. 
Cobet 's • "ice has not lx?en followed in this edition, and 

the C4tli' :ly iMiiiit out that due allouanet* has not always 

been made fur colloquialism. They might have applied their 
own canon to Cluutlii 744, anil read ^ira with the vulgate, instead 
of inserting «a«. Here the MS. tnidition is more closely kept 
to than in other editions, though in the critical notes concession 
is made to douliters, by the record of changes propo8<><l where 
kciioUrH have commonly thought such to Ih> nee<led. Kpi'lliug 
and accidence have Ijeen regulated by aid of ins<-riptions and the 
evidence of ancient gi is. In the critical notes on each 

pUy is given a list  -S. us«mI. The text, so far as w«! 

baTO )M>en able lo test il, seciiis to Im- an improvement on tliosf* 
in Itw ; l>ut vi. slintild not Im- surpristxl if fiiluiT editors slioulil 
be evi-n mon li.-m .Messrs. (teldart siiul Hall. 

It i» a . . lo s«s> an Knglish etiition of the te\t 

•if Apollonius Kliodius, and we hoiM- many will n-ail this intei- 
49t!ng author who have not dime so liefore. Mr. .Seaton ngr«H.s 
with the view now conmionly held, that none of onr MSS. repn-- 
nent the i.ariier n^ern^Ion of the " Argonaut lea," which survives 
in only a few fragment* and scholia. His text In IkisimI on tin- 
prireb-** Medicean, which ha« ptrwrvt-d for n.« also the lM>st text 



of Sophocles and of iBschylus. He keeps close to the Medlewm, 
except in spelling and accentuation, but does not disdain the aid 
of O (13th century), or on occasion of the inferior MSS. at 
Rome, Paris, and elsi'when' ; the most important scholia have 
also lieen nsed, niul a few corrections are introduced on the 
strength of the " Ktymologicum Magninn." A very few 
conjtH-tures have lKH>n admitted, two iK'iiig due to the present 
Oilitor. The text has lK>eii made with great care and sobriety of 
juilgiiieut. 

Mr. Marchant in his tlrst instalment of " Xenophon," has 
nls<i kept closer to the l)est MSS. than previous editors, 
reJ4»cting nothing which could possibly Ih> defended. He has 
alsonsi^d a wise discretion in purging the critical notes of trivial 
variants, thus making room for new matter without making 
these notes less useful to the student. Orthography may ot 
course l>e testitl by other known rules, and editors ar<< not fre»( 
but boinid to correct certain vagaries of the copyists. His 
edition is therefore an advance not only on Diiulorf's, but in 
praclii-al usefulness even on that of O. Keller. .V few fragments 
of jiapyrns come to onr aid lu>re in reconstnicting the text ; 
and asfar as they go, they prove for Xenophon what similar finds 
have proved for Plato and Thucydides, that onr text is substan- 
tially the same as it was in the early centuries of our era or even 
liefore. Wo should have likt>d a rather fuller account of the 
MSS. in this edition. 



WAR BOOKS. 

 

MAKtuciXf;, by Major K. D. Baillie (t'onstable, Cs.), is a 
diary of the siege, without literary pretensions ; but we do not 
like it the less for being devoid of rhetoric and frankly unconven- 
tional in style. Most of the book has alri-ady appeared in the 
Morning Post. Conse<inently the gooil stories of Colonel Badcn- 
PowelTs repartees to C'ronje, Snyman, and Klefl have not the 
charm of novelty, having already Ikh'u quoted far and wide ; but 
most of them were worthy of being rescued from the nt'wspapers. 
The tone is delightriiUy, if arrogantly, insular : — 

The Frenchman calls the Boer " canaille," the Boer 
iloesn't seem to like the Frenchman or, indei'd, any other 
foreigner, regarding him as an impetuous fool who would 
probably leail him (the lioer) into some na.sty dangerous place, 
nn<l the Knglishnuin laughs at #he lot ; howitver, as I said 
iK'fore, the (HMir devils can't help b<'iiig foreigners. 

One of the latest popular military biographies is the life ot 
Gexkkal HfXTOii A. Macimixald, by David t'ampliell (Melrose, 
Is. n.). One cannot say much more of it than that it states the 
facts corre<-tly, but the character sketch of the Oenonil by ii 
shop-girl who knew him in the days when he was a draiier's 
assistant at Inverness is worth quoting : — 

A braw loon, wi'oen like glowin' coal. And the great, 
broad shoulders of 'im ! He was mair like a siiiilh than a 
dra|M.<r. But, mind ye, there was naething surly aliout Hector, 
as wc useil to ca" him. He \\tis terrible ohleegin, 'aye offering 
to lift up or doon bundles for us lassies. 
The preface is an eloquent plea for the promotion of more 
nou-<*ommlssioned ofllcers to commissioned rank, and for the pay- 
ment of ofllcers on a scale which would enahle more |X>or men to 
take up commissions when these are oltereil to them. Most 
people not exceptionally prejuiliced will atrree with Mr. David 
Caniiiliell's arguments on this subject. 

YWTKUIIAV AXII To-OAV IN K ItfliKu's I, AMI (Klliol Slock. 

Is. n.), professi's to give us I lie |S'rsomil kiMiwIoilge an<l ex|H<ri- 
ences of a lady fi-om South .\rrica. It is a siiniciiMilly riradalilo 
little liook, consisting partly of history aiitl partly <if reminis- 
cencf^s, lull it adds nolhing to thi> information prociirahle from a 
hiindmtl other Miurces. The author tells us a little aliout tlio 
Ostrich-funning industry, but not as much as we should like to 
kmiw. 

Dr. George M. Theal's Lnri.K Hi*roiiv m Snnii .^riiit^v 
was originally Issued s«'veial years ago for use in s<'hools, and 



July 7, 1900.] 



UTERATI'HE. 



!5 



HUH pas-^i'il tlii'<)ii((h thrco etlitiuii!i. The fuiii-lli cdiiiuii, w: 
pow piihlislicd (Kislicr Unwin, In. (kl.), contiiiiiN an sulci: 
Bliii|i(or (IcsiliiiK with the origin ot the prctoiit wiir. Dr. 'J'Ih-.iI 
baH written IhiM chiipti-r jiidieiuiisly, not tukint; any iticli.'norcvi'n 
||j)(iicat!n;; wliich Hide he would tiil^o if he wen- eiille<l iipon to 

tako out*. His ll:ir|-:ll i\«> ftllK W i t tl i]u* issUI! of tht' lUx-f 

Ultiiuatuiii. 

Mp. lloiarc t'. (iioscr's writing "f !• iixii-.M.MiMlAl. L>>Hl> 
tdUKHTs (.Molro»<% Is. n.) has reached » third etlition, a jcood 
fortuuo whieii it well deserves. 

My Dkk'>xk DciilNO the W.\I!, I>y the Rijjlit Rev. Arthur 
Hamilton Bayncs, Bishop of Natal (Bell, Ok.), Ih a pious, but 
platitudinous work, rcprintetl from a diary which is neither 
lielter nor worse tlian the average diary which does not Ket Into 
)irint. In Die closiii); cliajjler wo have the inevitable '■•\> 

that "(iod has Iwen aceomplishinjia Kl'eat pur|>ose with ii 

• •r war with whieli He is dosing for us the iiinet<>onlh teiiuiry." 
Wo cannot wliolly ap|)rovo this easy estimate and rather 
jialroniziuK approval of the workings of ouiuipot«nee. 

The New Battle ok DoiiKix<i (Grant Richards, Is.) 
describes an imaginary French invasion of England, undertaken, 
:ipparejitly, without notice or previous declaration of war. The 
luir|)ose of the Injok is the laudable one of drawing attention to 
weak [joints in our military organization, and tlie author leaves 
the impression that he understands tils subject. As to the possi- 
bility of such an invasion being secretly preijarwl, however, we have 
our own opinion. It may be [jerfectly true that "there is always 
bliipping sufllcient for an army of 120,000 men for a slwrt passage 
in the Northern parts of France " ; but very few of the ships 
:iro ready to start at any given moment. Some of them aro 
already weighed down to the PlirasoH luie with eggs and other 
iiierchandiso ; others are in the middle of the loading or 
unloading jirocess ; the stokers and engineers and others, not 
expecting their services to be required, liave gone carousing in 
cafes without leaving an address ; tlie big Atlantic liners aro 
\nider engagements to American citizens, whose Ambassador 
would bo moved to connnnnicate witli Wasliington ; and any 
endeavour to organize this chaos would in itself be a signal of 
alarm. MortM)ver, wliat is the author's authority for the 
statement that " secrecy for forty-eight hours can be assured ? " 
The non-arrival in fine weather — which would be essential to the 
raid — of a single packet boat would cause inquiries to be made : 
and it would bo strange if more than ten hours elapsed without 
the arrival of information. It would be interesting to know how 
(he author suitposes tliat the French would get over these little 
<lifllculties. 

Mr. Caton Woodville illustrates and " a British Ofllcer " 
writes a collection of interesting and topical studies of Social 
Life in the BitiTisu Aumy (Long, Cs.). Although the civil 
iwpulation of England is ready to shotit " Hurrah for the 
Army !" and appreciate at its jnst value the self-<levotion and 
courage of the rank and Hie, it knows very little of the inner 
workings of that vast entity. " A British Ollicer " knows his 
snl)ject well and lays liefore the reader the dilliculties of the 
soldier's life, so changed in every respect by the short service 
system and otlicr reforms from the life familiarized to all the 
world by Charles Lever. " Social Life in the British Anuy " 
should prove invaluable to our novelists who sometimes approach 
the fi'iva inemjiiiUi of military life with wonderfully antique 
information. Mr. Caton Woodvilb' is :ii liis best in ib.- sIvhih 
excellent illustrations lie iirovides. 

Mr. L. E. Henry, the author of i;M.cLA.Mj".s Aumiu.) Niaikai.- 
ITY (Farmer, (is. n.), was once a professor at Sandhurst and 
appears to be that nira dci.s, a Frenchman who loves England and 
bates his countrymen. Where, he asks, is the evil eye in Central 
Eni-oiio at the present moment if not in France ? We have 
wrestled with the book as a whole, but fail to discover exactly 
what it is alxiut. The general impression is one of sentences 
that have been mixed up together by some one who does not 
«inderstand their meaning. What is quite clear, however, is that 
the profits of the s;ilc of the book are to be given to a hospital. 



FICTION 



In th» Tpain of Kloi 



.billy , 

• -t. Mr*. 

' . . ' _ 'b« pi««»i»li« 

in A Laot UK THK Ht.iiL.Ncr (HiitchinMtn, n>.) appawr to t- 
flush and blotxl, with the rnoiilt tbiit her i-ol' <» ....t.. ../ 
page or DO, i« extrt>niety litt«rmlinf{. i 
biKtk — the Prince Re);ent, Caroline 
Charlotte, and the Windwir family il 
trite, but the |)eri)Hl has not 1 
heroine's fortiincM nru followtKl ui: 
of Caroline is a i 
accidi-nt nnd misfori , 

and \< lint «u pleiuuiul ii nlnry-leller l> 

lit to  the relation even beyond Ihi- 

*,)iie<<n and the coming of ha|i|>iDC«i to the i.l 

Heseltine. 

Mr. Ronald Macdonald, the aon of s tMnuua nuv< 1 
has not had the same happy thought aa Mra. Ifiiwnon. " lln 
knew ho could WTlte," was the burles<|ue title Mr. Bumand 
once gave to a book by Trollopc, and I' - (iiggcsl* 

itself on reading Mr. Macdonald's novel 1 d or thk 

Kino (Murray, Os.). He knew that (with i.»r*.'> ho  
write in the style and character of a lady nf thi. lime ., 
I'rince of Orange, and he has ace.' luk con- 

scientiously but without inspiration. > 't a woman 

is the story of her love, says Philip|Kt Itoyston, and, if yoa mis 
her love affair with the underhand traffic of •)"• .i.v. i-f..~. 
William's coming, throw in a disguise in man's cl' 
of fighting, you get Mr. Macdonald's tale. The Ihmit 
and the phraseology are ^rell done, and the plot is n 
an ingenious touch. L'lifortunatoly the characters are a 
more markedly puppets than thoM? of the avenigo"co-' 
romance." It is a M"- »rk that will delight ;iial 

hold only the estpen ■r. 

The Shadow or Allab, by Morler Roberta and Max 

Montesole (.Toll' T 
novel tli:it w<' I 

vaiapl«, i« 
1 boatmen 

are caikdjis. The marines are guc; 
the Sharkian, and an Albanian is aa \ i ., , 

cal, dealing with the deposition of Sultan Ahd-nl-A/ 
fall of Midhat Pasha. The authors seem In have an • 
knowledge of Ottoman aOaira, and their book is v* 
thirsty. Whatever rank it may take amoi 
Max Montesole, we are afraid it will not r.< 
the works of Mr. Morley l{olM.Tts. 

The llKAitr o' the I*r»T. ;> little volume in jwle-c' 
covers (Simpkin, London 
" Irish Fireside and V 
Erskine Mayne. 1" 

the mag:izines, and i , , . . _ 

<'hronicler which Ireland n(>e<ls, the no%'elist witb th« aeeins «yo 
and the gifted pen, is still to seek. 

In Christalla, an Unknown Qi'antitt (.Methopn.Qa.), Mim 
'■ ■' Stuart tells tus the life history of a remoricablv little ' ' 

'- is also a little Im^v who is very unn.nl and wko die* i 
•"l-^.ist Lynne" 
vaguely of Flai 
badly put together ; 
are terrible little pi 

We were exj)ecting sou 
Overseas Library (Unwin), .. 
by .1. Mac (2s.). Some of the stories are about K.. 

about Boers. There is a preface by Mr. Edward o , 

ing upon their value as " documents " ; they are of no grc»t 
value as literature. 



16 



LITERATURE. 



[July 7, 1900. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 



A few wtH>k!i ojro wx> «li>'w :it(<-iiti<m to tlio flioii a|>- 
pfoachiii;; rolobralion at Mainz of (ho (|iiiiiotMitoiiniii1 aiiiii- 
vertw.v o( Gutenb<>rs'» birth, uiul the prDiKisal to t-htablisli 
• pablio library anil museum ns a ]H>ruianent momorial. 
Tho festivities «Tpr« rarricd out witli mucii pntljusiasm iiiul 
masmiflponco. A typt^rapliical cNhibilion was oi)onc<l by tlie 
IJrand I>ukc ol Hi'sm*, a bamiuet jrivon, and a graml procession 
c'rpuilz^l which snrpassetl anrthiiii; of tlie kind over seen in 
Oomwny. Tlir<»<> tliou'.iind |MT!.on>. to<jk jwrt with cars to 
; Tliere were visitors from all 

I iiH nationaliti(>s nock«><l to tlie 

I their art. In spite of the dispute vvhieli eontiaually 

s .i-< to the original discoverer of printing, Outenherg 

1 iTiainly did more to spread the art than any otlier man. Had 
1'... .i; — very of printing l)eon retarded until CJutcuberg's deal It 
' ' ss of civiIiz.-ition would have Ixh;u less l>y something 

iiM' n (riitary than it is to^lay. 

The Ax-ar api>arenlly lias had its effect U|)on the British 

Museuui. Krom the Annual Reiwrt we tlnd that there has iK'eii 

a slight falling off in the attendance in the reading rnoM, 

though in most of the de|>artmeiits it lias I>eeM satisfactorily 

maiutalne<l. The year has lieeu marked by the virtual couipl<>- 

tiou of the great catalogue an<l by many im|x>rt«nt additions to 

the library. The Hardwicke MSS., arrange<l in 930 volumes, 

are of the highest value historically, while the artistic treasures 

of Baron F. liothschild's be<|uest are supplemented by sixteen 

illuminated manus<-rip(s of rare excellence. The additions of 

priiitod l»ooks include a Lactantius of Swcynheyu and Puunartz, 

dated 1470, a work by Po|H' Pius II. (" De duobus aiuuiitibus "), 

which was one of the twenty Ixxiks fn>m the first French printing 

press at tho Sorlionne, and a Florentine IxKik of great rarity 

(Paulus Ricius " Super Logicam Pauli Venetl "), printed from 

tv.^. and thought to lie unique. The MSS. department has 

retl the only separate edition of the Vulgate Xew Testament, 

I'l Piled during the fifteenth century, and an almost |)orfect 

Kiiglish version on vellum of the Golden Legend. A file, from 

April to Jul.v, 1880, of the " Kandahar News," a type-written 

diilr paper published during the occu|>ation of that city, is an 

_• relic. \Vc wonder whether, if the British Museum 

I |>ii»se<l, the authorities would have endeavoured to 

transfer this news|>ai>er to its birthplace. That ill-fated measure 

<■• .Mill]. .my has now (lerished in the annual "massacre of tho 

Its disappearance is solely due to the vigorous 

im every f|Uarter which the proposals evoked and it 

:; '■> find the country so jealous of its treasure house. 

Aiiuu.il If' "S 

n* H"r!i-rf'y. '^ . . ii, 

' 11 iiave hitlierto been allowed 

.' N-rence books, but the effect of 

• • volumes has Ijeen so disastrous that tho s.vstciu 

..iIomKl. The Committee found that costly works 

used as mere picture Ijooks, and they did not think this 

'■ •:".,., >"• io the readers. At St. Gwrge's a 

I by a natural history colk-etion, 

"T • room, iu which 42,0(JO 

thny<>nr. There are also 

" quarlerly library juui'ii.iU ' '^, and 

I Icy. A list of books on c is has 

.1 i>y tho librarian oi -hall, an institution 

i,-.i.-<la»a temple of tl • of economics. This 

" and convenient list of liooks and ]>amphlets will l>e 

... .„...- for reference porpotea in other librari-- — •••••"-- to 

the atodMit at Tojrnbee-hall. 

T  I of a Pn;. y for 

H»ln - i« to C' Ml) its 



lis of 

iil;ice 



for the community in almost every cirrumstance of their tribal 
life. 

Tlie Bishop of Chester has cxpres^ied to a gathering of 
Library .\ssistnnts bis views u|>on the Sunday oiM»ning of libraries. 
He made two points chiefly : — That public opinion should \m 
consulted Is^foreliniid and that strict suiiervision of the libraries 
should Ih' arranged without undul.v adding to the labours of the 
eiuplo.vds. He saw no objoetion to Sunday 0|>eniiig during 
liiniliHl hours, nor did he think that any reasonable Christian 
wouUl find objection. This seems to us a common-sense pii>- 
nouncement ui>oii a question too often debated in a nari-ow and 
ctintiovci-sial spirit. It is ossentiall.v a matter to be settled b.v 
Kk'uI circumstances. 



Corrcsponbcnce. 



EPISCOPAL REGISTERS. 
TO THK EUITOR. 

Sir, — It might lie more accurate to call episcopal registers 
an "unrealized" instead of an " unro«-ognizod " source of 
history ; every one who has tried really to WTito tho history of 
a parish must be aware of their existence and their value. In 
the slender list of those hitherto printed given by Dr. Cox that 
of Kichaid Fox, while Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1102-1404, has 
b<>en omitted. One hundred copies of this were privately printed in 
1880 fi-om a transcript by Mr. C. T. Martin. Two reasons are given 
ill the jireface for selecting it from among others at Wells — first, 
the very interesting period to which it relates, a jieriod quite 
anterior to the lieformation, and yet almost on the eve of that 
event ; secoiidl.v, the comparative lii-evity of the voliuiie, which 
enables the exact words of the forms Used to be lastiiigl.v 
ivcorded without oppressive rejietition. The book was edited 
by Mr. Chisholiu Biittoii, who wrote the introductory life of Fox. 
Probably the life and the register would have both Ix^n of more 
value if published separately, but it was a small step in the 
right direction. 

Yours faithfully, 

CADWALLADEK J. BATES. 

Langley Castle, Northumljcrland, July 2. 



GRAMMAR v. IDIOM. 
TO THE EDlTOi; 

Sir, — " Too many Ciesars are not gofjd ' means tlicre ai« 
too many bad Ciesars ; with " is " the phrase moans, "Tho fact 
that there should be too many Ciesars is not good." Mr. 
Cairns will probably prefer this latter sentence, which is qnife 
grammatical. I don't. As ho sa.vs, there is no arguiij 
I note tliat Mr. Cairns does not return to the qii. t 

plural verb after two disjunctive phrases ; I may assume, then, 
that he grants that |>oint. 

The freedom of the early writers is just that which makes 
their great charm, and this is duo partly to the use of vigorous 
words which the modern purist thiuks undignified ; partly to a 
fe<5ling for the re^il meaning of words which is not iu modern prose ; 
jiartly to " uiigramiuatical " idioms, which like the one I am now 
speaking of give the meaning more forcibly, l>ccansc put in 
fewer words, and with the emphatic words to the front. In thi-> 
sentence, for example, " too mauy " is the essciioe ; in tlio 
" correct " phrase, these words como after a formula which has 
no t bought in it, but only hel|>s the grammar. I will rctura to the 
other iKiints on opportunity ; but I ask leave to quote here ono 
]ihrasel lately noted, which shows the bluntnessof modem taste. 
A writer in a well-known weekly journal sjioke of one who 
reganletl his subject " from a one-sided stand-point." 

C ^ is the Idol of the modern purist ; and to this he 

Mcriii that Is more valuable. Life and variety, for 

; and cumbrous round-abouts tal>' 

> 'rco. The same is seen in verse, \ 

is iiolishcd up to the extreme ; false sentiment or triviality may 

pai-i. but ail inexact rhyme never. luiagiue llie horror ol tho 



Jul 



V I, 



1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



Iluodorn orifio if lie had to roviow Hcrrirk for the Qntt tiu»'. 
|tUo man actually rhyiuos " iil«H>py " nmt " keop y« " 1 

I (In iiot proi>oso to follow out the annloKy of piiiiitiiiK. 
(AnnlojfUw prove nntlilni;, not even Butlor'n ; but If \v<> uuisr 
liavc niiuliiKy. I conipnro the froc wrltorjt to haud-paiiitiiig, and 
I thi- uiodcni idi'iil to u Oernmii chroiniillthoKmpli. 

Vours ftiillifiiUv, 
\V. If. n. KOI SK, 

MEMORIAL TO O. W. STBBVBNS. 

TO THK KDITOR. 

Sir, — Miiy wo \w itllowcd to draw attfiiHoii in tin- cnlunins of 
//(f<'ivi(i(r« to tlio iiMMiioriiil to tho lad" ('>. W. Sti-cvciis, wliifh 
it is pi-oposi-d to iuslitutu in oonnuxioa with the City of London 
.School V 

Many friends of the school linvo felt and i-xprosMHl the 
dcsli-<> tluit the cariHM" of Mr. Stoovons should ho .snitahly roni- 
niemoratcd In tho place where ho was cducntcd. A committee 
has accordingly boon formcil, and armngonient.s have Ikmmi made 
to present to tho .school a replica of tho well-known imrtrait hy 
the Hon. .John Collier. It is also intendi><l, if sufllcient i-ontri- 
liUtioiiM are received, to found an annual prize. 

We have done our best to coniniunicat<> with the old pupils 
of tho school ; but, naturally, there are ftreat numbers whoso 
addresses are unknown to n», and we bi-lieve that many of them 
would be glad of the opiKirtnnity to make contributions. M'e 
therefore venture to ask for the hospitality of your coluuui s in 
order that by this means they may be made aware of what is 
pro|)osed. 

We ftHsl, of course, that our project is one for which .snpiKirt 
should be invited chiefly fi-om old pupils of the school. But we 
have reason to think that some friends and admirers of Mr. 
Hteovens, thongh not connected with the school, would Ix" 
dcsiitnis of takiiif; part in tho memorial. Help from such sources 
would Ih" gladly w(>lcomed. 

It would be convenient if all contributions were sent 
direct to the Treasurer. 

Yours obediently, 

B. L. ABK.\1I.\MS, .14, Lansdowne-ci-escent, W., 
Troasui-er of the Steevens Memorial Fund. 
H. STOKKH, Fairfleld, Lessar-avenue, 
Clapham-conmion . 
AVEAVEU AI).\MS. Slough. Bu.ks. 



O. 



E. 



Hon. 



r 



AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 



Publishers are taking advantage of tho keen iulercst 
now felt in China. Wo mentioned some new l>ooks n 
turtnight. ago. An Important addition will be made next week 
by Messrs. Macmillan in a new work by Miss Sciilinore. calletl 
" China : the Long-lived Empire." Like Mr. Cohiuhonn's Inxik, 
published by llariier's this week, it is not an answer to tho 
sudden demand for works on tho Far East, but was in typo 
befoi"o the present crisis arose. Miss Scidmoro has already 
written two volumes of travel — " Jinrikisha Days in .Tapau." 
and " Java : tho Garden of the East " — and she has visited 
tMiina seven times within tho past fifteen years. Several of her 
ehaptei-a arc devoted to Peking : one to the fore!;; ' ~; 

one each to the cities of Tien-tsin, Canton, and Sli id 

others to the Dowager-Empress and " The P tj[ the 

Mauchns," the alien ruling tainily. Tho 1 o is a 

lK>rtrait of the Dowager-Empress, from a painting in silk. 

The Indian Famine is another source of anxiety to English- 
men at the present moment, and in this connexion Messr-, 
Kogan Paul and Co. arc issuing a handy volume on Famines in 
India and their canses, compiled by Mr. Romesh Dutt, CLE. 
Mr. Dutt is known to English readers by his translations of 
Indian Epics and his works on Indian history. He has l)een iu 
the Indian Civil Service for more than twenty-live years and 
himself been a famine relief officer. His bo<ik will have a 
chapter on Famines in India during the last 130 years, a series 



of ()|MMi Letters t« |y. 

niid alHo chaptert on If 

ap|M>ndlecA contoininK thu 

I(obert«, Lord Northbrook, I , ai.u .j(iu-r« -m inn 

Indian administrative and tlu 

Even If wc do not get a I -,,...- 

CSeneral Boden -Powell then' 
on thi' sui' i other ant!. . 

work we i •where. %!■ 

iKMik <m the " 
CorresiKindeiii 
Is a Htei>son of ,Mr. Pinoro, comes of a 

and is an aumtcur soldier hiinv.'lf. He - ._ 

by the Boent, and afterwartii, when woundfHl In a 

coolness and humour won tho approval of ('•• 

Powell himself. The Iwok will l>e illustratrvt 
taken by the author. It is hanlly IIU. ' 
will havo as many itieice hi*torians a« I. 
\ 1 il other I 

'lie nnH ^' 
WiU 

Mr. \ , , 

will Im- srrango it they do uol soon iwoll the namlK<r of book* 
aljout the siejfo. 

The approach of tho PnvtideniinI elm'tlon in tb(> I 
States is being heraldint by the inevitable hnil— • • • - 
literature. Messrs. Putnam will shortly add 
" A History of Politiejil PaHies in th. ' ' 

James H. Hi.'pkins. who traces the de\' 
I1-. down to ' 



pUtturm 



iin, anion!; 
from the rise of - 



•*^«ul (la^ 



The Putnams will publish a " Hi-,tuty of il 
Families In America," by Mr. Charles A. II 
record of the Scot in North Britain. Notth Ir<' 
AmericKi. The volume, which will pmlntily ' 
other works giving a detailett hisi 
.\merica, deals with tho history ol ^ 
of tho eighteenth century ; tho plan(alii>n of I'Uter !■> 

Si-..i.-h in tho time of ' ' • 'i— • i.. -,...„ iv.ii  

I iiH|.>wners of lowland >■ 

origin and Un'atlini of til' n ,->i-. -. lum . m.- 

I'f .Scottish surnam<>s in ' and in Ireland, ai 

-^ > eh-Irish I 'ioo, acparation, au'l 

1 of the \ 

.Ml. Jolm Mackay, 
llivforieil .\fcnii!it of • 
A 

1( . 

.MacLcan, Ph.D. Mr. .Maclx>an is a Scoto-American, and Is tiw 
author of several aii''"ii ni m works. 



We reviewed, i . tho now rolnnie of Mr. Murrai 

edition of Byron's Poems. The fourth volume of tho I^ 

will be ready very shortly, carrying tl ir.,-,i».iic1,-ii.-. 

lS10tol8'20. It will include a ro| 
Iiortrait of Lady Blensington in the lli-ii.»i. 
just opeiKHl to the public. 

Next week Mr. Fisher I'nv' 
tho f pjier Graians." by Mr. (J. 



-.II.'.*-.,- Wi.l'^.i 



i>l' tho ni 
climbers v 
life, high All 
as the pciks a; , 

One of tho 1>oon 
Pntnam Is " A New .^,,.,.,. 
Mr. Parke Godwin, who has ! 
have either been overlO'-'- ' 
contain a reprint of tho : 

Mr. BcUoQ King, tlic uuUi^;. 



and the valleys are dealt wiUi, aa wil 



A ll.^i'.r- 



T TTFR^TrRF, 



r.Tnl 



niv 



1 900. 



c uiitlorsl.iuit, fii};ago»l iu 



IV'-l- 



' ■' ' '" ■shortly (inlilioh a 

cl •• 111 tlio WiiitiiiK 

..,,.,,,,.,., M.A., autlior of 

-," &c. Sonic «if th«> pi«i'fs have 

1 I'uH Mall iliizcttc ; all rclato to 

• •. ill :<ii jrlicli- rill M:it!lil.- Scrai), 

wii ill 

 i|M>i-,iry Ni'a|H>litati lift-, liuvu vot 

: to h«'ar that Mr. W. Hoinciiiann 

l:.i!> now iui-uii;;til in imlili^U u writ's of tniiislatioiis of Ikt 

jiovpIs, wnifomi with thi- works of Oahrielt' d'Aiiiiuiixin. The 



t- ' 

I. 



11 l>o ready in tln> aiitiinin. 
xl to lenni that Mr. Itiohanl \Vhit(>iii); has !iO 

'■ '  • 'lii'ss as to lead to tlio hopo that 
..wii to the ii«'\v iiovi'l w-hioh hi- is 

11. I' '- '■^' M'd to l)f of givatcr 

Stnt't." ^ arlieh's wiiicli Mr. 

iiig for til J will also appear in 



1. 

\\. 
book I 

(>i oks of the niitamn season will bo Sir 

M'altor iii-saiits " Tin- Fourth CJciieralioii," a modern story 
Nvhich has been apix'aring serially. For volume form the 
story has been oxtoiidctl by about a third. 

A !«■»• novel liy Mr. .1. A. Stouart, a tale of lovo and 
I the stylo of " The Minister of State " than 
' will be published by Messrs. Hutchinson 

jii'ori.' I in llllin. 

ill's Soldiers " is the title of a 1>ook containiug 

•-. ■•• '■^'■■<'n jiopular authors of the day got 

1 Hyno to be published gratuitously in 

- : . -Messrs. Methuen. To encourage the 

1 •> to a premiam it will be on sale for the limited 

J nree nionili-. 

A new Lady's " ' . so it is statetl, is to Ixj published 

by Messrs. Pearson i .iry, and it will contain Mr. Hall 

Caine'b new serial. - •" 

The nninp nf Mr. L»>onard Merrick's new novel, which Mr. 
.1 ' -li. is "The Worldlings," not, as we 

i. . " The Wordlings." 

j.Ki I'VTioN.M . •■ J IK; World iu lyOO," as the new geographi- 



'■.'1 -i'ii(.> winch Mr. Heiiieiiiaiin is pr<ii.iiiiij; is iMJli'd, will 
pnibably not mak<> a start until the late aiitiiiiiii. The list of 
subjei'ts and authors is jiroiiiisiiig. " ib-itain and tlio North 
.\tlaiilic," annoiiiici'd as In-iiig in the press, is by the edit<^r, 
H. .1. Maekiiidor ; Sir t'loiiients Markhain is respoiisihlo for 
\'oluiiie H., on " Scandinavia anil the Arctic Ocean " ; Pi-o- 
fessor Rlisi't* Recliis deals with " The Meiliterranean and 
France," Dr. .Joseph Partsch with " t>iitral Europe," Dr. Scott 
Keltic with " Africa," Mr. D. (J. Hogarth with " The Near 
Fast," Prince Kra|H>tkiii with " The Knssian Kinpire," Mr. 
Archibald Little on " The Far East," Colonel Sir Thomas 
Holiiich on " India," Dr. H. <). Forbes on " Australasia and 
Antarcti<'a," Professor Israel I'. Kusst'll on " North America," 
and Professiir J. C. Urannor on " South America." 

The new voluiiw of Bell's Science Series, " The Student's 
Dynamics, comprising Statics and Kinetics," by Professor 
Mincliin, will be rt-ady at once. Great prominence Is given 
tlimiighout the work to arithmetical illustnttion. Another 
<-liai-acteristic of the work is that it treats of the science of 
Force, or Dynamics, as founded directly on Newton's axioms, or 
Laws of Motion, and more particularly on the second axiom. 

The next volume of Bell's Illustrated Classics (liitermodiato 
Series) will lie Sophocles' Antigone, editoil, with introdiici ion 
and notes, by G. H. Wells, M.A. It will probably 1>o remly 
••arly next month. In the early autumn Messrs. Boll will piili- 
lisli " The Proem to the Ideal Comiiion\vi.-alih of Plato," with 
introduction and critical and explanatory noU^s by Dr. Tui-ker, 
Professor of Classical Philology in the University of .Melbourne. 



Books to look out fop at once. 

thavel— 
"China: The Lonji-Live.l Empire." By Elizivbeth R. Scidmore. 

MaetnillAn. Ss. M. net. 
" Scrambles ill the Eastern Graians." By George Yeld. Uuwin. 7l. 6d. 

KllTION — 

" The Compleat Bachelor." By Oliver Onions. Murray. 2». 6d. net. 
"The Whistling Maid." By Emcat Rhys. Hutchinson. 6«. 

mi3celi.am:ou.s— 
" Kort St. Georgi-, Mailras." By Mrs. Frank Penny. Sonnenschcin. 

10«. 6d. 
"\ Handbook of British Kubi." By the Re». W. Moyle Rogers. 

Duckworth, ."m. net. 
" The Technical School French Grammar." By Dr. W. Krisi-h. Murray. 

NKW EDITIO.NS — 

" The Oowd t A Study of the Poimlar Mind " (3rd edition). By GuiUve 

Le Bon. Fisher Lnwin. Os. 
•■ The London Matriculation Dirwtory, June, 1900." W. B. Cbve. Is. n. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



BIOGRAPHY. 



Robert B?v 



2ct.n. 



1 and Phpaaes. 

n and F. Storr. 

Hi'-. 1-. 

J on ▼•PBatlonal 

, Hy jM»iff L-tia. iVJ -: 

. - f... NulU 1-. Ud. 

FICTION. 

The Naked Tcuth. tty Amtrfw 



Th« Avan^nc oT r. 

) •. Vf ■. '" iinhon A*' 




o. 


.1, 

Staalera. By 


■1 r« 


TV- 

AHIs 




... Hy 


A Now 



A MUltonalpa of Y 



Many Da ' 

TytUr. •■_ 

C«fop« Oood-N 
Ooot> to Do<j 

:niiA,t. M.ii. » 

EowMvTalaa. i. , . .. 

TiA^ka.. IfX pp. H?;nvinnan. 



Little Indabaa. By J. Mnr. (The 
I )\,r-. .1- I.ibrar)-.) .j ' "■ 

Quo Vadls. Ttomnn 



Kditlon^de)l^I!cvlR■Hlanchc.Fr.3.30. 

HISTORY. 
Phlllppe-Auguste et Saint 

Louis. Suiiv.lle M. liy ./. 

Mi<-h,l,t. Ti ■. ( in., 3Ji) ijp. I'lirl-, 

ISH'i. I ;ilMi.iiin l,.-vy. Kr.3.i"J. 

LITERARY. 

Talea fpom Tennyson. Hr the 

Rcr. a. C. Allrn. f | x4ilti.. irj pp. 

Methuen. 3-'. M. n. 

MATHEMATICS. 
The Universal Solution for 
Numerical and Literal 
Equation. Ky .V. A. Mcl/innii. 

' , • Jiii.. l!i.'> I'p. .•^onnen'M'hcin. V. 

MILITARY. 
In^ : a DIapy of the 

IU MlImi- h. />. /Iiulli,. 



BIndl 
Pno. 



NATURAL 
T»ie BIrdK of K 



Y. 

h. I'.j 
-  • I'M- 
:.<ino. i«. n. 



POETRY. 

7'!i^r,.-isteP : I'liilosopliiT. Tcichcr, 

I. By Arixtn. 7]x5iii.. 

VValN. i-^.M. 

:■■ Tk Of Vepfles. Hy IM,^ n 

tan. 7i.^.^in., 1*5 pp. I'tiila 

M. ll«"l. I.lppincotl to. .1^. 

POLITICAL. 

L'Emplpe Llbi^pal. By Kmilc 

tttlir,, ,- - I : -.1 ' 1,1. 



1-' PP. 



Blsmapck. 

•n/ .M I! 

pp. .\i. 

L o de li 

.icriioi.r 

La Crlse Sud-Afplcn ; 

Pr. A. Knuprr. 7i»:4^iii.. ii' 

l*j.i*i*tri l^'^• 



Pcrnn. 1^ 
La ConquAte de I'Afplque. II) 

Jean Dapoy. T] ..tii".. -t'l" pp- 
I'.irl-, Ilnm. I'crriii. I- r.:i..yi. 

REPRINTS. 
■WopkslSBi^ ilu.yt 

Society. III.. 

•i-i.. V,.v . , ,, 



;^ i^.., . 

/ 1 CK' If. 
l.llMMlM.) 



Cometh Up As 

U/iotlu ItrOii'.iM' 



< oniiiry 



The Dewy Moi ... 

MacmlllHii. 3". Gd. 



Max Herpfoed's Dpeam. Bv 

lulif : p.< larki;.!;"! 

L'Hxp I'oupleset 

I- visions qu'oUe 

I ii'iixl'iiu' I'iirl ic ti'- 

 Obicctive. HxAiloli'li'' 

ti;../.. :: .";;in.,lil8iip. I'arls. P.dn. 

Ali'all. Kr.lli. 

L'Annue Socloloiflciuo. I'ulilj. •• 



SPORT. 
Cplcket. (Tli(^ Spiiris Llbniry.) By 

T. C. Cu//i/i(/,- and Otlii^rs. Tlxiln., 

170 pp. bonilnn. II**!. I ii win. 2n. Bd. 

THEOLOGY. 

The ExposltoP. (Sixth Serif", 
\ ' I 1 Ivl. l.y If. R. Xicoll. LL.1). 
', ,,iin.. )7i; |ip. 

IImI.i. -.v -I.. Million. :-.!■■]. 

Tho Second and Third 

KphitloK of St. Puul to tho 

Copli  "'•>./. tl. Krnnrdy, 

II. 1 1. iip. Mctliiiun. 8s. 

.iAPHY. 

Tho Toiiiplc Chupch and 
Chapel or St. Ann, &o. Bv 
/■, iT : /■.'.'<. ::■.! I'M. :'. 



.;/„,.;. I., 

IIiii iation. 1-. 

Blaok'sOui . . . : Liiohestep. 

mil Kd. I..1. 1/y A. H. JlvjV. 

Monrrirff. 7> I'in., 81 pp. Black. K. 

TRAVEL. 

Among' the Himalayas. '2nd 

K.I. n% M'ljor I.. A. H'<i,Ulitt. 

l,L.Il..■^•.L.^S. »i.:.-.liii.. ».'.'.' pp. 

lorMlahle. IK 
Cyclln«r In the Alps. Hy C. I.. 
FrifHtuii. "i Sin., '•'ill pp. 

(tpatit. HIrhanlH. .*>-. 

The " Overland " to China. Hy 

.(. K. ColqiihoHii. MxS|ln..ia5pp. 

Harper. 10s. 



Jitcr.iturc 

Published bv ZhC ZunCS, 



No. u:j. HATUUUAV. JULV U. ll«»'. 



CONTENTS. 

I'AOK 

NOTKS OK THK DaY 11>, »>, 21. '«, 'Zi 

i'KUsoNAi, Views— Villiers de L'Islc-Adain, by WilliHin 

Sharp 24 

1'oi:m-"To Art," by Ian l>. Colvln ;. 24 

(.'ohoUB SiMll.KH, by Kth»'l \V'h«'«lor 2r> 

T.Mii.K Talk oka (rK\i:\ v\ Xi\, Iiv rrnml^ fliiliM.- at 

Ukvikwh— 

The Triiiisitioii Pcruxl 27 

The " Overliiiid " to C'hiiui a* 

Smiie TopoK''HphicHl Books — 

IlliHtnil»l Historical II^iiuilMKik to C'IiuIhoii— Hwcol lluiupvtcail 
uiui h' A-^-nrinrinn^ IT!-<tr)r)- of STirTfV ChH'^l rhiirrh 

Wop . ■■'  ;■ . ,■ 

Hiii.l 

unci \ I 

cniiiiinii- . -. :is. a», :*• 

The Wi'slmiiwter BioKninhleH— Sevon OiirdoiiH iind « fhilnoo Thf 

HooL of I iitnlrniiih: Tiluiiki>\-Uv An Introduction to Knifli-h 

\' A Sportswoman in Inniu - 

( 1^— Tn<t Uunl I^ind Iterliuu- 

». uro ao,3i.32,:« 

IjudysmiTb Trpiisiiry— AlTicnn Niifhts— Should She Ha%-e Spoken t- 

QiiMt of Ur. Kiwi -Story of Hn KxtancU ;fl 

CoKKKjtixiNDKNiK The AlleK<'d I>i'oa,v of Kiible Writing (Mr. W. H. 

Chcfoon) (inininmr I'. Idiom (Mr. ^\ . CairiMt ^| 

AUTUOR.S AM) PUIILI.SHKII.H S4, 35, 3ti 

List of New Books and Reprintb 3U 



NOTES OF THE DAY. 



Olio by one the olil imis to which so ninny oH'tnories cHng 
arc coming into tho market, iisiinlly to Ihj swept awny 
of altered btiyoiid rtH-ognitlon. Many such cases have coimj 
to uotico during the present wo<>k. Tlio B«!ll at Edmonton, 
wliich will shortly come under the hammer, is inseparably 
connocttHl with Joliii (Jilpiii, but it also recalls the 
last years of Charles Lamb, who lived and died alM>nt a milo 
away, in Bi»y Cottage, and, when any of his friends visit<Hl him, 
uso<l to drop in at the Bell on their rettirn and take a parting 
gl(,ss — usually of porter— with thetn. The churchyard stands 
close by his cottage, and it is recordctl that about a fortnight 
l>eforc his death he pointed out to his sister the spot at which he 
wished to Iw buried. Hero ho now lies, under a simple, turf- 
covered mound ; and his sister sleeps in the same grave. 
•  * • 

The sale, too, is animuncod of the Old Bull Hotel at 
Kochester, where the Pickwickians staye<l on their arrival at 
Eochoster by " Commodore " coach from London ; while the 
Golden Cross Ilotcl at Chariiig-cross, connected with the coach- 
ing house from which Mr. Pickwick atid his friends starte<l on 
their travels, is to be sold by auction. The Old Bull remaitis 
practically unchanged since the day in 1830 when the first num- 
ber of " Pickwick " made its appearance. There is the large 
assembly room iti which the memorable ball was held, when the 
encounter took place between Mr. Alfred .Jingle and Dr. 
Slammer, with consequences which might have been disastrous to 
Mr. Winkle ; thciv, too. are still preserved the lx>d rooms of the 
Pickwickians, and No. 17 (Mr. Pickwick's) was the room which 
Dickens himself frequently occupied. At the Golden Cross Hotel 

Vol. VII. No. -'. 



Ill'  i t'} li ' <uliif'r^l o<i (« . 

occiMions into " Darid Coppcrflpld." The original Ooldtm Cro** 

Hotel of DIclceiiH stood i<o«im< yurdn to tb«» «•• ' ' " 
building, and wuh known a* "The Bull and .M 
III its iKkliuy days a* a ooikchiiig bouw>. It faced ili.' I>ig «uiw "i 
King CharloK at Cliaring-cnMw, Imt wma rnoiovvd to inakr ua) tor 
the laying out at Trafalgar-aquarr, and deKoitoratflil into a rail- 
way partH'lH oWce. Wheatler. In li 
Present," quotes " .\n i'Xi-<'lli"iit New I 

lamentation over tlie (iolden CroM, Chariug-cro<w," Attribglcd 
to Magiun : — 

No moro the roacbm ohatl I »•«• 

Come trundling fmoi the yard. 
Nor liear the horn blouii ehtwrilr 

By brandy-bibbing guard. 
Kin(: ' 'i*t lOiTow Mn> 

K\.- >taae. 

When left by all h\% friend* of yore. 
(Like Tom Mo<ir»;'s rtwic) al"i  
• • • 

What would we not give to htmr Old Kugliab " aa aha 

was s|>oke," to hear Chaucer's lini~> read as ho hin:--" ' 

them ■; That, unfortunately, can never lie ; but we r • 
to the phonograph, preserve for posterity the upeecli 

and Profes,sor Joseph Wright Ims the credit of |»erci- „- t 

realizing the groat service to literataro which can be rfndered 

by the phonograph. His  i ' i ' 

second volume has just Ix- 

th<« np|>earanco of the Brat volume, only Jnat in time to arrest 

the fast-<lying provincial spec' ' V' ' ' '" «_ -i 

cerlulii tliat the dinlcels ol 
slow, hut snre, deeay under the 

and railways. In connexion with hi?. 1.'.- 1. - - 

has been enterprising enough to sot about collecting al>oat 5no 
|,, 

■■'■'..' 

a Graminur of Knglish Dialects on which, w^ ar« glad to learn. 

ho is engaged. 

» » • • 

Professor Wright has devisrtl Bftcon sentence* ct 
honioly English, with careful instructions as to how they »r« 
to bo spoken into the phonograph. Whether the troe rustic will 
l>o efjual to the task of mastering these 
doubted, and there will always lie a dang<'< 
his dialect for the occasion, just as bo insists on poUing on hi* 
best hat to have his portrait taken. Wo are not at all snre that 
the etiucated man. who, like the late Rev. H. Kiirn«»au\. Iij« 
thoniughly mastered a dialect, would not 

talk into the phonograph. But the rustic, «•. .., , - 

under guidance, and Professor Wrigkt kaa alr««dy. wio aader- 

stand, succeede<l in obt < 

mens. His idea is to I 

public institution, and students oC language owe him an imin«i>- 

debt of gratitude for the eoargy mud abili* 

tackling this difBenIt subject (4 dialect, a > 

made entirely his own. 



...I. : -I. u.. 



-^' 



LITERATURK 



[July 14, 1900. 



The^Hflo-.^ '■ .ir •..-.•ins t.i \i-. :i <|M-oi;vlIy goo<l mmi- 

ber. PpHmiimi ■•( nm-t iiii|H)rt.uic<' in it is Mr. tJosso's 

article on '• I'lilUin- ami tlio Small Nalionr.." which skotohcs llio 
preaent conditiim of cultiin* in I)<-iiiii:irk, SwchIcii, uml Norway, 
andliasants the th<>ory that ciiltiin- will fliul its truohome in tho 
•quail nations, where it is not oppri'sMsl and coarsenoil liy woalth, 
btrength, and activity. Lii<ly Londonderry gives sonio corre- 
sptmdenco of much ]>er!)onnl interest aliout the great fast lerenp;h, 
who. she thinks, has nov<>r had his due. For his action during 
tho NaiHiU-onic war »" ^h deservos the epithet great ; l>nt 

)M>sides his later i. '.y there were two circumstances 

V  stood in iIk' way of his being one of the great llgures 

.1 .1 history— he was no orator, and he was never Prime 

Minister. Mr. Mallm-k WTites, under the beading " The Limita- 
tions of .\rt," on tJje purpose novel, ami to his jiajjer we lio|)e to 
return. Two otlier literary articles — one on " Heroic P<K>try," 
by Sir Alfre<t Lyall, and another on " Souio Minor Miseries of 
» Book-lover," by Lady Warwick — are not specially striking. 
 «  • 

Apart from criticism the Review gives us three imaginative 
— a poem by Mr. .lohn Davidson ; a tale by Mr. Maurice 
lit .vlfit, showing his usual picturesque skill and a twenty- 
minute^' .-..riii-dy by Mr. Hamilton .\ide. There is also a 
verse translation from the G<><)rgics by Lord Burghclere. Mr. 
Davidson's poem " E<'logne of the Downs" is full of rich poetic 
speech and finely modelle<l blank verse. But there is a certain 
formlessneKS in its conception, and we cannot get away from the 
artificiality of his method. Why should Lucian, Urban, and 
Kustace spend their time on the Downs in describing to each 
other the scenery ? Here, by the way, is a j)assage which shows 
Mr. Davidson realizing the opportunities of a poet in ilils age of 
nM>ehanical invention. 

Sphinx is now 
A symlKil of the Tniversc ; her call 
The qneries U'/uit and IHij/, intolerably 
Hurletl into my ears at inauspicious 
Tim*."*, with subtle craft and iteration fell, 
More vehement than a tunnel-ncjiring train, 
A factory whistle at the break of day. 
Or siren of a liner in a fog. 
.  * • 

Wljutevcr the future of South .\frica may be, it is pi'<'lly 

certain that at the close of the present war the old national 

- will " l>e ready to vanish away." One need not Ik; a 

1 •> fe»'l a touch of tho jiathos with which the Afrikander 

will now recall his national hymn, a translation of which we 

I Ivi. liclow. It is not the hymn of the Transvaal or of the 

-I,' Free State, but it tnay be taken as the jMilitical con- 

 ]i of faith of the Afrikander Bond, composed soon after 

'-titution in 1880. It is included in a collection of original 

i . lilten in the " Taal," galhen'd from different sourit>s 

II I. '>'jtx, and first published in 1888. It was composed by 
 i' !• i'anncvis, and has lx?en set to music for four 

1 i ;■ ■■!■ .1. S. ill- Villiers. The translation is by 
. (iranilinet. It is a |)erfectly literal one, and shows how 
y tho phraseology of the one language can be transiH)s«'d 
into that oC the other : — 

THE AFKIKANDEU VOLKSLIID. 

Kach nation has its native land ; 

We dwell on Afric's barren sand. 

To tts there is no s|iot so dear, 

Tho whole w^>rld over, far or near ; 

Otir pride and glory to proclaim 

" South Afric's children " is our name. 

Rach nation has its native speech ; 
As far as I ' I reach 

W«» •ponV i;il so dear, 

i^re. 

<rs spoke 
Sails wroll enough South Afric's folk. 



Each nation has its laws, which tell 
How gtKKl to do and evil quell ; 
Tliese laws are fram'd with such intent 
As lit eadi nation's nat'ral bent ; 
Ho do our laws the uimmIs provide 
Of those who in Sonth Afric bide. 

Each nation has a right to l>e, 
K'en though but |xH>r and weak as we. 
There is a Fow'r which governs all 
And makes tho proudest tyrant fall ; 
He watches thos*,- that press us hard, 
But will South Afric's children guard. 

Kach nation has a time to stay. 

To grow ill strength and then decay ; 

Our times are with the Lord, and wc 

Know that what is, is best to bo ; 

Our day will rise, though long tho night — 

South .\.fric trust.s in Uo<rs own might. 

The one groat Go«l holds in His hands 
Tlic fate of nations and of lands ; 
He gives to ciich their sepai^t6 speech. 
Their home, their rights, their time to each. 
Who this forgets will rue the day, 
O Lord, be Thou South .\fric's stay I 
  »  

One of the native .Japanese newsiiaix^rs, the Kokuntin 
Shimbuii, has s unique feature which will assume imiwrtance 
at tho present moment — an international dejiartment, 
printed in English and other Eurojjean languages, with the 
object of facilitating the interchonge of views between foreign 
residents and the .Japanese themselves. This paper is edited by 
Mr. J. Tokntomi, who a short time ago paid a long visit to this 
country, making the acquaintance of many prominent men. 
The ;5,0()0th issue of the Kohiiniit Shiiiihn,, w-as a remarkable 
jiublication, consisting of tlfty-four largo pages as well as 
two very admirable and charact<Tistic full-page illustrations. 
Tlie Press of .Ja|wn, le<l by such journals as the Kuhimiii tfhimbmi, 
has am|)ly justified tho removal of the irksome restrictions 
that formerly hamitered the free development of Ja])anese 

joiu-nalisni. 

«  • « 

\ corr<'s|Kiudent writes : — " Aprojios of Mr. Archer's 
recent remark in his lecture on Ibsen that the dramatist may 
have had another ending in his miiul wln-n he lj<'gan to write 
77ic Doll's Hoime, it is interesting to renieml)er that a version 
of the play which ends in reconciliation actually exists. Twenty 
years ago this version was acted everywhere in Germany. 
Instead of Nora's exit and tho famous bang of the front dtwr, 
Ibsen substituted the following : — 

NoKA. We can no limgcr live together as married 
jjeople. (;<xKl-bye. (rtiriis to go.) 

Hki.mkk. Very well then — go ! (Ttikfii UoUl of Iter arm.) 
But, first, you shall sec your children for the last time. 

X(»RA. Let me go ! 1 will not sec them ! I cannot ! 

HEJ.MKB (drauniio Iter toioards the tloor on the left). You 
shall see them. (Oprns the door, atul says »o/(lj/) Look! 
there they sleep so peacefully and unsuspocting. To-morrow 
when they wake and call for ' mother ' they will 1)0 — 
motherlcg» ! 

XouA (tremhling). Motherless ! 

Hfj.MUI. As !/oi( were ! 

NoiiA. Motherless ! (Innvrd gtriiijqlr, tluring which slie 
drojM Iter travellina hag). Oh, I shall commit a crime against 
myself ; but I cannot — no, I cannot desert them I {Sinkn on 
lier kiwet before the door.) 

HKi.MEn (in a toil', tmt jnyful'toiif). Nora I 

(Cii rtnin falln.) 

The alteration was made for a famous German actress who 

<xclaime<l wlien the play was lM>ing ])repared for pro<luction in 

Hamburg, ' I would never have deserted my children.' In 



July U, 1900.]| 



MTKKATrHF. 



51 



1880 IbHCll wroto f<> I<iiiiIm«, tli<> \ i<'iiiic»<' tlii-atnrul iiiauuK'i-. 
Ni-iuliiif; tli« <>ri|;iiiiil t<iiiliii|{ of Sum, iiiiil Ih>kk<'(I Ihnt on IK 
l>i-r[<>riiinii(M> in Vii'una tlio dinnK*' l'<" liirnsclf wa-. 

lor niJKlit- 1mi cancfllfd. From that tlini> it liax 

(icrtnan stngo willi tliu Hninc dociHivu baiiK of tlic d<M>r ns ol- 

wliorc." 

« > - 

" A Writer mi- iiiivs " i-oMiiiiainH in tin' .lir(/iiii- iii.ii mivs 
lHX)k8 anil childiMMrtt iMKiks (p-ncmlly ar«> not tr«iiti>«l with |iro|M-r 
reMjjcot l)y i-PviowiM-s, hut nrn " slanj;lit«'r<'(l in l)atchi-M of from 
tliirty to forty in n singlo ooliimii." As many of tlio |>n|>«T> 
ilpvotod to tho inlt-rosts of liti>rntnri> pons<><Tati> ii|M'<Mnl Hiipplc- 
niontx I'ViTy nutnnni to tlic oliildrcn's gift Ii<n>I<!i, tht? complaint 
NOOuiH a littlf nnroasonahlo ; and if " A Writor for Boys " 
could SCO how much cubic space such hooks oi-cupy in our own 
oHlco in tlio months of October and NovcmlKsr he would realize 
the material difliculty of treating each one of them as if It wcro 
a work of what a |)opular novelist has calleil " colossal " lalionr. 
Moreover, if he read as many of them as we have to read at a 
certain season of every year, he would realize that they are so 
much of a muchness tliat it is not very «"asy for the reviewer to 
llnd anytliinft to say al)out them. 

» » •  

Perha|)s, howi-vcr, the harm ilone is not, after ail. so very 
great. The Iwys always llnd out their favourites. They did 
not nee<l a reviewer to tell them that If. M. BoUantyne w;is 
greater than his eontem|>orarii's, ami it would Ik> vain for any 
critic to try to de|)Ose Mr. Henty from the pi-destal on which 
they have place<l him. Why, then, shtxild the reviewer's 
withers be wrung In-cause he has never explaimsl in a coUunn of 
careful analysis, which no lioy would evi'r read, the reasons 
why Mr. Hetity is gr<>ater than the author of " .lack Harkaway ? " 
On the other hand, the nniewer may urge in self-di>fence 
that, at any rate, ho gives uutre attention to childi-eu's iHMtks 
than did his predecessors. Stevenson's (mh^uis for children got 
nuich more notice from the critics than did thiwe old collivtions 
of rhymes for children which Mr. Lucas disentomlNMl. The 
gravest critics have brought their acumen to bear \\\xin the 
works of Lewis Carroll ; but it is not easy to pictur«> Ur. 
•lohnson similarly analysing " Robinwm Cruso*>," or .Ielln>y or 
Sidney Smith liH>kiug for r«-asons to explain the immense |Mipu- 
larity of " Sandford and Merton." 

Mr. Herlii'n S|>i>ncer, when he issuetl his prograuune of 
" The Synthetic l'hili>so|iliy " a little more than fhirty^'ight 
years ago, antici|iated the " obvious criticism that the sirlieme 
there sketched out was too extensive." By his single-minded 
devotion to his self-imposed task he has not only liv«'d to carry 
out the whole of his vast programme, but even to return to 
revise the earlier portion of his work. He has just completed, 
we learn, the revision of " First Principles." Thus he has not 
only succoe<led in refuting the criticism which he anticipated, 
but has supplie<l a ready answer to the familiar jest that his was 
a " stereotyped " philosophy. Mr. Sjjencer must be use<l to this 
jest, but he was none the less offendiHl when it was r«-|H>at<Hl in 
serious philosophical controversy by his latest antagonist. Pro- 
fessor Ward ; and ho remindeil the Professor that it was his 
pi>verty and not his will that consented to the stere»ityping o( 
the " Syuthctic Philosophy."' 

* * * « 

An immense amonut of work must have gone to the making 
of Miss Hetherington's " Index to the Perio<licals of ISOit " 
{Renew of Hei-ieit'x office, 10s. n.), which classillcs the contents of 
over 180 British and .American publications. The previous 
volumes have alivady proved the immens<> uspfiduess of this 
publication to all litoi-ary peoi>le, and to journalists in jiarticular. 
We cannot help thinking that the usefulness of the Index might 
l)e increased if it recogni/x^d the existence of some of the graver 
weeklies as " Poole " d(xv«. One can understand that all the 
minor popular monthlies have to Ik? treated : for one of the great 
practical uses of the Index is to inform the ctlitors of those 



I.. 



I' 



or tile .Vit^i-* <4 

itrlcntx of wrlnim 

He tft'U 

rnni t«> (hi|" 

"icri I'dftfr. I^t It \mi uddetl, bowi'ver. 

KcneroHily In th" ••'•'•.■- ■■' ■■- — -..i..-. 

ful rerognilioii 

• > > • 

In our recent nrtielo nn WnrtUwnrth •• > ln>k nillsrtor. 
then- was a refen-nce U> the |MM-t'ii lll-tia«(» of hi* book*. A 
r<M>ent catalogue of an aul<>Kraph diniler onntatii' a rurioiu 
|)assage illuHlniting this. The letti-r in from IV <,' 
MiVs — " Wordsworth wan «<> negligiMit n<"> -■ -i' 
as Houthey laughingly expn-sne*! it t<. 
Oreta llall on n vUit, ' To inlmdui*- <•' 
library is like letting a bear into » tolii 
leaves have lK>en a »oun"e of a: ■■'■  w 

worth's time and since; In li'j. '■  ■■! 

the foreftiiger as a [■ • 
to extend to «'ven oi. 
lye our own. 

• • • • 

.\pro|)o«) of the Tbomaon bi-ecnttsnarjr wtiich we mmitianod 
a fortnight ago, a platform i« to be orvrtod on Bdnaa llaoyli. 
op|)osite the Manse whom the poot vmti bom, and in aiftlt of tb« 
monument raised to his memory. A local |MM>la>> 
half a dozen quatrains " In Praiw of 'Mnl«« Bi 
e<iualle<l, he wiudd have uh iM'lieve, ! 
Byron, Hogg or Wordsworth. He g'-' 
jmrisons, as thns:— 

Xor Shelley <•. I,U ,.;,|,lr skIS 

Off the 1 rt>. 

Ne'er gave ili'- «..ii.i u grander ■•li.iiu , 
Nor Homer long before. 
» • • • 

.Mr. F. G. Kitlon writ«'>i : — " It is with much rttrn'l I hvini 
that ray st«teuM>nt r«>garding tlH« authorship i4 Thr 
Syljili proves tu bo Ineurrcct, and tiiat what I hf - 
valuable discovery turns ont to be a ' marp'* nrat.' 
two copies of the play which I have seen '- - ■'■ 
conil)e'M * British Theatr<>,' and Lncy's • .\ 
anonymous, and the only clue I  
the critii-ism (qiuiled by n¥>) that .. 
It now transpir<>s that I 
was written by T. .1. t 
' Vanity Fair,' and, as the initials 
Lomloit, I hastily arriveil at the c 
one litrrorti Thackeray, the famous ' 

the subject, however, eiwbled me to > . - .'•... i- 

villo's error res|M>cting the name a( the compoaer ol the aia»ie 
for the little ' m - ' 

« • • 

A con  
able and a I 

from literary history from ^ •■ ( aa acane a^eit) to a 

notable Hoi di.-witif voyager of  day. Ttie pa«t rear In 

America has seen a curious case of the k o( a 

youth calbnl William Jativ— >■• (•'■•mI, who sni '"^ 

especially in Boston, with 'f his rvii 

and adventures in the rcnion-«i comer* ■■! iii>- v...ii>i. »»..■• 
method of Reid's was to invent interviews with non-«xiMrat 
|X>rs<ins. An article on t! " '''•«»or who had 

met with a wonderful r.\<  a New York 

paper. All efforts to Hntl this i «ho «t»» viid to »>o 

visiting Boston, wvre futile, th' -r. s« w^ll s» fh»» 

pigmies, Ijeing an ii. 
as a rule Reid's :i 

ex|»eriences. In the Itofton Home Jomrnol he ran 
articles ou his travels in S|«ain. From th'- fir-t t 



±> 



UTERATUHE. 



[July 14, 1900. 



■■Uwi writtilw in Rtrid's e^^y. mubm teisK ap«)t «-rone ; but 
■• tike (eaarsi tone <>( the articJaa «m litorary, lie Miippo-MMl 
tkat Umm wer e WFr<>ly th<> eroeiitricitip^ o( ftvniiiN. Uuly u fow 
.< I he art!r>«^ hint »iOfii puhliiilitMl before pr»a»lor8 wrote to VMiiiit 
(■.ireiilly kiK-w iiolliiuK of tlio pliHt-s lie 
.1 work is a IhmiW of 50U |>a(ces on Ion 
i.Miri , \  riu.Mi_;li I iievplortsl Asia," with u man named 
iUiruu, in tlii' .warn IMU auti 18iH. TIiIh book, pulilislifU lawt 
autumn by a Boston Umi who had accepted it in koo<I faith, was 
qaite a revelation to Reid's friends, who were nntler the impres- 
hion that they saw hiui again and ngaiu in the i>el)(liliourlioo<l of 
BcMton at tiM> time when he s4iys he was making his 11,000 mile 
journey through A-ia. The obvious improbability of this biKik 
le<l to Kcid's cxpoiiurc by the Brooklyn liiiily Kngle." 

• * « « 

Kostand's L'Aiglou is already beiuK adapted as an o|M>ra, 
and the rumour that Cynino d« Jieryfi-ac is also to 1h) 
preMiiled upon the musical staxe is not nnoxpected. Cyi-auo, 
with its heroic style, itsstrouK flavour of bombast and rhetoric, 
is • play u<Unirably suited to show off all the brilliant combin- 
ations of the modt'rii orche.stni. If the rinuour turns out to iMi 
tnie, we «»n only ho|)e that the com|K).ser who writes the opera 
\<-\\\ lie wi>rihy of all the dr.iinatii- situations with which he will 
liuxc to cope. In the right hands a most effective trio might Imj 
made out of the Iwlcony scene, where Cyrano prompts Christian 
with floe siH.'echt's to win the hand of Hoxane, the lady with 
wlHim he is de«p*?r.itely in love himself. It would require a master 
to wrltemusic for the still more pathetic situation in the last act, 
where Roxane discovers the real author of Christian's love- 
letter— the dying Cyrano, who reads it at her request in the 
twilight, and, as iLirkness obscures the words, recites from memory 
the Impassioned sentences which had been prompted by himself. 
What an op|iortuiiity fur the dramatic musician ! 

• » * * 

The opera has always lH?en in close connexion with the play 
in France. Moliere himself would scribble off words for a little 
pastoral o;x'rrl/e for the diversion of Louis XIV. Rousseau, the 
father of melodrama, was an opera writer, and Marmontel, when 
tbe public found his plays n little insipid, would call ii|K)n 
Runeaa to collal>orate in an o|H-ra. Beanmnrchais' plays, 1,4: 
H<irbu-r df Si-rille -.iml Figiiyo, art: even l»etter known in their 
operatic form. Hugo's Ernani and I.e Roi n'aniuiie lin<l 
hardly the jiopularity all over Kurojie of Verdi's musical 
ada|>tations — Krnani and liiijoletio. Have not the tunes of 
Im Trariiita given mor»> pU-asure to different nations than 
Dumas' play />i iMime nux I'nmeliax, on which the opera is 
Ijancd ? The language of music is universal, and p<>ople who 
csnnot follow a play in a foreign language can listen to a good 
tone of any nationality. 

« *   

DiAuntrnlf ilrr h'rinirn is a new p<'riodical «><litt«d by Marie 
Lang and piiMislied :it \'ienna. It reveals a cMirious slate of 
thiaipi aa to the |H>sition of women in (>erman-s|)eaking countries. 
In Mime towns no girl <ir woman walking iiiiacconi|>niiied is safe 
from iMilico inquisition. A certain Dr. Ilciliiig<-r assures the 
public uf the terrible condition of things that the eiiianci|)at ion 
ii( wooM!!) has brought about in this country, where w<imen are 
mayors, Ju<lg(.>s, and profesitors, with the sad result of the 
destruction of the faiuilyand the entire loss of domestii; comfort. 
Dr. Lueger, however, abs<ilves Kngland, and sees in the emanci- 
)>ation of womeu an invention of the .lews. But the same journal 
shows that, in spite of thene follies, much useful work is iM-iiig 
doo* ia a quiet \my by the women's societies and unions in 
Austria. There is a careful bibliography forming a fortnightly 
record o( the books and articles dealing with the intercstsof women. 

• • • • 

Thry certainly understand the art ol literary celcOiration 
and lieoefaclinn in Poland. It is alsmt a yc-ar and a-half ago tJtat 
PalMid sabscribed no less tluin £'JO.00<) r<ir a monunu-nt of Adam 
Miekicwicz cm tlie occasion o( the centenary of his birth. .\nd 
imm we read tiiat the Inhabitants of Warsaw have agreed to 
, Hienkieskics with a gift o( laniied property (for which a 



largo sum lias already VHH>n sulmcrilM-d) to celebrate his Jnbilee. 
The Jubil<>e ceU'hrations are to lake place next November. 
SienkiewicJ! has ulrendy many admirers in .\merica and in tbis 
eouiilry who may l^fl inclined to ccintrilinte. .Mr. hklnuiiid tiosse 
may Uiid h<>re iiii illiisii-alion of the thtHiry which he discU88t>s in 
the .l>i;;li>-.s'ii.viiii liri'irii' that it is the little |M^o])les who are the 
el«M.'t in the matters ol the spirit. 

 » * • 

.\n autograph letter of Byix>i) which eoiucs under Messrs. 
Sotheby's hainmei- next we«>k is dulinl Astoii-hall, liotherliam, 
OctulMtr 4, I8K(, and is addrcssinl to Mr. John Miin-ay, his 
piililisher. The |)oel gives this explicit inslniclioii : — " In the 
pr«K>f fiMiu the ' Cui"se ' alter this line ' Wlios*- arts and arms 
liut live in poet's lore ' to ' Whose arts revive, whose anus 
avenge no mor«".' Rememlier lliis." The strange fact in con- 
nexion with this )Hirlicular letter is that the lines have ucver 
Is-eii altemMl. In the Byron ('did'oii dc tuxe now lj(>ing is8ue<l by 
Messrs. Murray the lino i-emains as if the letter in question h:id 
nevi-r liei^n |)<>nnwl ; neither is allusion made to it in the corre- 
s|M>iidciice. If wo mistake not, Mr. Krnest Hartley Coleridge 
some lime ago examined the letter on tx'half of the publishers, 
.•iiul, |»i)ssil)ly, in future issues the line \vill np|>e»r as revised by 
Bynin. .\t present there is nothing to show, tirst of all, why 
llie instruction was not carried out, and, seconilly, how the 
letter passt^d out of the llrm's hand. Kor some yoars, \\t? 
iK'lieve, it was in the possession of one of the Whitliivad family. 

 »   

An interesting and rare book is included in Mr. Quaritch's 
recently issued Part VII. of his " Catalogue of the Literature 
and History of the British Islands." This is a copy of the flrst 
edition, 1584. of Ueginahl Scot's " The Discouerie of Witchcraft," 
one of the select volumes that have lieen condemned to lie burned. 
Scot's work was the first real attack in Kngland upon the popu- 
lar lielief in witches, and raiw<l a great cominotioii. One of the 
many to enter the lists against him was none other than James 
of Scotland. The King ])ublished a counterblast under the title 
of " Diemonologie," a copy of which alsollgures in Mr. Quaritch's 
long list of works on this subject. When Jaine^ eaine to the 
throne of Kngland he revenged himself by condemning his op|>o- 
neiit's liook to the flames. Scot's work is a fair slateiiient of the 
case for and against wiUrhos, without any of the Uorrilile details 
which generally make the reading of the trials so offensive, aud 
he finishes every section of his argument by showing the utter 
iniM'asonableness of the whole superstition. That a consider- 
able Isidy of public opinion was even then on his side is clear, 
for in his observations on human credulity he i-»'inarks : — 
" HowlM'It yon shall nndei'stand that few or none an" thoroughly 
(lersuaded, resolved, or satisllo<l that witches can indeed .iccom- 
plisli all those Iin|)0«HibilitIes ; but some are liewitcluid in one 
|H)int and some co/.ened in another until, in flne, all these impossi- 
bilities and many more are by s<'veral iM'i-sons afflrim-d to Ix* true." 

 »  » 

Several matters of moment came liefore the Congress of 
Archieological Societies Inst W<'<liiesdiiy. Mr. .1. Willis-Bund 
d«-alt with the British Museum Hill, and expressed himself as 
generally in favour of local depositories for local records; and 
as chairman of the Worcester County Council he was glad that 
they had just ex|)ended £1,200 on record-i-ooms for their own 
purposes. But Mr. Bund regarded it as a mere dodge of the 
Trc-asiiry to ex|HK;t them to llnd house-room for t lie casfc-offs of 
Hie British MusiMim nnU-ss they were provided with the funds. 
And there was also the difllculty of proper custody and 
proper inspection. Sir John Kvans, who presided at the 
Congress, is a British .Museum triisU-o, yet he had no hesi- 
tation in opiiosing I he luunner in which this permissive 
Bill was drafle<l, aud lie admilted that, if the compara- 
tively modest plan for extendiug tlie buildings at the 
British Museum was only carried, there would lie ample 
room in the basements for the r«-tentioD of all they were now 
receiving for a long time. A resolution was nnanlmously carried 
asking the Treasury to press forward thi' new buildings at the 
Museum as rapidly as (lossible. 



July 14, 11)00.] 



LITEKATLKE. 



ss 



I 



nil till' I 
(inon- <H 

I In* IM'IMl** 

rllrl iHilH-ra 
(i~<lal>ll>lii><l 
iili«» liriH' |ir< 
friifi-riiitv U 



Thodo who aro lnh^r*»«t<>*l In tho kiibjivt of Dr. Cox'n impcr 
uhich npiM'iiitHi in thf-w i-iiliiniiiK ii w<n<I( or two ii;^ will follow 

1li*» <'<)iir'M( of tin- Hill lis lo rii^i4Hly of illiMN'Haii n riN !ilr«'nily 

rarrl<"«l tlirtiiiKli llic lloiis<'of LoriN, to wlili'li tin- Ai'<'liii>ii|i>{;i('(il 
CoiiKn'M)! also dovoU'il conHliliM'silili- ( iini'. It »«« «iiiil to liiivr 
Ikhmi Kii(;;;('><t<'(l liy rlio Hislinp of I.oiiiloii n( tli<- rocotiiim-iKliilioii 
of (he KiM-li'MJiistliMl I 'oii)tni'>-ioiici-«. Mr. W, I'li^i' miid iliai ||ii< 
Bill |irovi(lf<l for " rlif Hiilfli-irnl IwumiiiK of ilitM-ixoin riH-nrd* " 
liy the l<^'<'lrsiuxt.i(-»l ('oiiimlNNioiiprH, iipiMirciitly frtiiii (heir fiiii(l>. 
ThJN >viiM itxe<>lli>iit, liiH till' Bill ill HfVKi-ul |Hirli<'iilur>i nun niilii>r 
.va){ii<>. It pmvidi'il lliiit (li<> C'oiiiiiiiMHioiii-rs mIioiiIiI llii-iii-M-lvi-H 
settio what won? " diorcHiiii " ii-cordi, and if Ifn-y pnividcil llii- 
iiioiu-y tlioy would Ix' ti-inptcd to iniiiinii/<-. An-liidiui-onnl and 
(irciiliar iiiiiiiiiiii-iilH ai'O llttio known and ar<> far wors«> looki'd 
aftrr than opiscoiiul rcconls. Mr. Pagf fi>iir<>d that lli*>w. wliii-li 
iiro of nwat valin-. wonlil imiI como nndi-r tin- word " diiM'<'«.iiii." 
Mr. \V. 11. St. .loliii llo|H' said that episcopal ii-roiiln w«>ri' in 
Kfi'at daiiK<*r. Soiim> that li<> knew wi-if ini'iidy Ntort'd in lln'Hitk* 
w<H>d<'n (MiplKiarils in an oiiliiiary oIlU-o. Itcfi-ii'iuf whs inadv to 
Dr. I'ox's nrliclc in Lilrriiliirr as ti> their y;r<'at valiif. A coni- 
initt4H> wns n-rpiitly :ip|Miint4<d by lli«> First Ix>rd of tli«< 'rr«'a»ury 
to in(|iiir<> Into and r^iiort ns t<i local roe«rd"< p'iM'nilly and tlioir 
pres«Tvation. This was doiio at the MiKf;<'stloii of hiHt y«>»r's 
•'oiiffii'ss. On WfdiH'sday iho <-i>ii;;r<'ss d<'i'i<li>d to ask IIm- 
(JovorniiH'iit not to pi-<ic«>fd with the Oiooosan l!<'<-ord Bill niilil 
1liis ivjMirt has iMs.n pis'sonto*!. 



.1 Mr. I'.. 
Thl- In 



r w. *r. < 

>. A I. . 



,\ i-nn '".] lU'iM \\ r M I's : 'rlu' /)(li/;/ .\'F'> .'t .1 iiiM- .i M li. Ill a 

lirit'f articl<> mi " (Vrlain Dirkons ClnliH," sjiys that " at last, 
:ift«'r thirty yi-ars. roiiios the Boz Cliili. is>iM'nlly fornird out of 
thp fraiiniciits of ' Bo7."s ' most cln'rishod survrviiiK frii-nd*." 
The iilliiNion is to a wlcot p;athoriiif; of thoso who kin>»- Dirkriis 
in the fl<^sh, who met to diiio loeolhor at llit> AthcmiMini Cliili 
liy invitation of Mr. Pi'n-y KilzK<'r.il(l. hiin-olf an inliiiif of tlio 
.i:reat novi-list. Tln> party consistoil of Mr. Man-ns .Sloiio, l{..\., 
the illustrator of " Oiir Mutual Frioiul " : .Mr. Luke Kildtj-s, 
11. .\., tlip illustrator of " K<lwiii nriHMl " ; Mr. .1. ('. Parkiiisi>n,a 
1-oiitrilnitor to All tlw Yriir Hoiiiul ; .Mr. .Vshby-Storry, a wpitor 
<m Diokt'iis topics and Dickonsian lo|)OKr»pliy ; Mr. Oharlcs 
Koiit, who won Dickens' friendship Ihroiiuh a kind and appre- 
ciative review of " Doniliey and Son " ; and Mr. K. (J. Kitton, 
who never saw DIcki-ns, lint has priMluced many volumes 
relating to " the master." Other gnests wei-e th<> novelist's 
son, Mr. Henry KieldiiiK Dickens, QA'., Mr. ('lenMMif Scott, 
lyord Sliaiifl, Lord Herries, tlio Hon. Mr. V<>rnoM, and Sir .1 Ames 
t.'ricliloii Browne. I am not aware, however, that the iiitor<«!it- 
iiij; event has oriKinated, or was inteiiiled to inaiiKnnite, a 
*' Boz Chil)," as the Dnily .Wicn suKKfsts, though it is to l><> 
hoped that such a dnli may Ikj the result of the Atheniviini 
<linner. An tlio /)(ii7!; .Wicii iioints onf, fhert^ are nonrishiii); 
Dickens t^lulis elsewhei-e, notably that fonnried in B<istoii. 
U.S.A., by Mrs. .Adelaide H. (Jarland (its Pnsidcnt) in IWM. 
This is essentially a ladies' ccnifraternily, and christened the 
" .\11 Around Dickens t'liili " : it iininlM>rs nearly ei){lity niemlM-rs, 
while anions the lioinn'ary inemlH'rs we lliid the iiaines not only 
of Dickens' near relatives, lint of those who are distiii;:iiis|ii>d 
in literature liotli in Rnirland and America. The Dickens Club 
at Birminjjliam is, I liclieve, the only other cliiti Iwarinjt his 
name ; it was founded some years aj(0, and is kept alive by small 
subscriptions to cover working expenses. Like its kindre<l 
society at Boston, it promotes the study of Dickens by means of 
original jiaiwrs on Dickens topics at evening ineetiiiKs, and 
readings from his works. The Dailij .Wic.s omits to mention the 
" Pickwick Social Society," founded nearly three years ago by 
n few Dickens admirers in T^ondon. This siviety has for its 
object a monthly meeting of memtiers for a social evening, con- 
sisting of readings from " the master's " works, inters|iorsod 
with music and conversation, B<>giiining as a private iriiiiiuii, 
application for momljership quickly pimivd in. until it be<>aiiH> 
necessary to obtain more accommodation. The " Pickwick Social 
Society " was al«o forme<l for charitalile pnr|Kises, and has 
alr«Mly assisted many deserving cases, .-Vt the time of the 



•TheCh. 
Iihilitl lWH»).|fiven liyil - -... 

bill oiu*lleni apropos of lll(>ken«,vlx.,a " 

• • 

Kxactly what it in that .Mr. liiTnird «'.< 
;iIhiiii pliMs ill his nrticif* nil  '■ " -•■'•t<.<'t In ('<., 
lo wliii-li a llr^ •( bis |<a|" 

l'l'>' fai'tory muuiiimi. I'o Im* ihi! 

!•■ is >tr. ('a|M-«' playful \ 
li'ristic ili.iiiii of Ills I ' 

he is writing of (he pl< 
novel without a plot if i|iiii<' 
harilly jnsiiHed by the faciv. i 
Ims-ii distiiigiiislie<l from <-|m 
thai a dnima comes lo an ci ' 
lint Iheri- an* no ade<|uale Knniniis for  
an oir-shixit or sulNlivisIon of the ilroi. • 
as one infers fn>in the early Greek t-^ 
an epic in |imse than a dnma in nnrr^mx- e'tm. 
nith<>r than the O^lipus is its inoilel. I^ter, th* ■>• 
taken the place of Hh' 
the seniion — thrw kii" 
an' usually ilis|M>iised with. N. 
fnnclioiis of TlioK-ritUH, of .Inni 
fnnctioiis can Ik* dischargisl eilln*r with a pi' 
The conteni|iorary tendency, It i> fme. is 
direction of plots. On thir 
has, in the haiida of such < 
and the cr«itor of " Sherlock Holmos " ailalnml 

which would have Ihhmi Ihe envy < ■'■■  ' 

ingenious novelist* <if Ihe age of K' 

resembles that which a o-ntury ol iiin.-hh. 

into nifist mechanical contrivainf"<. B<'t»is.n •• 

the new there 1- ' 

ancient strong Ihi\ 

what one may des<-rilM' .is the 

follows Ihe lines laiil down in Hi' 

its middle, and its end, it" 

iiieni of scenes so as to m 

made gr«'at strides iliiriiig Ihe last li»ll-c<-niiiry. I 

nolnble literary iiiiiovations it prolwldy came (nMn 

all evenia it was flourishing in Krance licfore ii 

KngLind ; and one can most imsily tr.«— ■•-  

There is no plot, as a dramalisi would n 

the novels of Madame do Stael. The jn .i- ..i 

inchiHite and crudely handled. Hut in Klaulien 

steady progn'ss towards a r 

of the ••sseiice of pl'<l ; 

favourite iiHslel. In f 

to a grtnjt rtr.inialic «ii • 

.Mr. Kail Caine and Mr. Uip 

calibr«> of Mr. Thomas H 

little of Ihe sort in Thackeray or .\nthoi 

Ihe writers of the age anterior to tin-"" 

entirely for the Ix-lter is another r|n< 

it may Im>, arn'sis attention more cer 

that it holds (he attention «» long a-  

one hesitates to say. Most of It ' 

to again and again — fntm " D. 

Pa|K'rs " and " V" 

of climaxes and ^i 

vance of which li ' 

..Rschylus. We ■• 

upon climaxes and surprises, a good • 

etaporatc aftf'  Irsi rcolinL-. and ' 



Im 

• t 

■k 



it 

If 

 rt 



In «ay 

~ i.i„.^ 

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.|. 

iC- 






en 

• •a 
u 



lM> 

'.it 

MS. 

 prrli'<cli«iii 

'■' 'I isl 

lit 

"4 

•d 

.1. 

'h 
li. 

i«n 

"7 
Vt 



in 

1^ 1 1/. M ape 

«f niid that 

i« 



lie 

>a 

at 

is 
si. 
'Ut 
<l9 

ns 
•k 

.id 
■■r- 
tn 
lid 
lid 
 II. 



24 



LITERATURE. 



[July 14, 1900. 



TO ART. 



personal Dicwe. 



The eve hath roiio to sipcp uimn tho lake. 

And ill tho h:<\vlhorii lir.iko. 
8leo|>-lillte<l by his nwii iiicllnw canilliii;; 

With whifli hi> rhnniKsl tlip wixxls the livelong day, 

Ati«l by tho fm;;r,iiit iiieouso of tlio may. 
The la»t s«t>«'t-thn>:ito<l tliriisli lialli ooaso<l to sing ; 

HiKh-mckiii|; |M>|>lar> iiiako 
A gcutle rtiHtliiiK miiriiiiir as (hoy Kuiiifi;, 

Holding; faint o<>iivors<> with tho evening star ; 

Kmni thoin and mo I know thoti art not far. 
Nor thy bright hair from his browu-foathonvl wing. 

Tho earth of her old deities is lon>, 
Xo more tlio tri ton's horn 

Sounds in tlio trniu|M't song of loaping seas, 

L'|>on tho white stones and (irtH'ii waterweods 

No uyniphs sloop now, no more the sound of roods. 

Blown on by Pan U'lioath the pleasant trees, 
.\t high noontide is borne 

Through woodland plaoes on the siiiniiier breeze, 
Xo more tho hi)rdo of iiiorry satyrs twines 
In glad prooession through tho laden vines. 

Singing wild songs in Biu-ohic ecstasies. 

Like sweet may odours at the breath of .luno. 
Or stars liefore the moon. 

Or sunrise glories from tho nioriiing sky 

Before the glad sun's siirftiiiK floixl of light, 
Man's oiirly droams and faiths are vanished quite. 

Or leave ImOuikI tor what was hi>|M> a sigh. 
For earnest (irayors a tune 

Sung without lioedin;;, for tho truth n lie. 

The sunmior and tho moonlight and the day 
Some know not-, but si>;h only : "Well-away, 

The spring, the starlight, the dawn's roses die." 

Yea, they are goni- with them that worsliipi>cd thee ; 

But earth and sky and sea 
Are thy fair temple still, and fair alway 

Are woods and Holds that our fast footsi,;|i> -.jiiin, 

Still night is clad with stars, and still tho sun 
Fills with bright wine tho pit<-hors of the day. 

Yea, fair iiniiiortally ! 
And some there are who to thy prtvincts stray. 

" Why so«.-k vain joys with iiioffectiial pain ? 

And why for shadows sfioiid thy life in vain 
When I have rest and calm ? " they hear thee say. 

Some sec thy soft swcot smile within the stone ; 

To soini> thou hast thy throne 
I" pen the bright orost of a towering song ; 

T . ■.riio thou smilcst with a homely look, 

l;.i>lily with lln'light, in an ingle-nook ; 
To HOOK- thou art where tortiire<l faci>s throng ; 

L'|M)n the city's moan 
Of anguish thy soft voice is lioriie along ; 

To some where tho loud tempostH shout thou art, 

Or in a dewdrop on a violot's heart. 
Or tliou dost slet.p tho dalTo<lils among. 

We only see thy shadow in a dream. 
Or thy white shoulder gleam 

Among the twilight wofKls, then fade away, 
So blind arc we with dust of little things, 
And by the (li-sh so shorn our spirit's wings; 

Thou shin'st a niomenl as the sunlx-iims play 
On bubbles of a stream, 

M'e take thy licht and vanish ev'n as they. 

I' o •KH'H in that brief gleam of light 

'^ r(l wMiro)' divine and infinite. 

And I great thmhbing nout within the clay. 

I AX D. COI.M.N. 



VILLIKHS 1)E i;i.SLE-ADAM. 

As I was tiiriiiiig over the pag«'s of tho recently issued 
Brussels edit ion lU: luxe of w>lect4>d tales by Villiers do I'lsle- 
Adani — and tlic " Histoiros Souveraines " is a beautiful volume in 
its large |>ag(-s, i-loar and llnely set tyi>e, and exquisite gi-oy-ink 
headpiece and t.iilpiooo ornaiiieiits by Th. van IJyssolborgho — 
my glance fell u|>on those w-ords in " Ak8dysa<?ril," an Oriental 
tale in which the young French exi)<->riinontalists of to-day dip 
as though it were indiHid tho fount sought by Ponce da Loon : — 
" La juvenile iK'aiito do S«Hljiiour, en sa blanchour rayonnaiite, 
semblait dollor les toiii-bi-es." I put the Ixxik down, for somo 
vague thoughts of which I had been conscious of late in eoD- 
iioxion with Villiors de I'lslo-Adam had suddenly clarilled. 

Villiers — " the great Villiors," " the noble Villiors," " tho 
incomparable Villiors," as his admirers delight to siM^ak of him 
— was for the most part ignored in his lifetime and adoi-ed since 
he died in poverty and disappointment. One or two famous 
writers helpo<l to make him the fashion, or, at least, a literary 
vogue, for a time. Vorlaine calling him " this incomparablu 
Villiers," M. Maotorliiick doing homage in " noble," and even 
the exact and exacting MallarnuS minting " the groat Villiors " 
for common use. Since then ho has Ikmmi praised hardly this 
side idolatry. So generous, indexed, has boon this praise that 
even those who do not road his writings call him master ; as an 
enthusiast of our London Press, who the other day spoke of 
" that incomparable romance, • Ax6l,* " and alluded to " the 
mystic ' L'.\doratioii dos Magos,' " a work, indeed, promised by 
Villiers, but, unfortunately, never transferis3d from the libniry 
of dreams to the hands of the printer. 

That Villiers was a romarkablo, and, al)ovo all, a stlTiiulating 
writer, is hardly disputable ; that he is still remarkable, and 
still stimulates, is the opinion of tho present writer and 
othoi-s l)ettor lltted to appreciate his i>eculiar excellences 
anil unique distinction. But was he, is he, really a groat 
writer ? Is he, even in his idealism, a clear and convinced 
thinker ? 

I .see that in his recently publisliotl and most interesting and 
suggestive volume of essays on the " Symbolists," Mr. Arthur 
Symons quotes Verlaino to the effect that the greatest of the 
(lii-tle-siecle p(K>ts of Franco was " far from sure " that " tho 
I>hilosophy of Villiers will not one day become the formula of 
our century," \'erlaine, however, is hardly an authority on such 
a point, for he himself had in excess in every <lireetion what 
Villiers had in excess intellectually, an emotionalism akin to 
hysteria rather than to mental and spiritual sanity. Villiers, as 
a matter of fact, had no dellnite philosophy. His mind reflected 
the s|>eculatioiis and drcmms, the tluniglits and spiritual axioms, 
of the gnostics and other mystics of the Asian Ktst ; but from 
" Isis " to '* Axi'l " I doubt If there is a sentence which, in 
8ul>8tance, and, indeed, probably in wording, could not be found 
elsewhere in mystical literature. I romembor when I first 
read " AxPI " 1 imagined that a new gospel of the ideal had 
been sot forth by this master of the white thought and the 
cameo phrase. Here, it seemed, was the revelation of tho poet- 
aeer ; in this fascinating, beautiful, auroral, but unreal and 
fantastic drama of spiritual liio, I believed a lofty symlstlisiii 
revealed the essential ideal. But the interpreter of "a now 
and profound " spiritual philosophy in " Axel " has yet to 



July 14, 1900.] 



UTEKATIHE. 



ss 



-coiiio. ThU Ktmiifrct drnma U r>lot|iml In (NuiiiiiiKil iMtitnty. It 
liaH iiiiiiiy moving; uiul lovi'ly (iliraM-N, uiui tnwurilx thi> cIdm! in 
pnrlioiilar ilixiiliiyM uonviiiciiiK lioaiity uf (lu>ii|{lit nvrull«.Hl by 
Mpiritiiul (Miiiilinii, 1111(1 of <li(!lii>ii cliirilUKl to n imlilx fXf<<lli<iico 
liy |H<rri-cti-(l iirt. Yol (o uv<-r that Villicr* it n |{r**at' tliiiikor in 
*■ AxJU " Ih lo coiifiiiw^ llio ins|>ir<Ml int(>r|)n>t«>r\vitli thoin>i|iiriiiK 
orcalxir. Rvon aiiionK Mn conttMUiMirariiit tlicru wsh a man who 
fhon(clitnll ViitiorM' thnnKlitXi l*ut tlinii(;ht far rooro aonrcliinKly 
and cvaelly- a man, too, wlio IukI iiiiirh of tlio «aiii<> arixlaM-nitli' 
iillitndo towarclH lifr, and was not lesi, iHTliajm nioii', iui|Hi.H- 
Mioiiod with tlio Catholiti idea — a man of wlioiii wo hi>ar littlo or 
iiothiiiK, and yet ono of tho most riMnarkahlu of niiHli-rn Kn-nch- 
inou (witli an incaliMilaljIo innni'nro on certain writer*, an 
.Mai'tcrlinck, for oxampio), Krnest Hollo. When, nx-ontly, I «•- 
ii'ad " .\x<"l " it <K'(Mirrf«l to mo continually that Villiont' 
" thought " iH as mainly a roflox of tlio " thoui;ht " of Hullo an 
liiN o<-ciiltiKm is mainly a ii-flcx of tho iH'ciiltism of ancient K{;>'pt 
and India, colour<Ml liy niodicvul mysticism, in " Axol " ho 
slrovo to unm his lifo-lonp; mystical Ideal, but l)oonuso that Ideal 
was not natively his lint M'lloctod from many kindn'd minds, or, 
nt least, was never iimII/.ihI aiisolnloly of his own mind, it is of 
tlio niinlxiw-pliilosophios, which chanii tho wiiyfariuK imagina- 
tion, but lead only to phantom kooI^*- In " Isis " and olsewhoro 
Villiers kalel)l(isco|M>d fit>ni his memory and imagination what ho 
had n>ad in many Oriental and medieval iHsiks and s|XH-nlat<><l 
nimn in many il^'amy lioni-s ; in " .■Vxel " ho was the |)oot 
inspired (and it must l)o admitted vaffiiely, howtsvor bcauti- 
fnlly) by Hello, as a consnmmato innneiife, as, lot (is say, 
tho impassione<l but vanno siiijjcer of the " Sonpt Boforo 
Sunrise " was inspiivd l>y tho pivfound and exact thinker 
Maz/.ini. 

It was in relation to this as])cet of " tho jjr«>at Villiers " 
that the sentence i|uotod in the o|MMiiiij; clauso struck mo as so 
HiKniileant. .\II his life loiiK Villiers strove " deller lea 
t<^nel>rt<8 " — »trovo to defy, t<> van<|nish tho shadows of tho 
actual, of tho world as we know it, of life as we ex|><>rionco it, 
of tieath as wo fear it. In all his wt>rk, from the " Isis " and 
" Eleii " and " Morjpjiie," of tho early sixties, to the |K>st- 
hnmons " Pro|>os d'.-Vn-delii," of IH\X\, tho distin;;uishin{; 
characteristic is " nne blanchenr niyonnante," a i-adiant white- 
ness hot h of thought and phrase : and, always, us it m*cmH at least 
lo the present writer, tho beauty whii-h he worships and oft«>n 
so nobly reproduces is in>t that masterful, that virile, that sane 
and absolute lieauty which we discern in the ideals and achievt>- 
ment of the jji-eatest, but a l.'^-.'i-. m n.it niiiiu^. ii.iinv, •• l> 
juvenile lH<autu do 8e<ljnonr." 

I have so lonp l)ecn an admiivr of the " C'ontesCrnels " and 
of other work by Villiers as romancist. that T antici|Htted the 
keenest pleasniv from a it^perusal of the twenty selected stories 
in M. Deman's cliarmiii); <'(lJ(ioii dc /ii.rc — and the more s<i as it 
is known that the selection was made by Stephano Mallarmi'-. 
Heiv, it is true, ai-e the ex(|nisit« " Akedyss«''ril," the sombre 
'• Souvenirs (Vcnitos," " L'.\nionr Snpmiie." and other brief 
masterpieces; but, alas, I found that memory (latterj-d. .\ll aro 
the work of a raro artist and a n>markablo mind, but if tho 
sayiny: of a ^ji-eat contem|)orary of Villici-s lie true, " L'art 
robusto seul a rcternite," then is it ilifticult not to lK'li«>ve that 
in another decade Villiers will 1m> only a line tradition in French 
literatui-o, and, )H>rhaps, rt^iiienilK.Mvil only for one sn|M>rbly 
outlined but incomplete creation, the archetypal Tribulat 
Bonhomet. 

WILLIAM SHARP. 



COLOUR 8IMILU. 



In IhU ngf of rTiKTtmciif If l< tint vlr.Krtf Twt niMI* 

rmotiofi that „^ 

inteuHity tm ,y, 

Kveu the primary coloiim of (ha- ^m 

to re-<'hrist«'ii. TIm> fl.Ksir, m . ..jll* 

and roth'," but J. A. mim at* 

" Huflfroii and Ivory. »<■ .• mnafc 

nvont exainpli*. Huh ^^tin 

in colour, iiaiiM's the Imii oi .4I, 

iimlM'r, dun, and pure oiliali." i .tli 

blue, ;;rtsMi, nsl, yellow ; l< iitnl 

terniM to lit the delic!it<' 1 >.,( 

pootH have enlarRisI ntt 

from evi>ry sonrt-e. \V. in 
the Jewel world. The olil S<-uilish |mm'I Uiiiilnr k« inM* of ibn 
llrst to ex|)erimont in this ni>w cM.l.ilti.l n.lil '• TK.- rc«»i« 

ymig," ho sayii, " throw lM'aim-'< •>.•• 

Spens«'r, still porhai** our III'-'  'n* 

countless jewel similes ; Up .1 

overirch a (sirch of rare dc\ ],■■■, ht 

SoiiM* d*H»p (Mi)fMir|*l<sl :i» th(* hyncitiA. 

Soiii' 

SOIIH 

Tho " Kaerio (^iicvu " also yioldn Mirh iiultllr'l><>« »• Ik* 

followinK, wii" ' ((■ i'-'iiiart'» bliiNhliij;. 

her pnn> Ivory 

111'.. .1. 

But tho whi..' ii« mmtriris«>n» nC 

daisies to |>«"arls. nr.iss lo cmutuIcI, Ii r^"», lh« 

sky to mother o'|M>arl, Iwlnnu !■> rv. Mo 

excessive has Ims-ii the Us<'of jeu. n u. . list, 

iiatun* often ms'ius vulir-irinMl, liKf .m ..mi , . njii, 

and our more fastidious |im>lit mfk aewt^r oimiln*. Tbaa IIm 

niinoriil wr>rld has furnished epithets lea* ipiuil^ ' ■-" -■— 

appnipriatn. Christina lionHotli wrilca : — 
Oiil- . - - . . 

Bl. 
nor must Ti'ii • n 

rusted on tin- ^ .m 

■>ccas!onally mot with : thus John Daviils.. 
.\t Eiister when iIm% thorn lw«i>t 
Tho bronr.ini; wtwmI with silv«'r sprays. 
Thus Mathilde Kliiid : - 

Miles anil mile* of taiifiled fern 
Burnished by the sun 
Ulow a cop|M>r dun. 
Tlio iovo of the uiM<<lunito«l for n<>w ml<Hir naiiM*s shanty 
its«>U in tiKi univorsallty in ancient tiii>c« «rf «och » ien« aa 
*' isHileur Is;i1m'1I<>," — in iiHMb-rii tiinen of such a term aa 
" khukiMsilouMMl." S s lh€> iini\. ii-jf. 

iUK the iMinlers of >■■■ (nnn •• i «jr 

eonrtdently e\|>«vt to tliial • "•- 

tiiiH>M the tt^'hnical naiiH's . iMt 

or Kroles<|ue--" yel|ow-<» iM-ini: ii*! 

carmine, in the f..||.i«iii_- !■ kin;;. T -t»- 

shar«>», 

iiino 

Deep not«>s of carmine palwd in unison 
l')M>u the hissing turf. 
There is here, <^ course, a daiiitrr <if artiSeiality : hal, in 
the hands of a 1 ; •■•rly alwayv 

turns to a sin-ees^ 

.XiiionK the c^  rms the BeiKi«n 

p<H't Verhaereii li. ■> work i> ilmisl 

unkiHiwn ill this couiiiry. Vol his is ilie spirit • -••, 

the far-olT jflaiHour, S4> dear to this aRO, the M<crj«f i"«l 

|M>rs|Hs-tivi>s. He embroces, iiior»<over, an e\tr.ior<l .-ly 

of !»ubjects ; — •' L«"> Vis;i;{i-s ilc l:i \'ii' *' show ns 1 ii»t 

I 



26 



LITERATURE. 



[Juh- 14, 1900. 



Imto Um laninnos nuliRiH<«> of • Tiim<>r ; In " Les FlaoMndea " 
lie ha* goae for {ii>pinitinii to tlip old Dutch painters who 
iUamiiMtod )>nita1i(y lir tboir fronUiH. In " Lea Moinos " n 
Tela of UHvlorii M-('|iiiciHin nuci ot nH><lii>>'nI myMtii-ism aro 
ndncled — while witli the pity for nil the e\i|ui!«iteness that is 
dMMi, thero blends a ke<>ii M-:ili/;itii>n of the ^I'ovi iiiaterinlism of 
thf ^' ^gv. Sym|>athies of »» wiilo u nuip- must nin-e-.- 

t»t. .tM> in intensity ; an<l the ]mhmus have the nuMleru 

note of Taipie ni({K**>'tivvneKs. the uuMlcnt pn^-'iou (or Nature. 
VerlMcren'a modernity ap|H>ar> in nolhinp: ho much as in the 
colouiM?xpro(a<i<Hi of his poi>ins. Here he is to a large extent 
a pioneer. He lia-t foriHNl ev<'n rheuiiHtry to yield him 
Ianiriia|:e. He haM i;iveu un Mich terms as " nitre-eolourod," 
•* phi>iplioru>i-o"l"ure<l," " sulphur -coloured." He experi- 
ments. t<Ni. in .siiiiiU's drawn from the world of minerals and 
pr< iKW. }Iis f{old is not the tlellnite and limited gold 

of : aKes, hut the jiold of tlilii .suii-sulTusion, which 

^eenls i.> inter|M>nelrute his very words. Wo read of " Le 
mira^re en or ih~. soirs et des aurores." And here is a jcissafce 
full of the miMh-rn mysticism that greets with rapture the 
uiicMilniiied at the core of the commonest object : — 
Les beaux soirs ilont les Rioires voyof^nt 
Et, s'aeeroohent, a la cime des lK>is, 
Pour les nimlier eneoiv, oonnne autrefois, 
De tout ci> que le ciel niit d'or et de miracles, 
Eu eux, eoMune eu d'immenses tal>ern:icles. 

Verhaeren cenerally avoids the over brilliance of jewel 
colour. He loves to extract strange hues from the more 
nncommon precious stont-s. Jade, for instance, and ebony are 
little ased as colour terms ; here is a fine jado-effect : — 
L'cau de ses lacs, oil se mirent les nues, 
Keste froide d'avoir baigne les chairs de jade, 
Et les crins verts des luisantes Hamadryades. 

Think of the delicate comparison involved in the juxta- 
position of shadow anil ebrmy ! — " Oes villes d'ombro et 
d'<*l)ene." Verhaeren also inilicatcs blackness, but less success- 
fully, in the phms«> " les cormorans irencre," — a metaphor 
•luite inferior to Sir Philip Sidney's comimrison of the suffusion 
of storm-ilarkness into the sky to ink |K)ured into water. 
Verhaeren has many sky-metaphors. Here is an immoval)!*- one, 
*' DD horizon d'ivoin-." In Verhaeren we And falling; water 
likened to mother o'lx^rl. to tortoiseshell, to silver. Sometimes 
be |;ct« a vivid effect by clotliing an abstract idea with colour, 
a«, for instance : — 

Dite«, la mer, nue ct pure, comme une id^ 
Qui luit et envahit nion amc enieraudec. 
and again. 

La verto immensite des plaines et ilcs plaincs. 

The mineral world affords this magnillcent metaphor : — 
Les grands soleils, cuivrt*s <les supriMnes automnes 
T<mnicMt eclataniment iluns un carnag*.' d'or. 
The alisolute Tightness of this term se4'ms to lend a glamour 
of delight to all our future autumns. 

The chtiiiical terms have even greater magic, but they are 
almoHt too startling : the air of the lalMiratory is still alNuit 
tfcea. In time they may iM-t-oine familiar in sptKM'h as an- such 
tmrda as olive-gre<Mi, 3ppli-gr<M.-n, and sage-gret'n. Hcrt- are 
two esamplcH :— 

En eette benre d'iinmobilil^ d'or. . . . 
Au casHcment dc soufn* i*t d'or 
De» cieux d'l'liiMic et de |>ortur, 
Jai regaidu •'ouvrir la nait. 
aod affain, 

Dil4ii, les estnaire* de nitre et de pliosphore. . . . 

Thus irradnally with the advance of science ev<-ry minutest 
ooloar-nbade «ill c<Hne to have its accurate unme ; and the 
rainliow, that was only com|»<><ie«l of Ave glorii>M, will have a 
million ; and »« in a world whoM- liordem are ever enlargitit 
poctrjr may And ita over-increasing opportanity. 

ETHEL WHKELKli. 



TABLE TALK OF A GENEVAN NUN. 



Her name was .leanne de .Tussle ; at the time of the Refor- 
mation she was a sister in the Convent of Sainte Claire ; in 
later years sho U-came Lady SujK'rior of a Convent at Anne<'y. 
In her hi>noured agt> she wrote out her ivcollcctions of the 
Keformaticm. not with any view of puhlishing them, but by way 
of )>roviding sonu'lliing of an improving character to 1k> read 
aloud in the Hcfcctory at mealtimes. Half a century or so 
after her death the lwM>k was i)rinted as a r(>ligious tract to 
show Protestants the error of their ways. Possibly it may, at 
the tin»e, have a«T»ken<><l some of them to a sense of sin ; but it« 
intor(>st for the nuxh-rn reader isnot controvei-sial but historical. 
It abounds in anecdot*', and shows us, iM'tter than any other 
Imok, what the lieformatiim at (!«'neva l(M>k'<>(l like. 

The story Ix'gins, for i)i-.ictical |)nrp(>scs, with the arrival of 
Farcl — the " nasty little preacher," who was vci-y soon to 
pn'ach the nuns out of tlie town. The simple method of this 
i-eformer was to walk into an.v chnrcli, climb up into an.v ]inlpit, 
and denounce the doctrines of the rightful occupant. Wlu-n the- 
municipal authorities lx>gan to remonstrate with him he 
curtly i-epliod : " Magnificent Signors, you must conflne 
yourselves to righteous couunands if you wish the sen'ants of 
God to obey you " ; and the magniflcent signors let the matter 
drop. Then things bi>gan to ha]>pen. lioman Catholic altars 
were carri«>(l off to be used as Protestant wash-hnnd stands ; an 
uncompivimising Lutheran fe<l his horse on cons<'crated wafers ; 
a Lutheran husband hired six burly ruflians to kidnap his 
wife and drag her, screaming, to tlie Supper of tho 
Lord ; aiul tlie sisters of Salute Claire, hearing these stories, 
formed processions, and marched round and ruiuid their cloistci-s 
singing |)enitential psalms. 

These religious exeroises, however, did not perceptibly delay 
the progress of the Keformation. The day came when Farel made 
the ease of the nuns the siiliji-ct of a special sermon of which tho 
substance has been jireserved by Sist«'r .leanne. They were his 
poor blind erring sistei-s, he said, but they deserved to l)o pelted 
with stones for undertaking to remain unwedded for ever — 
" a thing which God had not coinmaiidod because Ho knew it 
to 1x1 impossible " ; and he further declared that they ought to 
l)e " turned out and conip<>lled to niarr.v in accordance with the 
commandment of God." The effect of the discourse was. Sister 
Jeanne tells us, that, as soon as the morning sacrifice of jiraise 
and pi-aycr was over, a number of bacheloi-s, included in the con- 
gregation, climlM-d up on to the Convent wall and sat there sing- 
ing amorous songs for the edification of the inniat<'s. 

It was a ])icturcs(iit<' bcgiiiiiiiig. The next step was for 
Protestant visitoi-s to cimie knocking at the Convent door. Ono 
of them was au official who had Komething to say al»out tho 
demolition of a wall. Hi* washe<l his hanils in the holy water, 
and, when he got outside, went alHuit boasting that he had Ijcen 
privilege*! to kiss the nuns all round. " But this," says Sister 
Jeanne, " was a foul lie; for he did not even attem|it to kiss an.v 
one of us." Another visitor wiis a l.idy who, thtuigh onl.v 
allowiMl to converse with the sisters through the grating, sought 
with " pii|uant words " to prove to them that married life was 
more agrt-eable than s|>iiisterho<Hl. The Lady Superior very 
properly dosed the grilling in her face, but she " stopiK-il there 
a long time talking to the wimkIcii shutter without i-cceiving 
anyanswer — whi<di made her very angry." Finall.vlhe i-efoiimirs 
theuLsclves, Farel and Viret among them, came to call. They 
also were ivcpwsti^l to say what they had to say through the 
grating, but obtained admission under thi-eat of breaking down 
the door. The nuns were summoned to their jiresence ; and 
while the wnior reformers dlsc<uirscd of matrimony in its 
religious asjiects, the junior reformers ))roceede<l to make love. 
This was more than the I^ady Suiwrior could stand : 

She sprang fi-oni her seat and proteste<l : — 

" Mr. Syndic ! Since y<uir young iM>oplc can't ke«'p quiet. 

I Khali not keep quiet either. I insist upon hearing what 

they arc saying to the sistei*»." 



July 14, i&OO.] 



LITERATURE. 



«7 



And tilio plii<-i-<l horsolf iH-twi-on tho HiH(<>rH and the yi>iinir 
nion, siiyiiij;, 

" You'r«( n jmok of forunn] youn({ nifii, hut you won't 
nmko nny piiifti-oss li«>i-«>." 

Whfront they won* nil very IndiKnnnt, nml cxclnlmral : — 
" Wlint tli<> iltMil K till" inufhT wlHi llic woiniin ! Art< you 
nind ? Oo liiu'k to your )iliir(>, iimiliini, siml ill down." 

"I won't," slio Hiiiil. " I won't nit down unlo«M tliCHo 
yonnfc ni(>n Icavo the sistcru nloni'." 
Tlio L:uly Sii|M'rior was tumi-d out of tho room, nnd tho 
|)Pi'achor rosnniril liis diN(>oiirs<>. \Vi> roail that " whi-n ho 
N|>oko of tho NiriN of tho floxh tho HUtont hopin to Hrifaui " ; 
whilo tlio Lady Suiiorlor, ^flio wan llHtoninK nl tho koyholo, 
hattopod at tho door, cxelnlininj;. " Don't yon lixton to him, my 
nistors : don't yon liston to him." 

Thi> not M'snlf of this (insloral visit was ono oonvornlon. 
*' Tlio lll-adviHOil SiHtor Biasino " annonnci'il hor int<<ntion of 
loavinK tlio rioistor for tlio world, in ordor to sook a hnHlinnd. 
Tliro(> linndrod potential Inisliands woro waitiiit; for hor ontsldo 
tho ConvtMit Kalo. and no donlit slio niarriod one of thoin. Tho 
ivfornii-rsaddod insnlt toinjnryhy rc<|uirinKtho('onvont toproviilo 
a dowry ; and a fow days lator Sistor Blasino rotnrnod, drowM-il 
in tlio hoiprht of tho fashion, to doinand <lama!;o'< for diHoiplinu 
innictod ii|xin hor during hor moniliorsliip of tho sistorhood. Tho 
Lady SnjMTior ploudod jnstitlcation. " InipriNonniont," »h«> 
said, " did hor K""d ; .so«f how woll sho is lo<ikini;. As for th<> 
whipping, yon nuisl know that this kind of oorroction is as 
nwa-ssary in tho ••loistor as in otiior walks of life, and Sistor 
Blasino has novor l)oon wliip))od nnl<>s>« she tlioiH>n(;hly ilos<'rvod 
it." Sistor Blasino i-cpliod that sho had Imhmi whipiMid for 
working at hor spinning wIkh-I on Corpus C'hristi Day. " And 
vory wicked it was of you to do sncli a thing." intorrnptod tho 
Lady SuiR-rior. But tho Syndics adjudgtMl that tho punishment 
was in excess of tho crinio, and that tho claims of Sistor BInsine 
must bo satisllod ; and oxocntion «tis didy loviinl on tho 
convent fnniitiiri'. 

It was tho cnhninating outrage. The nuns decided to l«>nvo 
Clenova. and appliisl to the Syndic for an arni<Ml escort as far as 
the hridge over the Arve where (ienevan territory ondiMl. Their 
i^H^luest \xns granted. It is in her doM-ription of tho " dolorous 
•leparture." as she calls it. that Sist<>r .leanne is at her l>o»t. 
Sho shows ns the nuns walking " two an<l two, holding each 
other's hands, their faces hidden, oliserving a strict silence." 
She tells ns how the Lady Sni)orior liroke the silence in order 
to (joint out to the Syndic that a young man was disoheying his 
orders and whis^iering to a nun. and how the Syndic throat<-ned 
to cut tho young man's ho.vl oH if ho did not at once desist. 
Sho assures us that the Syndic himself was so uiovtHl at the 
si)ectaclu that ho " soI>Im>iI ali^nd," Init presently pulle<l himself 
together, saying " Now it is all done and settled, nnd there's no 
nso in arguing tho matter further." Finally she draws a pathetic 
picture of the wanderei-s, who, since their taking of the veil, had 
never been outside tho Convent walls, making their dolorous 
Way as In^st they could acniss the (leliN : — 

Truly ir was a pitiful thing to se«> this holy coniimny in 
siu'li condition, so overcome by pain and toil that several of 
them bi-oke down and faint«><l by the way — and that on a rainy 
day and in a nniddy road, with no me.ans of getting out of 
their trouble, for th(>y were all on foot, except four invalids 
who were in a cart. There weii' six jKMjr agtnX sist«M-s who had 
lnHMi for sixti'on years nuMubers of tlu< order, and two who for 
sixty-six years had never l>e«'n outside the Convent gate. Tho 
fr<>sh air was too nuicli for them. They fainted away : and when 
they .saw the beasts of the Held they wer«> terrilled, thinking 
that tho cows were bears, and that the sh<>ep were r.iviMiing 
wolves. Tlio>e who met them could not find words to express 
their compassion f«ip them ; and though the La<ly Superior hail 
given each sister a stout jjair of l>oots to kwp her fiH>t dry, 
tho greater nnmlier of thorn would not walk in boots, but 
carried them tied to their girdles, and in this way it took thorn 
from live o'clock in the morning nntil nearly nightfall to reach 
Saint .lulian, though the distance is less than a league. 



At Haint Julian tlio nun* wrn< met by ttM> |«n|Nilar<t •■4 

tho prioMtw ; tho latter bti^. ••:..■ ".'i. ti i.. ^,i....j 

public won<hlp. They fell .. 

tion of the crn»«. And Ihei-- «•- ^m ,r 

further forlnni-s nnd th<- n<niiiindi*r <■( HI,.' a 

have nothiuK to do with either tieiteva or ' 

VU . ,iLK, 



IRcvicws. 

•♦• 

BETWEEN CHAUCEB AND 8PSN8XB. 

" Salntsbury duco et au«plro KainlKbnrY." Mi^ar^. Btarlr- 

wood's " Periods of Kuro|M'nn I. - «| 

o<litorship of the proli">H<ir, nr< i4 

learning. The fourth volume, im i .), 

by Mr. (iregory Smith, is :i .!« 

|M"rio<l, which roughly H|Hiik i 

as far as Kngland is concern' J 

S|)onHer, will not seem »H unfruitful bk . ■*9 

aro content to enjoy t ho treaxiiri^o' ■•- ir« 

in his survey. In poetry of the hi_ In 

enough. Not all the efforts of I il.iMnk, 

0«>cleve or Lydgiite can halnnce t ! riiaaia* 

Malory's prose romance, " I. ' * in 

interest of thetiennan Mlim m. 

pared with th nl nr 

oven till' anniM'men if 

Spiegel." Of tho Kn'uch |M>eiry ot il ill 

maintains its vitality, while in pro-., ,4 

Froissart and .loinvillo, tho satirCM of Antoino cle I nl 

tho immortal I'atheliu, the first of the H|;ht t... ^ in 

which France excels nil other nations. In Italy wliile (bo 
grc>atest of tho po«'ts were the hnmble for. - 1  ,„_ 

the pulpit thunderotl with the splendid ' Im 

and the"Novelle" ^ • , 

Mr. C!regor>- the hlsbo^l 

creative literature in Ui> ><% 

interest for the stndentni -n 

the old to tho new. The evi. 

meilieval cycle, founded n|H»n 1 .■ 

Renaissance play ; the decay of the iniHlioval allegnry In tho 

I>oot's gradual diHilliision from iIk. ...1. v. ..t ...... 1 .1, j tt... 

Ui>s<> and the Court of Love ; the  

in the nfto<>nth century ballad ; th.- i.i, .n.-, ,. .i-.m-r . . m 

in the " Danse Macabre," giving way to tlw " rartM-  rji 

of the I{. . ; all these nr<  -  ff^ 

author  vely upon the crilie* 

have made for tliems<>lves in iln- 'v. 

Pnifessor Ski-.«t's lati>st theory th.i >u» 

chivalrous author of the " Kingis Quair." 1 

lation of the " Roman do la I{i>se " is ilnl\ 

Another much eontrovi>rt<>d iwiint. the origin aii^i .i|i 

of the ballad, givi«s rise to one of Mr. Cn-L-.rv s ...t 

Ininiiiions chapters. The oldest extant ex.' »- 

tnre lH*long to tho fonrtoenth and flfteen; 1. . . 

appearwnce of native simplicity and vigour w 1 

has naturally le«l to the thoory that tho ban.ni., .1.. «,• know 

them are later versions of (>»rlier forms, existing liefore tho 

development of the lit- .,......- , ,^ 

view incline to the I)«>1;. '-tl 

authorship. In an article on Mr. .\ -'g 

says :^" Like the Vi>lk« Heilcr -ripenn >■ he 

popnlar |Mtems of lie 

people." Mr. (Jr. _ 'If 

with the wTiters who rt>gartl the iKillad. not as a po|Hilar 
*' gi'nre," of nuxc<l anthorsbip, and of gwaf antJnniiv l.iit as a 
literary product, Jwsed npon the romance. ,■ to hU 

theory, if the extant Inllads aro not the < •• '-sjr 

quite as well l>e the literary copies of 1 -y 

versions as the echoes of fblk-Mcigs, springing tn.»n uie m-art u( 



28 



LITERATURE. 



[July. 14, 1900. 



the peoplo before the tltiys of " individuitl litorary effort." Tlio 
•baooMiaf proof makes it iiii|>oi.Hil>U> toc<>im> to n lU'dnito thvision 
lietvnH-n t«t> mioh opixwiH' tli«>«>rio-<, luit iiHMiiwIiilo Mr. Siiiilh's 
i«markH oil tbo fninili.nr (k^viivM o( tlic lulltKls adtl iiiiicli viilniir 
tu bU lhfv>r,v tbat tlioy am of artiflrial oriK>». 

Tho rtwUT will iiiitumlly timi witli Ofc|HH'inl interest to tlio 
imrtion of tlio Uxilc wliirli deals with tlio |>o«'try of our own 
islailflK. Ill tlio i>«>rio«l l»otwo«^ii tlio " ("antorlmiy Tales" and the 
•• Fiwry yiHMUi " the Soottish poi'ts far oiitshono tlioir roiifrrre* 
wNltb of the Twi.«m1. Wliilo Lyilpito and (V.<.|ovo wow for the 
iiMwt l«rt inoro ifli^v^ of (.'haiioor, llio work of Diinliar mid 
Himrynoii, the \ ~i of tlio •■ Daiioo of tlio Sovon Doidly 

Sitw," and the a^ i:iliiili«t of tlio " Lion and tlio Moiiso," 

wmaof ainiioh inoro individual oliaraclor. In tlio iKx-try of Knplaiid 
proper Skolton.who Is wiid to liave l)o«>n Henry VIII. "s )MM>t lan- 
reete, uraii tbeflrat to strike a note of his own. Mr. Smith oin|ilia- 
■iae« the more romantic side of this ])o<>t, who is too often rogardi.<l 
merely a* » mtirioal author of ilisapro<>al>lo dop:g«>rol at tho 
expense of Wolsey and others. Another iMx>t, Sackvillo, not 
mentioned in the pn-sent book, has Ikm'H rog;irdt>d by somo 
critlos as a ropn^sontative of tho transition. Mr. Ciropory 
Smith ends his survey of tho |>orio<l with Sir David Lyndesay, 
but it is quite |Kis.sible — in oonipany with Hallam — to rop;ird 
Sackville's Induotion .ns tho last link between tho modioval 
allopory projier and tho " Faery Qneon." This of eourso would 
earry us somewhat far into the sixteenth oentury. Sackvillo was 
actually a contem|>orary of 8|)onser's, but tho Iiidnetion was 
written some thirty years lieforo the " Faory Queen," and is essen- 
tially of a transitionary charaetor. Tho sound of Skelton's name 
or ov^on of Sackville's d(x»s not exactly eoininnnicate a thrill to 
the avoraRO British heart. It is not for individual gi-nius that 
wo must look in this (leriml. But the i>oots who followed in tho 
vniko of Cham*er did some service to jKM-tic fonii by their sub- 
mission to so pn-at a mo<lel. Once even, in a nion> ori{;inal 
moment, Lydgate addiMl to the fonns of vei-so in the Kiivoi to tho 
" Flour of Curtosyo." Mr. Gregory Smith might have nieiitioiied 
that these fowlin«'s provide the isirliesf niod.-t ..r ili.- •.<><>/> n-.-il 
by (iray in tho Klogy. 

Princesso of boautee, to you I icprcsiut.o 
This simple dyte, rude as in uiakiiigo 
<>f hortc and wil faitlifiil in inyn oiiteiito 
hyk as, this day, tho foulos horde I singe. 
In manner an well an in their manipulation of stanza and 
oonplet the po«>f« of tho flft<H>iitli century imitate<l Chaucer well 
enough at times for their work to 1h> confusojl with his own for 
ceaturii~( to come. After all, tho reveroiice paid to the " old 
malstordero" in tho imitations of tho|)<K>ts of the transition is a 
touching triliiil<' to his gr<Mtn<««s. It is no wonder that his " Well 
of Knglish nndellliHl " should h:iv»' 1111(^1 the rivers of poetry to 
the full for no long. 



CHINA. 



Two things should Iw made clo:ir concerning Mr. \. U. 
Cohiiihonn's Thf. "OvKitUkXH" To t'lllXA (Harjiers, KSs.). In tho 
first place., it is not a liook prfHluosI bi-caiiHo the Cliinesc. e-risis 
has b<.<-omo acute, but a Ixsik that hap|M'iis to 1h' ready at a time 
wboQ instructive liooks on t'hin«n«> affairs are wante<l. In tho 
NOGond place, it is not a Iniok of travel, hut a serii-s of i.ssays on 
tjte various political and commercial (|uestions conncM.ti.<l with 
Cibina, written by a man who visit(.<l China for tho )iur|Hme of 
ooUecting his facts. Ho many things have hap|MMie<l in the last. 
few weeks, and mo much has Imm'u cast into the molting |iot, that 
agooddcal of what Mr. ('ol(|uhoun h.is written is already, through 
n" ' his, out of «Ut«". His n|i{iiion that the Chiiu"«o " are 

II.. It (MHiplo to rule, but ar<., on the contrary, remarkably 

dot^ilf, " WiU no iloiibt justiDod by thi* fuels that ho was aide to 
ntfacrrn ; but he cannot claim the cnslit of having foresoi-n tho 
tfOMbles whieh have lately burst U|ion lis like a Itolt from I lio 
Mm*. The word " Boxer" is not, so far as wo have M<<>n, soiniich 
a* aenlkwed in hU pagest and be appear* to r<'|^ard the Cbiii<.so 



Empire in the light of a patient under eliloroform waiting to bo 
o|)er.it»><l U|M>ii by I lie Powers. Tho oiioiiiy fi>r him is always 
iiussia. That China itself can bo effectively hostile to any one 
dtM's not s<>ein to have occurrisl to liim. 

On the subject of the missionaries Mr. t'ohiulioini has a gixid 
deal that is inlen'sting to say. He setMiis to i-egnrd the Homau 
Catholic missionaries as the most dangerous, since the French 
l)eo|>lo (h"lil)oratoly use them as (((/ciiJs pnii-ocntci/rs ; luid the 
most dang<>i-ous of lioman Catholics an* tho Chinesi' converts. 
In connexion with this branch of tho subject he gives Us an 
incident which is w<>ll worth quoting : — 

A lioman Catliolic priest (CliineM-) w:is riilliig into a town 
when some of the country jMsiple cursed him. He at once gob 
out of his KiHhuwhair, calltid for the leading men of tho to\Mi» 
and told thein that iiiili>ss they paid him f<ll>0 Jio would 
denounce them to the magistrates. Ignorant of what the 
coiisisiuences of their getting into the hands of tho mandarins 
might be, the people collected the ransom (h'liiandod and i>aid 
it to tho priest. It is said tliat he invested the money in a 
houst> in tho neiglilioiirho<sl, and s«>tlled down in it to pro- 
jiagato tho iloctrino. It is not surprising that arliilrary pro- 
ciH'ilings like this should cause tho Christians to Is' fearotl and 
hated, and wo need not wonder at the o<-casinnal murder of a 
Jiriest when sm-li feelinirs ;ire spread y:i'iier:illy i Inonirlioiii tlio 
country. 
This, no tloiibl, explains a f^ooil deal. 

The chapters which are most interesting at the present 
juncture are those headed " Peking past and pi-<'seiit," in which 
we have some pleasant picMiri's of the life of diplomatists at tho 
capital of the Celestial Empire. Until ([iiite i-.'eently, it seems, 
they were a happy family, with very little work to do and no 
international jealonsios worth s|S'!iking of. The prominoiK-e of 
tho British Plei)ii)ot«'iitiary was unquestioned. " Tlu! stiff bull 
friendly (Jorinan, oflicial Fivncliinau, gonial American, smiling 
.Tapanese, and suave Uussian followed with go<><l grace the Yang 
Kuo Fn, loading tho smaller fry, Italian, R'Igiaii, Spaniard, and 
Dutchman, who were even more glad to benefit by the British 
ic*-l)ii>aker, altliougli, to bo precise, ice-breaking was rarely 
needed." The i-liango came alter the war with .lapan, when tlm 
rivalry for concessions coiinnenced. This rivalry seems to hav« 
had its I'ffect n|s)n the social iiiter<.onrse ol the Ministers, and 
was the occasion of avery humoiNins incident at the Peking Club. 
Tho French Minister, wo ar<' told, considered that us the reprt>- 
sentativo of his <'Ountry he was ontitl<>d ex nffirio to a seat on tho 
connnitto*'. When he was not elocteil, ho ri>sign«l his niomlKT- 
sliip in indignation. Tlie result was somewhat astonishing :-- 

What were the incredulity and amazement of the meinbors 
to hear some weeks alterwards, through the Chinese club- 
s<>rvants, that the French Pleni|>otentiary, who had nieanwiiilo 
inadii a great show of haughty indiffer«'nce, was in the haliifc 
of visiting the club clandestinely, in the early niorning. to 
read tlie paiwrs and magazines, and even to take them away I 
When ofllcially taxed by the cinnniitt<.o. .M. (Jerard's solo 
coneern apiM'ared to bo l<"»t the story should got into tho 
iiewspaiM'i-s. An amusing sketch did, however, ap|H'ar in tho 
lldlllr, a Shanghai illustrated comic journal : " Club Library, 
Peking, (\ a.m., M. (ieraiil discovcKsl in pyjamas, devouring 
La Y'ie Piii-inlriiiif ! " 

Mr. Colqulionn's Itook is written in a very interesting stylo, 
and, though some of the expressions of opinion containe<I in it 
will pmbably neisl to bo ri-visiMl, thew can be little doullt that, 
it will Ibid many n-aders. 



SOME TOPOGRAPHICAL BOOKS. 



Chalaea. 

We sliDiild like to see each district of l.ipiidon troatisl on tlio 
)ilan adopl.sl by Mr. Keginald Blunt in his lu.tHTiiATi.ii 
HisToitiCAI. Hasiihook to Chki^ika (Laniloy). It would ho 
difficult to take a iM-tter mislel. It follows somewhat on I ho 
linos of Darlington's London, and is scholarly, lucid, systomatic. 



I 



July 1 I 1 'too.] 



TJTKKATI'I^K. 



Oft 



aiul williiii icn Uiiiitn (!Oiii|il*'l<*. 1( it |)nirus<-ly illiisi niti^l, and 
tlifi illu.sl lilt ions an' ciirtifiilly i'Iiohcii from many Huiir<-<>-t —con- 
alHthiK of pliodiKinpli^i t*ii|{rnviiiKH and old prints, |M'n-nnil-ink 
tlrawin^N, ii'piiHliK-tioiis of pnintinK*<> plans, and <'\c<>lli>iit miipx. 
Mor<H)vcr, it is handy in form and printod in i-xotdli-nt ty|H) 
judiciouHly varii'd no n.s to Kuidi- tlio <-yi) to what is dislinclivti 
ill tho !iiil)|oct matter or the urmiiK«iii<'iit, It is :i book wliich for 
its cart' ninl Its liu-idity i' ■-  |.I'>i«im" '•• ••vi"\ 

Hainpat««d. 

Mrs. t'aroliii<> A. Whitr, fhi> author of Swkkt Hami-kti:.*!! 
ANii ITS A>iM<K:iATIiiNH (Klliot Stock, l.'is. n.), tells lis that lii-r 
miiltitiidinoiiH litorary oii)^)?<'nmntH hnvo pri'VPiitiMl hrr from 
linixhini; ht>r iKiok until sho has rcachojl her oiKhty-nlnth yonr. 
At any rato, sho has llnishcd a Rfiod liook— » littlo haphazard, 
p(>r)iaps, in its arraiiK'^mcnt, liiit packi'il with iiitorcstinf; gossip 
of tho fichtoontli conliiry, and well i!liistralo<l with views Inith 
now and old. It is hard to ronli/c that the llampslcad of tho<M< 
days was a houlth resort hnldiiiK iiiiii'h th<> wimo |H>sitii>ii (hat 
Harropilc holds to-<lay, €>\r<>pt that iron, and not siiljihiir, was 
tho diHtinctivo iiiKrodii'iit of tho waters. So it wah, however, 
and so hi({h was the reputation of the waters that, for the Iwnetlt 
of those who could not re|>.iir to tho wells, they wore " carefully 
liottlwl up in Husks and sent to Mr. Phelps, a|X)thoeary, at tho 
Kajflo and Child, in FUvt-stroet, overy niorhin^, at tho rate of 
;kl. per tlask." A physician, too — tho fcroal Dr. Soames — 
" Ijoomed " the waters, much as modern physicians Ikmiih those 
of Marii'iiliad, or Kissiii({<>n, or Isdil, and forinulate<l a scheme of 
treatment tor his patients : — 

Tho best time to take the waters is fi-om .lune to Michael- 
mas ; the time of day an hour after sunrise (no wonder music 
liepan in the Lonp; Room at (V a.m.). Ho allows his patients 
balm, or sago tea, with a little oranjte pjH-l in it, for bniik- 
fast ; or chocolate, milk porridge, or mutton broth, with bniid 
and liutl<>r. An hour after taking the water coftec may be iisi-d 
— the less tho l)ott<>r ; but as for the gi-eon or bohea thru, 
that " ought to Im> iNinished." 

Music and oilier diversions flourished, as they should at lM>altli 
resorts, and the most distinguished company might Ik< met tlioi-<> 
— Addison, and (Jarth, and St4>ole, and .Vrbuthnot, Hir (iiMlfrey 
Kneller, Swift, and all the Kit-Kats. Cay wont there, too. to 
recover his spirits after losing his fortune in tho South S«>a 
Bubbl<> ; and oii<> of Swift's correspondents tells him that " Pope 
la off and on. here and there, overywiiere, li mm ordiiuiirc, there- 
fore, as well as we call hope from a carcas<> so crazy " ; and 
Colley Cibber paraded there, carrying ixlcs in his pot'ket and 
" reading them to those of his aciiuaintaii<-es who would listen "' ; 
and Mrs. Barbauld took a house there, in 178."), and w-as calletl 
upon by Dr. Boattio, and Mrs. Hannah More, and Samuel 
Rogers ; and Lord Thurlow cut a noble figure " wearing his full 
suit of cloth of tho old imxie, great cuffs, many buttons, groat 
wig, long riilHos " ; and LtMgh Hunt shiX'ko<l tho ro8|>oetalile by 
invitiny; Shelley to his cottage. Tho nnister roll, in short, is as 
distinguished as nood bo wished ; and Mi's. White is to bo con- 
gratulattnl on having made us soo nil those many notables in 
their habit as they live<l. Her book is really a notable con- 
triljution to local history and has no dull paires. 

8upp«y. 

While we aro waiting for tho large and donnite County 
Histories which have been promisc<l. smaller County Histories 
continue to appear. The latest is Mr Henry Elliott Maiden's 
HiSTimv OK Sliiukv (Klliot Stock, 7s. fid.). It is bright and 
rendable. In adilition to treating of graver matters, it tells us 
of such things as Surrey cricket, Epsom Races, and the rise and 
fall of Epsom as an inland wiitering place. It seems that the 
first blow dealt at tho Kpsom waters was given by an ailver- 
tising quack :— 

A Dr. Loviiigstone started a rival well, nearer to Epsom 
Village, built an assembly i-oom and a sort of baziiar of shops 
for fancy goo<ls, oix;ne<l a gambling siiUkiu. and puffe«l his 
waters as the real curative Epsoiu waters. People deserte<l the 



(.111 \Mll I.Jl 

them, iiiiil III' 

liny otlu'r, or |Mtrlm|n prxiernnK it «• 
The watert lliinllv wmmii .■■■'••' i..i... 
invunt4>il in l7.Vt, nnd ' 
abli' surroiinilings itf die ^^• u i ,i, isi>i. 

School and Coll«c« HlMori<--i 

C'iiiiii«r CHt'ium i« a collcgn of Many arU, Iwl ail tk* wU 

have one thing ineominon— vli., a ''■<uto(r"th» 

HouM.*." It in. Ml to it|M<ak, a l< not analaat 

itself. A meiulier of aiiothi-r ct.l .i 

NUUilU^st MiHji^OH of the feoliiii; o( i 

lliefoniier homeof the " ' 

Iribiilioii III the Oxfor'' 

each). But it is of i ' 

aln>ady a little pn'n 

so as ho iniikes roM-an-h into iln former hiolory. The rra-i' 

Christ Chun-h — «» intinutely eoninN'tJHl with the rnoif^: . 

England — are, p<-rha|M, more n><i|>leiHU-nl than Ibmo nf anjr 

other colleg«'. Not only was the fonmlathMi niyal : bti* •' - 

Hoiis<> has Imhmi the n<«tinK-|>lai*i' of cmi lewi than tff 

progrosws. from Ktiz.°ilM>th'H to the fourth (:•• 

college of tho Prince of Wales. All thi« is diii 

Mr. Thom|>son. ami the still inon> ' 

buildings is well brought oiil, llwiugh i' 

much scattere<i alKiiil the Ixxik. Ktude 

alTords line examples in the history of V 

churx-h nnd nHiniiNtic buildings of Kl. Kr 

buildings of Wols«>y, tho tiolhic mnf to the - 

to the hall by Dean Samuel Fell — a womlerfiil esanplc <■( 

(iothic so late as Charles I., Wren's Tom T«TWfr, rightly p 

by Mr. ThiMn|>Hon in spite of its debaiwd tSolhic. and .Mil' 

buildings in P«>ekwater. Mr. ThonipMHi 

hiiuM-lf to Ihi n skilful biographer in his 

and his huppy way of chanicterizing the d 

Church — tho two Kells. Aldrich. Cyril .Kr 

Liddetl — is u pleaMiDt feature Ol his liook. 

Turning from Christ Church toM-- . .• 

cannot help feeling a certain lack of p. jlH>ut a 

of College Histories which givi-s as i 

very dilter«"nt in im|iortaiice. The am 

and Mr. W. R. Barker .. 

an account of all thi' 

buildings, lM>ginniiig wlili i 

monks, originally fnmi St. P« : 

establishment of (Jloiu'esti-r-hall alt«>r tli' 

iiMMiasterii's ; and ending with Worcester ('• „ . 

callo<l since the lit^ginning of the last iM-ntury, on aci-nant ol lb« 

lienefact ions of Sir Thomas Cookcs, a ^^■- •■■—*■•■■■■ i.-.r,.....i 

Nevertheless, they have found it iii< 

the histories of forgotten men, for iinn- i« noi 

distinguished name in the whole list of the Priors o( ' 

College, the Princi|)als ol tJloncester Hall, ami the I 

Worcester College. The s|«ice. too. whii-h ihi-y . 

attempt of Dr. Woodrollo to fc 

tiroek with tho .\nglioan Church ' 

tivnth century does not aild to th. 

Although there is little of hist. 

there is some alioiit the bnildings in which they livi><t. Ttw 

different Bene«lictino monasteries, which s«'nt their im>ml>«T^ !•• 

tho original (.•loiicester College, built tboir own eh;i 

(comcfif), several of which still r»'main. It i» all the 

unfortunuto tliat the assignment of individiul chamtjcrs to th* 

monasteries is full of <V'" 

with Rev. T. W. Jacks..; 

all their researche-- 

exact is that of > 

Pcrshore. Al>out t 

have taken a good u 

they attempt an in)|«»»il>le correciion oC the p • 

to the Chaiiel i" I^'i:c:in's O.voriiu /<li(»(r<i(ii. . t 



8«> 



LITERATURE. 



[July 14, 1900. 



< r^tKgsn ill lii> |iit'tiir<' rcpi^-^iil'i ii-> I ho nfrftoriuin 

^^ V tlir> Cha|M>l. But thi* ImildinK >n qiiooiioii ooiiUI 

!■ \HH-n lln> (.'liR|M>l, l>oc!ni«» it« <lir<H'tlon ii not 

. ,1-- I hut northward, aiiU it IiikI a louvn> in th«> roof to l«a 

out lh(> Hinoke from tlio poiitral Oro-|>lac« in tlio hnll. 

A Ihinl cnntrihittion to thi< M>rios' of CoIIoitp Hlxtorii's 
i« liy tho H«'v. I)oii;;lns Mncloniic, who writo* of Pkmiihiikk 
t'OLLRtiE, OxroBD. lie hiiN Hot Mirh n j;<MxI siibjfH-t ns hoiih- 
of tho othor colli ributors. P<>ml)roko hns not hn<l very 
many <li«tiiipii<ih<>il iiliiiiiiii, lint in rcfont lim^s Profco^or 
Ririholomow Prico liroiipht distinction to it ns Master mid the 
lat«' G. W. St<"OVP!i!t wns a Follow. Ono notes, however, that 
Mr. Maeloano hns lirnn);ht ont some new facts n)>ont Dr. .lohnson. 
He hns proved that the lexicocrapher did not |jay his Imtells 
lintll more than ten years after he went down : and he has also 
••stali1ishe«l tliiit th<'r«> is no trnth in the lejtond that he l<ickod 
Whitefleld, the Methodist, round theqnnd. There is, moreover, a 
tine piece of ix-ssiniisllc irony in the aiilliiir's jiictiiro of tlie 
Oxford of to-<lay : — 

Oxford is no loiiper Mattliew Arnold's serene city niiil 
adorable dreamer, but extremely wide awake, out of sympathy 
with " lost " or any other cnnses, with loyalties jmssilile or 
imiKwiiblo, and bnstlingly anxious to \ie abreast of the times. 
What Enf;l.ind thinks !o-diiy Oxford will think tivTnorri>w. 
The ideals, niedievnl or Lib»Tal, which made the lie^'iiniiiij; of 
tho Queen's reiffii so interestinx, are flat and fiii-j{oileii — in 
jMirt, realizcHl and stale, in |Mirt, explmled and dead. No 
illusions r<<mnin, nor any expectations. Kv«>rytliiiig is reformed. 
Kvorylxxly is |K-rfe<-t. And the great orb of tho nineteenth 
century sinks comfortably Im>Iow tho horizon in a shapi'less 
Imnk of jjr«>y cloud, shot here and there with angry streaks of 
rod. 

.\t a time when the histories of .nil sehixtls and eolleges are 
1)oinK written, the liistory of Sandhurst ought certainly to t>e 
WTitt<'n with the nv<t, and .Vnxaix or Sandiiciist, by Major 
A. V. Moekler-Kerryman (Heinemann, llts. n.), tills a gap. The 
greafer part of tho liook id taken tip with n>cords of Sandhurst 
cricket, football, and athletic K|)orts, and with the nflicial regula- 
tions tolling young men how they can got into Sandhni-st and 
how thoy will lie ox|M'cted to liehavo when they have got tliei-e. 
There are some grxxl stories, however, of tho Sandliurst iviws 
that were so numerous in the good old days ; and the following 
story seems worth quoting : — 

.Mmost (he last occasion on which the manager of tlio 
theatre complained of the lM!bavi(Mir of the cadets was when 
tiilliort and Sullivan's Inlanthe was l>eing performed, and the 
offondom were some do/.en O.C.'s, all l)oIoiiging to B Com- 
pany. The AHsistant-Commaiidant iuvnstigatiHl the case prior 
to tho prisoner lieing brought l)ofore tho governor for severer 
forms of punishment, and, iiicking ont the man most likely to 

have 1>e<M) tho ringleader, he sjiid, " Now, Mr. , I suppose 

you wore at the liottom of it ; what was it ?" 

" Well, sir,' was the reply, " it was all the sentry. He 
wa« a perfe«"t disgrace. We put him through the manual 
•■xcroise by nnmltorM, and into tho s|M>cial sfpiad, and that was 
all right ; but when ho said that his name was Williams, and 
that he Ix-longod to B Company, why, we took him off the 
ktago, wo simply couldn't help it." 

No defence oould have }tren of more avail ; In tho eyes of 
the Assistant-Commander the olToiico was almost |>nrd(mablo, 
and ovfrn tho ringleader got no more than thri-e weeks' 
restriction. 

Mr. A. r. J.«-.n-|i !■. tilt- f. ill Mr ;iii*t ill [ijirl » llf illltlior of 

BflAonn.D Coi.i>»r. (Fronde, lOs. M. n.). It in a short 

^ ' ' lego wmi only founded in 1S.'>0, and in |>arls 

story of financial v|nabblos, tho masters on 

H had gn-at trouble in getting their 

i'ool has not yet had many notable 

Kitchener was odncated thero. Tho 

1 are tho*n which relate the history of 

ib« Greek Hay performances. In the tnt perfomanoe, which 



took plare in IRSfl, the ca^t was very ilistingtiislind, Mr. F. U. 
K<>nson U'ing tho manager and the actoi-s in<-lu<ling Mr. (J. B. 
C. Lawrence, Mr. \V. L. Courtney, and tho Headmaster 
himself. 

We have received Vol. XII. of the topical section of the 
<!i:nti,i;ma\'k MAdAziNi; Lihiiaiiy (Klliot St<H'k, 7s. (kl.). It 
reprints matters of to|>ographical interest dealing with the 
counties of Surrey and Sussex, inrorining ns. for example, that 
" at .\shstoad Charles II. visited Sir Kobert Howard, the 
dramatic |KM't " ; that " at Barnes, Tonson, the Itookseller, ami 
secretary to the Kit-Kat Club, had a house " ; that " at 
Cliort8<>y, on St. Anne's Hill, residml the celelirated Charles 
.lames Fox " ; and that " Ueigate snffero<l by the plague in 
l<l(i.">." The account of Brighton in lil'iti is perhaps the most 
intt'resting to ((note : — 

Bright lielmslone, in the county of Sussex, is distant from 

lAindon .")7 miles, is a small, ill-ltiiill town, situate on the sea 

coast, at present greatly resorted to in the summer time by 

|M'i-sons lal)0(iring under various disordertt for the benefit of 

bathing and drinking sea water, and by tho gny and polite on 

account of the com|)any which frequent it at that soiison. I'ntil 

within a few years it wns no better than a mere fishing town, 

inhabited by fishermen and sailors, but llironi;li t he reooni- 

niendation of Dr. liiissel and by the means of his writings in 

favour of sea water it is be<-ome ono of t ho principal placcss in 

the kingdom for the resort of the idle and dissipated as well as 

of tho diseased ami infirm. 

To the average well-informed ptirson Silvertown merely 

snggosts gutta-percha. The iieighlMinrliood, however, has ;i 

liistory going back to the time of the Uomans, who rox-lnimod the 

marshes, and a tower in which .\nne Boleyn once livf^. Theso 

matters, together with other matters, ar<> duly related in 

Sii.vKitrowx AM) NKn:Hi»ofnH<)on (Hurlelgh, Is.), by Arthnr 

Philip Crouch. 

The volume on S( oTTrsH Maiikft Ciiorsks, by Mr. .lohii 
W. Small, F.S..\., Scot. (Stirling, Aeneas Mackay), is a most 
interesting work of its kind, and will be warmly welcomed by 
antiquarians and others. Details are given of a Large number of 
(•losses, and there are over a linndrtHl drawings of market crosses 
in position. Mr. .\lexander Ilut'-heson, F.S..\., Scot., supplies 
an introdu<-tion, which is all tno short. 

NfMMtTs ANI) CiiiMMiTs, by Sarnli Hewett (Burleigh), 
is a miscellaneous bundle of Devonshire songs, stories, and 
sii|M>rstitiona jotted down at niiidom. It is not exactly a Ijook 
for the folk-lorist, and the authorities quoted for some of the 
songs are a little odd. Thus for " Lord Lovel " we have " Sung 
by Mr. Ted Ward at a harvest siipjier, Soptemlx'r, 181)3," andfor 
" Barbara .Allen " " Sung by .lohn Snow, of Tiverton, at a 
siip|«'r party, A.n. IHtSW." We wimder whether Mr. Ted Ward's 
dale was ii.f. or A.I). ':" Wo shtnild like, by-tho-by, to have 
found " T<mi Pearce's (irey Mare " among these Devonshire 
idvlls. 



OTHER NEW BOOKS. 



Tha Weatmlnat«p Blotrpaphlea. 

Biography, as a de|>arliiieiit of literal uro, se<MHs to lie passing 
through a phas*.' illuslral<-d by the first volume of " the Wesl- 
minsler Biographies," Mr. .\rthnr Wangh's KoiikuT Biiownixcj 
(Kegan Paul, 'is. n.) — which, it may Ik* ho|M>d, will result in a 
clearer |x>rcoption of its proper aims and its necessary limita- 
tions. It is a subject which has groat attractions for a larg<! 
class of readers, and for years thoy have grumbled at but ondur<^<l 
the nnnecessitry and voluminous chronicU's of the lives of 
second-rat*' worthies. The " Dictionary of National Biogra])liy " 
may lie said lo some extent to have codified the laws of biography, 
and to have shown that , In the vast numlK-r of cases, an accurate, 
car«'fiil, and exhanslive record of facts may fnllll every require- 
ment that tho most exacling stinh-nt cnnld demand. And, what 
Is more, it has prove<1 that a compact and nnvamished story if 



July 14, 



1900.] 



IJTFHATI'KF 



Jl 



^rittfffl with si'ii^c anil iiili'lliK'MK'i' is iml l<->« liiii -onn'i iim - 

inoro intt-rcHtiiiu IIkiii (lilTii>tc )iukch of t rlvlalirio^ or of p\f r.ixa- 

pint eiilo>;y. Thfrf iii^c iii>tUinc<>H of ooiirw" in ■••iai 

interOHt, lilfrnry or hiitorieul, nlliichcMi tniliopu ..( n 

iiiaii'M pi'ivitle iliiiri<-M iiiul <>nrn-<i|M>ii(t<-iiP(>. Hut ilic^)- nrf- [■•» 

and tlu-y liiiv«« KCKi'i^iHy Immvi ovonloiif*. Not, thr least I'vil 

of the (liH|)iti[MiH!onali> li>ii|rth tOaiiiieil fi>r the live* of lhoM< who 

r«>ally iIi-mtvo not lo Ih< tornMU'n is that thi-y are not n-ati, and 

injil.itioo U Ihoi-i'foro dono tr> thrlr inomory. Tho " DictiiHiury nf 

National Biography" in uvnilBlilo only for » liuiitiHl rlam : Iwvtkii 

which nro Intended to kindle :uid NUntain an interewt In the lire* 

of the KfW't. men of our own lime often fall, either from their 

size, their e\|KMise. or the Mtyl<! in which they are cotnpiled to 

achieve their |iiir|i<>se. Hence the lirief inexiM-nnive biography, 

in a handy form, I he idea of which, we thinl<, WHxIlrst conceivMl in 

America. Wean- very ^c'ad that Mensrs. Ke^an i'aui linve iulopliHl 

it, and are prejiaretl to t«>st its hiu'ccmh with llie Kn^li-tli piihlic. 

The one ensential to huccoss is that the anthor of nuch a liio- 

^raphy xhonld not only lie a coni|M-tent critic hut nn atlnirtive 

writer, and Mr. Artlinr WauKl' liere provei himtelf to Im? ijolh. 

The combination is 

liy no means commoM, 

)i«wofl«>n iiaveweto 

regret that onr most 

admireil critics have 

not learnt I he one 

thins: which (heir 

studies should have 

taii)cht them — style! 

Mr. WauKJi's Knglisli 

is not crabbetl or 

lalx)iired ; it is not 

'• smart," or irritat- 

in^ly allusive; it is 

not self - conscious 

and sU|M>rior. The 

Koo<l I list e of llie 

style anil t reatnn'iil 

is what has si ruck us 

most in readin); this 

lM»k. Th<) iniiuia<-i<>s 

revealeil in t he 

Browning Letters 

are glanced at with 

symimthy but with 

restraint. The real 

merits of Bn>wninK 

as a man are shown 

at their ri^ht value. 

Browning; as a man 

and not as a writer 

is, of course, the 

main subject of tho volunio, and we ne«>d not discuss closi'ly Mr. 

^Vau•;h"s estimate, which is certainly not indiscriminate in its 

eulogy, of Browning's |MM<try. We should have liked a nither 

fuller bibliography, and in imrticidar the Browning Primer of 

Mrs. C'leiuent Parsons (Miss K. M. Wilson), which has, we Indieve, 

established itsi'lf as a I'liivcrsity Kxti'Usion te\t-b<Kik, should not 

liave lH>en oiuitletl. 

In th« Oapden. 

" A tiaiiU'Pi ! The word is in itst-K a pictur*-. and what 
pictures it reveals! All thI^>ngh the days of childhood the 
ptrden is our fniry-ground of swe«>t enchantnient and innocent 
wonder. From the llrst dawn of thought, when we learne»l our 
simple lessons of Kden and its loss, aud setnued to s(<<< t lie 
thornless garden, watonnl with clear streams, beautiful with 
spreading trees, and the train of innninml Iteasts and birds 
luoekly jjassing Iwfore their spotless lord ; and then lieyond, 
far onward to that other g-ardeu belov»>d by the Man of 
Sorrows, Getlisemane, where we cmild never picture the 
blossoming of roses or murmurous hum of sunmier Ikvs, but 
only the sombre garden walks, and One kneeling among the 



• ' htmt. In later ymra 
wear away a* miiw 
tntnia M Ptwtrjr. 

- ' ■> »••— -y I 



.t 



hitUllled. 

the miiti* 

wrenlkit in the vivtti i. 

. . . . They are nil _ , 

And through the niidsl of Ihrm fln«« ti 

\l..,i..ry, inliHl uith fair lill<«i lawn*. '- 

-< and whiniM'ring rMtl*. AnA ir 
iiii's<- ideal ihaUex are Ibti gardi'ii^ 
and niichanging in many a |iaii''<<i ; ,. 
heart. K'-al, and not lem id<<«l, is ,4 

gartb'iiK we havo m<(mi : ••<■<» <mee, n .«r 

since forgiilt«m. 

I 'n souvenir heun MX -SI ,»io-- i^ 

Plus vrai <|ue le iRinhenr." 

TluM| notation Is from tb«<"Pr«wm" toKKvi'.xfURlMWRAKOArjtiJtcs 

(IjiUi", OK. n.), by '• K.V, B.," a writer who d«ie« Hill--  ' »«^ 

identity with the mistreits of liun(erc<>inl>e Manor.  « 

appvan-'' ^Ip. 

A. K. ,•• 

"In Pr .r- 

•U'lW." .er 

I"!- '^ 

n m 

ut%-   ■.'<! ttam 

Vari.'ii', J. udlcala, 
and am worth eot* 
lecting f-" ')'•' <'loa> 



•nm of 

love the 
of old : 
old 




l>0 

Ihe 
sli«in 

'!« 



r, wilk literary 

-"- -f Joim 

( Miaa 

■h* 

'•a 

 •r 

b 



THK i.ARIIKX AT 

( Kn»fn " «*Trn I lanlMti and • 



Hl-TrntCOMBK. 

r>l>rr -li; R V II ll^nrll 



den l)y the pr«>sent owners. The Palace, to 

is devoted, is Hampton Court, when* Mrs. !: . 

lived to the ag«' of ninety-two. .\» »■»• read the re;< 

description of Maryeulter. by ttu- ^ ••'• f--' ■'•■■ 

s«Menee bids us remind Mrs. Bi'\ 

the river an' Is on its stones is ikm me r 

dip|H>r," for  very different birds, lioth I 

habitat. But it is a pliasant volume, which wv are gla<t t-i i- 

and reminds us of the old rom»ne«» of jrardenliMf. »• • 

when so much is written aliont ' 

The illusi rations, th<.>ugh one •  <d 

confused, are well conceivwl and hanaoaiae with the spint ol 

the Ixmk. 

The Book or GARDKtisa (L'peott Gill, Ida. n.) i* aailMti«a« 
in its aims, and • '  til 

<iardejiing f'^r its i h 

all the it .nipiUtii.: "r 

has wis. . ! of laboar. <t( 

each portitMi u( the wio. 'er who Iw* aude 

a special study of II .-rtUU are qoita 



82 



LITERATURE. 



[July 14, 1900. 



wUUhtftorf on the whole, and Kjicfiiit nifiition niiiy Im> mniic of 
the rhapteni o« norlsts' KIow<m-n, Tr««<v. iirul Sliriilin. On-liids. 
and Aqiufir Plants. But. ns i« iiliiio'.t incviiiililc, tlic Itook is 
inrtNuploto ill NOiiH* dinHMioiw, mid n><liiiidtinl in otlicrs. For 
CXMMple, Chry>:in(hiMninnH an- (Mitlinsiu-dicully tiikoii in liund, 
•ad aowc huudrtHls <rf tho fl()ri>ts' varit>tt<>s art> d«>»rril«'<l, whilo 
the loren of Lilies and DulTodlls will s<Mr<-li in vain for a.H»istanoo 
In tho rulti^-atlon of tli<>ir rnvouritc flo\vi-r>t. And tliniif^i then' 
are a few hintu for tlu> liuildiiii; of a Conservatory, wart-iHy any 
help b giren to thooe wishing; to liuild Pfafli-lioiis4>s nr Vinori<>s. 
There are a great nuni)M>r of fxccllcnt iIlnstration<<, and in a 
future i>ditlon it will Im> woII worth whil(> to make tlio Index 
really representative of tin- IkkIv of the work. 
Tchaikovsky. 

lu Ti'iiAiKt>%nKr : IliK LiKK ANu WoitK.s (Gmiit Uichiirds, Gh.), 
Mrs. Ncwuiareli offers to the general public u collection of 
articles already known to the s|HH'iUcally mnsical piililic, through 
the medium of the mnsieal |ia|M>rx, tofjet her with some oth<'r 
matter. The whole makes an extM-niely iiiteresfiiiB book. 
Tchaikovsky was one of the pionivrs of music in Itiissla, one of 
the llrst prof(>!wional musieians in his country. The Russians 
uaed to «t>ntent themselves in the towns with Italian and 
German ninsie ; ami in the villages with the untutoreil perform- 
anees of the )>enHantry. In this century arose a race of st-rious 
amateurs— soldiers, chemists, doctors, and cJiiiiofiiifc« — who 
devote<l their leisure to composition. And last of all came the 
Rubinsteins and Tchaikovskys. who held that Mistress Music, 
like Mistress C'omm<m Law in the proverbial ]>liili>s<>|)hy of the 
Temple, " must lie alone." The outward events of a musician's 
life are unexcitiuK — he strugf;les. ho|N-s, gives lessons, f;o<'s on a 
continental tour, and dic-s peacefully. A Boswell would llnd a 
musician a sorrj- prey ; his thoughts are his own, unspeakable 
except in his works. Rival coni|>osers do not quarrel wittily 
over 8upp<-r tabb-s ; they do not argue their differi-nces of 
opinion to a tangible minimum ; they shake hands politely and 
part. Brahms, " aware that I did not In-long to his camp, 
made no effort to bei-oine intimate." " Brahms confided to 
Tchaikovsky with quiet sincerity that he did not like his sym- 
phony at all. Tchaikovsky was encourage<I to speak out with 
the same uncompromising sincerity his own convictions al>out 
the work of the gr«'at tiernian master." As Tchaikovsky tells 
uit elsewhere — in spite of all efforts, " I never could and never 
can admire Brahms' music." The i-andour of T<-haikovsky's 
criticisms «( all the gn-at and resp<>cted composers is refreshing 
in contrast to the timorous insincerity of our everyday critics, 
who are ready to a<lmire the roost pitiful efforts of famous 
musicians. Bach's choral works he pronounces " great classical 
borca" ; Handel he found " intolerable" ; Wagner he regarded 
as aomething l>ctw«.eii a quack and a Quixon- ; he would allow 
Schobcrt and I'hopin no more than an " inventive faculty," 
unsupportetl by " imagination," and with all his reverence for 
Beethovi-n " he sometinu-s r«>sented the general l<'ndency to an 
indiscriminate Be«.thoven worship." The foreign tour, usually 
one of the dulli~4t episo<les in a groat musician's life, is made 
gay by the vagaries of a certain Hcrr N.. a mysterious amateur 
impresario, half man. half sprite, appearing suddenly from the 
void, and leading his victim to confusion. 

'* I cannot," aaya Tchaikovsky, " form any just opinion 
upon this singular man, who remains altogether an enigma to 
mc. I am C4|ually puzzled as to his nationality— he calle<l him- 
aolf Russian, but H|>oke tin- language atnx-ioiisly — his |H>silion in 
the wrirltl, :iti(l more i-siM-cially as to the motive which gui(le<l his 
■l» nic, now iM-rM-cuting me with hostile procetnl- 
■I'-ring me the most valuable «cr»ice. In any 
• . • . I must a<-knowlislge tlut it was entirely due to his initia- 
ti.' that I owed my invitations to I>>ip7.ig, Prajjuo, and 
< ■.[•.■iih.igeil. . . . The concert at Dn-sden ni^ver came 
ofl. irj ••msMinence of Herr X.'a strange and unpractical 
uianagrMiM-nt. Nor was it my luck to make the A'ienneso 
.-■•'>|ii:iini<-<l with my mnsii-, Is-^'anse the day llxe<l for the 
colli irt ill N'ienna was identical with the date on which I had 
to be iu Paris." 



Comlaatant Polltloa. 

An Isiiioiiit'iKiN TO KNnUKH PoLlTlfs. by ,Tohii M. 
KolM'rIson (tirunt Ui<-har«ls, UK. (kl.), is |H>rva(le(l by a spirit 
which is iKit so much critical as combative. The writer neatly 
defines |H>litics us the strife of wills, sympathies, and iiitei-ests 
for adjustment in the sphere of legislation and government. 
Travelling ra|)idly over the course of history he sketclu>s the 
general results of this changeful pro(?css in (Srewe, Home, 
Italy, Holland, Switzerland, aiul Portugal, by way of introduction 
to the story of Knglish political struggles, whi<-h he intends to 
emliody in a series of liiogrHphii-al studies dealing with eminent 
Knglish statesmen. The iKxik shows wide and diligent reading, 
and is, on the whole, interesting and suggestive. It is by no 
menus free fnmi faults, and those of more than one kind. Too 
often Mr. Koliertson, olM<dieiit to the militant instln<-t which is 
in him, goes out of his way to criticize authorities with whom 
he do«>.s not agri-e, the result, of course, being that lie mars the 
effect of his own argument. His attack on Oxford strikes us ns 
singularly injudicious. He is horrified at learning that in a 
certain Oxford <'olleg«> young men have lieen advised to read Mr. 
Kidd's " Social Kvolution " and Mr. Mallock's " So<'ial Pro- 
gress " as a preparation for writing essays on the question 
"What support d(H's Socialism receive from the Doi-triiieof 
Kvolution ?" One of these lH>oks, lie considers, is a mere plea for 
customary irrationalism in religion, the other for <-oiiimercialisfc 
conservatism in i>olitics, and Inith, lie ailds, are " paralogisms at 
that." Mr. Rolwrtson ought to know that a Ismk can no more 
lx> a paralogism than it can lx< a syllogism. " In no Continental 
or American University probably could two such books lie so 
founded on." Proljably not. For nil that we do not anticipate 
a rush to Continental and American Universities, in prj'ference 
to Balliol, as a result of this alarming disclosure. Sui'h methods, 
Mr. Kolwrtson gravely adds, " go some little way to explain the 
singular judgments on modern |)olitics disclose<l to us in some of 
the collected letters of the late Professor .lowett, so perspica- 
cious a min<l in the tU'ld of liis special scholarship." Yet Balliol 
in .lowett's time sent forth into the world a fair number of men 
who have attained more or less eminence in political life. Ono 
source of the strength of Oxfortl is that it knows how to teach 
by indirect methods as well as by direct ones. We are not con- 
cerned to defend either the " pei-spicacily " of Jowett's 
jiolitical judgnients and foii-casts, contained in his private corro- 
s))ondence, or the wisdom of those who are r<>sponsiblo for giving 
them to the world. But we must say that we ])r»'ter our recol- 
lc<'tions of his lectures on Thucydides to the wivtcliiMlly inade- 
((iiatc pages in which Mr. HolH'Hson purports to sum up and 
account for the " culture-progress " of ancient Uroece. 



Surgeon-General Sir Joseph Fayrer's Ri«;oi,li«tionh of Mt 
LiKK (BlackwfHxl, '21s.) is too long, and less interesting than one 
would have expected. The autobiographer has no sense of pro- 
]>ortioii, and has not learnt to eliminate the unessential. 
Moreover, many of tin- subjects which he treats at great length — 
the Prince of Wales' visit to India, for instance — have alrt>ady 
been tr<!atcd at suflicicnT length in other Ixioks. His diary of 
the defence of Lucknow, however, has the interest which lielongs 
to all personal reminiscences of that memorable feat of arms, 
though it is written with as little emotion as though it were an 
ofllcial r<>|>ort on hospital management. We assume that Sir 
.loseph Fayrer's riM^ollections of India are more accurate than 
his n>collectioris of his tours in Switzerland. In an account of 
one of these he sjieaks of the Oorner Ornt as " penetrating into 
the very heart of Monte Kosa," when-as a glance at a niapwoiild 
have shown him that it does nothing of the kind. 

A SpfjiiTHWOMAN IN India, by IsalK>lla Savory (Hutchinson, 
Ifls.), Is an account of the adventures of n lady who wont in for 
pig-sticking, Itear hunting, nnd tiger shooting with some success. 
There is a certain amount of mountaineering in the Iiook, and 
there are also somo verj- flue stories alMiiit snakes, elephants, 
and cro<-odlles, more particularly the story of a subaltern who 
for a wager jumped on a crwodile's back and iiiadi- it take him 
or a ride, forcing it to go quickly by prodding it in the neck 



July 14, 1900.] 



T.ITKKATURE. 



wiMi a <!ivrvinf{ fork. Still morn iiiloitisljiijt In Iho r<"|>oi-l uliich 
jMr«. Savi>ry itivcsof tliolifnor woriiori in India. Sho hIiows iiithikl 
the Mwii Saiiil) of lli<» iiiiusU^'iilli iwiiliiry is not a hiiiKniil l;nly 
lyinir oil !i sofii, Inib nii " oiiorK^'liu UmiiiN, Hadniiiitoii, fiilliiiK 
:in<l ridiiiKt .HOiiK>tliii«»H sportliiK, oroiitlon." AinonK tho vlown of 
lif« cntortniiMiil by tho iiutiveM of India tlio followinj; i- v-^- 
charactoristic :— 

Natives an' <>>iiM>«Mlin(jly practical. A sahib a<'ciil<'n(ally 
tthot a Ixiy oim day wtion h»< w.is out In tho jultKl<^ Tho imxt 
inurniii}; ho ittcnivi'tl a dopiitjit ion from lh« man's r<-lalivi>s, 
wlio hiuidod him a written dooiimorit In llio fm-m of a valuation 
of tho il('c<>ast>d"s lifo, sulicilliiK |iaymont for tho saiiic, lo 
which wax apiioiidcd a receipt for tho amount di>iuaiid<.><l. It 
ran in this form :— 



FICTION. 



To Captain F. 

To one bloody murder committed. Five rupo*"*. 

CkHiteutH reoeivtiU on the day of 18 . 

Mrs. Savory makes a ("iirious inistakc in eonfusinp Mr. Kndyard 
Kipling with his father, Mr. Lockwood Kipliii);, and er<MlltinfC 
the novelist with the deMigning of tho Liahore Law Courts — 
" great, airy, massive lmildln);;s." 

CONVEIWATIONS WITH PlUNCB BiKMAitCK (Ilarpcr, Os.) is a 
selection made by Mr. Sidney Whitman from Herr lleinrich 
von Posohl liter's vast collection of Press cuttin(;s relatiiif; lo 
the Ki-oat C!i>rman Chancellor. In virtue of his position as 
Privy Councillor In tho JfciWi.s<im( di-s Innern, with free access 
to Prus-sian ollU-i'.il records, Ilorrvoii Poschln;;<'r was presumably 
better qualilled than most people to distiiiKuish "fake" from 
autheutic rottord. Ho gives, as it were, tho seal of authoritative 
sanction to such stateiuonts as that " good mutton and brisket 
of beef wore amongst the favourite dishes of tho Prince's table," 
that ho was " very fond of lianl boiled eggs," and was onco 
" able to oat eleven at one time," and that Count .Moltke \v;uh 
" not only a groat general but also a taleiitetl inventor of new 
drinks." .\ great portion of the Ixiok is taken up with the 
(.'hancellor's sayings and doings during tho FraiieivtJeriiiaii War, 
though tliei-e is nothing to nuote, as there is nothing that was 
not already |)retty well known. Nor are many of the anecdotes 
new- though it will be a eonvenience to those who crave for 
»-ruiiibs of BIsmarcklan table talk to llnd so many of them 
collected iM-iween the covers of a single voluiiio. 

Till: J)i u. Land (Elliot St«ck, 10s. Od.) is a collwlion of 
p«x>nis iH'aring on death and the future state, compiliHl for " the 
consolation of the mourner." Tho verses are drawn from an 
immense variety of sources. Its sni'cess will depend, of cuursH', 
rather on tho UKX)d and temperament of the reader than on his 
literary taste, so that one need not perhaps regard so well- 
iiieaniiig and industrious a work In too critical a spirit. But 
Mirely that gem of religious aspiration, Tennyson's " Eve of St. 
Agnes," might have found a place. 

The Kwi-amation ok Land Kno.\f Tidal Watkrs, by 
Alexander B<^zel<>y (Crosby LiX'k\voo<l, l<)s. (Id. n.). Is a haiul- 
book for engineers, landed proprietors, and others 'intereste<l in 
such works. To a certain extent it Is foundetl on the work of 
»he late Mr. .John Wiggins, now out of print, but it is thoroughly 
well brought Into line with present kiio\vle<lge and practice, 
there are plenty of diagrams, and there is a chapter on the l.'ir:il 
aspects of reolaniation. 

Tho address delivered by Mr. Charles' Dudley Warner as 
President of the American Social Science Association last May 
has been published under the title The Kditation ok tiik 
Neoro, and forms a remarkable Indictment of the accepted 
system of Imposing the "higher e<lucation " on the negro. Mr. 
Warner, a highly competent observer, is of opinion that tho 
system has given tho negro a veneer of intelIo«'tual training for 
which he is not prepared, instead of teaching hira the thrift and 
industry aiul steadiness of character of which he Is really In 
need. 



rer th* War. 

The pnilll* on the win of Tmb Ljinv«Uliil Tii«.%»iH» 
(Sandx, <K.), e<lit«>fl liy J. Kvi-lel|;h Naoh, «< ■■• 

Mayor of Ludysmith, and will Ix- <l,'v,,i...i ,.. r. 
ill tho t4>wn. Tbn Ixiok 1*   
authon, armnKefl alphalM'i ■• .mi , irom , 

"Zack," and iiicliidiiiK Memn. Kdgar Kawcvtt. I 
Frankfort .Monn-, W. K. ^' I'ctcjf 

While. It hail not ofttMi bai' .«yt— 

of »• i|i have Im-jmi bj 

of a >U, and the vul 

by collis'lors in the tliiMi (•> vnm-, 
who wishes to coillribiite hi- jiiite 
copy with eonndenet* that Ih 

.\ll the contributor- li.i\<' - ., , .. .. _, _ 

not dmw invidious ik, or •uggrvt ttuit Miy one at Ihra 

has doiH- Iwtter tli.iii im* ..lii- -. 

AfMoan NIshta. 

MoriM-co nnd tho West i .. 
colour for Mr. .\. .1. DawsHin's An 

(Heineinann, (Is.)— a collection > luucli muru 

than avi'rage merit. They ««• es ' » man wko 

knows his subje<'t, and -T 

skill, and sometimes wii r 

swms real in them. W' 
and are iiersnadtnl that ' . 
and we shall watch tho fate of this liook ^> 

whether or not it will support its p , ..... 

view, proclaira<-<l iu our columns, that the sucmsu of a v 

llction In no w~ay dept-nds u|X)n the fa-shion. It ' 

success than most liooks, and it may icet it <i 

that th»' fashion is agaiiist ^' ies, ami thai >'jr<h 

.\friean local iMilonr has not yet ' n." 

A " Paulllaton." 

Siii.i I II SiiK IIavk SroKr?* ? by K««h«»r Miliar (Ward. Lock, 
:is. t^d.), is a story which we f -o whet tlM 

app<'tit<»« of the re.aders <i 'if lew tJiey 

Would go on buying that laper uii' ';o had 

really murder*")! .Iiilian fn-sswi-ll's .( th<' 

Khone IJ lacier Hotel. Kveli If tht-y •! 
not ilinicult to do, there still ri'mi'"'"' 
ih<re«l her, anil the unravetliiig of 
skill of which nothing Is w^!ite«l m ir 
W«> are not nuite clear who ought er 
If liertha, whom .Inlian had u 
not siKiken as she did at his - 
had no story to tell ; and on • 
the titli' refers to B<'rtha, w> 
anirm tluit "he •-ertalnly should haw spokro. 

A Rallcloua Noval. 

It is no new thing to write a novel dealing with relifioa, 
but to carry out the intention with so .•.luinliti' am! raiidM an 
air as does Mr. .Tohn Soaiie in Tin 

stable, Rs.) is at least unusual. The , 

the interest of Mr. Edward St. John, the eam€?st hero, " wa« 
the religious history of our Western world, the solution ol 
which mlttht lead to tho practical endeavour towarda th« 



rest 1 ' 


: the spir  


prol' 


him St. 


may aid his 


- 


It is " nttont 




(« rpi 


1 .\lr. Kast " ^ 


too 1 


■n the '• teachl 



Mai4y 

* time,* 



A Story ok an K«T\vri v 
Crampton, is a M 
about sheep and 
.\rgentine K' 
more alxmt si 

The lKK>k is jnoilicrvm i\ \%ini*-(i, .um it .- 

ing about the plot or tho characters ; but ti 
is instructive. 



<tst a Utile 



I. S«. M.\. hr fir-nrrp 

■Ik 



rt 



34 



LITERATURE. 



[Julj U, 1900. 



Corresponbcnce. 

THX JLLLEQED DECAY OF FABLE WRITING. 

IXi THK EOIIOK. 

sir, — ^Mr. Story will m>t think iih> iiiiapi>n>i-iii(ivi' of liis 

gMOeflll artirlo in your i-.-<ue of July 7 if I <lixa(;n><> with him 

wkere ke Mys " tho fahio . . . »wm» now-aduvs in l><- r|iiiti> 

dwpiaMl." 

Thi» kind of Bioral Kiirliil d<H><« not ronitily |kiii .■<!. ;■• iiso 
a vulgar phraar — to Imok-fonn, and I huve in my mind's pyo a 
book of aodcm falil<*s, by n living writer, the fljriiro of which is 
ao sliu that it mij^ht eaiily <'«to:i|>o imtii-o if Mimlwioliod lH>t\vttMi 
good editions of .1iM<|i and I^ Koiitiiini-. 

The author to whom I refer shall iHit b«> nnnipd in this plaeo 
lr<t I stand ac-ciiMHl of l<>j;-rollitig, but I nill cite two examples 
of hi» «^rk : — 

Olilivion. 
" We write l>eautiful things that men may forgot thorn," 
quoth a poet. 

"Yet "•"■ i-:.~-.w ,...,.,,1 ..f .1 .,..•/•• ,,„rtt|, aiiotlici. 

And again : 

i »<■«•<•! . 

A wine man looked at tli<- world and langliiHl. 
And an altruist offertnl him reproof, saying " Tlierv is 
occasion for tears, one would think ! " 

*' Tears of blood are not to be compasse*! by all of us," 
answered the wise man. 

It will bo obvious that I like my key to lie D major, as 
Beethoven would have said, and to some a lighter manner wen? 
preferable. SutBce it to say that luy fal>iilist has an intellect mil 
joco-tity of style quite his own, but I surrender to the pleasure 
of r|it<<tlng my [x.'t iiieoes. 

Faithfully yours, 
^ W. H. CHKSSOX. 

GRAMMAR v. IDIOM. 

TO THE EDITOR. 

Sir. — To ray mind the phrase on which I challen!;i-il .Mr. 
House simply means " it is not good to have too many Ciesars." 
The distinction l>etwe»Mi this Kontcnce and " too many Ciosars 
are not good " is a distinction without a difference. If Mr. 
Kouse's general contention Im sound, I cannot understand how 
an author of such high n-putc as Sir Thomas More could have 
written "gold and silver arc no i)art of ourselves." But if I 
can support myself by a r|iiotation from More, I can also support 
Mr. Bouse — " Yet thereof is no wonts m.ide at all " ; for tbeMS 
old author* lack one quality needful to make them good wit- 
nesses on his bctuklf — the quality, namely, of consistency. 

They tl- -ffcr nngrammatical to grammatical forms, but use 

twth 1 ';:itely. I heartily agree with Mr. House In 

ri^rettiii^ tliat many of the words thoy eniployod have dropiKHl 
out at use : hut I cannot admit that a trno fe<>ling for the 
tueaning of  i in their ungi ' arrange- 

ment, lu I I proM', Mr. 1;. 'j;tliz<>son 

 single particular qurxed Iruni .> i' i '|x'r. 1 could have given 
hiui a dozen such slii>-sh<Ml n.v, -|. i|,<t phra.ses : with which, 
however, I think bo would have failed to prove tliat authors like 
Arnold, Kuskin, Mill, and many more I eould UMMition were 
unable to write their own language with clearuesii and vigour. 
Ill the matter of poet rj-, his allusion to Herricks " Cheat of 
Cupid " strike* me as pe<-uliarly unhappy. If Mr. House's critii- 
'■■<" I to the bad rhyme while iloing jnsticH) to the 

g- !•« of the |ioet his |x»sitir.n wfMild Ik- |>erfi«ctly 

r » a»oitiil»!«? ; but to deny the |*o<-t's H' 'm> of the fals<> 

rbyMe would b»i as nnr<>n»onable as |. i nat it was due 

to the fatoe rhyme. In fact, the critio would, in this ease, be in 
much tlM suDe position as Mr. Kouse himself. Mr. House says 
that rao«l«rB vene is " (tolishcd up U) the extreme," that " falw< 
•«fitijnenl or triviality may pa«». but an inexact rhyme never." 
The " LotQ»-caten " in which " memory " is made to rhyme 



with " infancy " (Wsses very well ; so does " In Meinoriam " in 
s|»ite of " curse " and " horse " ; whiU>, for ruggi^d metre, I 
will pit Browning againvt any old poet. I tliiuk, oit the 
other hand, there would be some difficulty in llinling, within the 
whole rtinge of flnglish |K>etry, niois- |M>lislied versj' than is to 
lie found in, lot us say, Ben Joiu»ou's " Hymn to Diana," or th»» 
song which is sung to the |H>isoned Kmperor in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's " Vulentinian." Polish and ruggedness, goo<l rhymes 
and liad. false sentiment and triu>, are incident to every ago : 
and in dividing our own age from » former one, Mr. House, 
treating of |)oetry. has used, for his differentia, pro|ierties which 
are connuou to both. Again, wlieti ho reasons from the propoiii- 
tion that I am ready to .sacriflee vigour of thought and expression 
to mere corn^ctness, I can only say, in ivply, that if he will 
grant to uk- this .same privilege of assuming false preiuisses from 
which to dediwe conclusions suitable lor my own argument I 
will undertake to prove anything. 

I yield to no one in my admiration for our old English 
classics.- At the s;iine tin>e, I still fail to •ih- that great writers 
(whether old or modern) are great iK-eausi? of their faults rather 
tluin in spite of them, even as I fail to s«^e that the force of Mr. 
House's reasoiilii',' u enhanced by the fact of its lieing logically 
unstiniid. 

Yours faithfully. 

\VII,1.I.\.\I t'AIHNS. 

I-iist Putney. S.W.. .lulv S>tli, HKxi. 



AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 



It scarcely looks as if tlie exiieriment of si\|)eiiiiy liooks was 
unsuccessful. Seeing how long a time it took to bring the pub- 
lisheis down from 31s. (kl. to 6s., the unlooke<l-for descent to (Wl. 
»e»«nied too precipitate to be likely to l>e |N>rmnnent. \'et tho 
sixiK-nny edition increases and multiplies. Last week we had a 

sixix y "School for Saints " (L'nwiii) : this \ve<'k we have a »ix- 

IMMiny " Aylwin " (Hurst and Blnckelt). uiul next wi>ek we are to 
have a six|H'nny "Tessof the DTrbervilles" (ll:ir|(ers), while Mr. 
Heineiiianii is giving iis Stephen Crane's " Re<l Badge of Courage." 
We now have in this form not only the iincopyright classic, not only 
the new and untried book, which might try cheapness as a means 
to success, but books both copyright and successful, of which the 
alxiveaffordexcolleiitexamples. Perhaps the most interesting thing 
is the Ripidity with which the successful novel published at six 
shillings is l)eing followed by the six|)enny reprint. Mr. Egertoii 
Castle's "Young April" was only published last year, yet 
Messrs. Macmillan are alxiut to include it in their sixiienny 
series. " .\ylwin," in its new form, will contain a portrait of tho 
author and some intro<luotory remarks ii|Hin Siiifl Lovell and 
other characters of the story. It will 1m< interesting to see how 
the sixpenny public takes to Mr. Hardy : the piiWIishers have 
limited theetlition to 50,000 copies. It was Mr. Hnrtly's "Far 
From the Madding Crowd," it may l>o rememlieriHl, with which 
Messrs. Harper started their half-crown series last autumn. 
KxperieiK-ed observers in tlie tnide have arguetl that tlio 
iiHHiern " bixim " is apt to loso in length what it has gained 
in breadth, and that a iMiok which is a great success one seaaoit 
is desid iK'yoml r' "i the next. Can this Ih) the explana- 
tion of tlK>sc il> >nately (rheap editions of copyright. 
lKM>ks so re4-ently in large demand ';' At all events, it was a 
happy thought to prejiare the way lor " HoIk'i-i Orange " with 
so cheap a reprint of " Tho Sehiml for Saints," sincH) some 
readers probably of the earlier ljo<jk have memories tliat need 
refreshing. Messrs. White and Co. have joined tho sixpenny 
publishers this season with a copyright si>ries, which so far has 
gone well. TliriMi of the IxKiks in the series are already out of 
print — "The Induna's Wife," by Bertram Mitford ; " A Valuable 
Life," by .\deliiie .Sergeant ; and "The Busliraiigi-r's Sweetheart," 
by Hume Xisbet. 

Tlie list of twenty-five volumes which Messrs. Mncmillan 
pledged themselves to bring out in their now Library of Rnglisli 



July I t, igon"! 



T TTi'ij^rrHf 



S5 



I 



l'l:issit'ii t* li«;iniiK f<irii|ili'ti(>ii, l>ut wi- uiidfril^iiiJ tli.il i!ii 
(iiililishprH liiivx not yi'l ilcriiliHl wIh'IIiit tlii>y uiti i>x(<-iiil tint 
wrioH or not. Tin- voliiiiics iiro ho IiuikIsoiiio niul 1ih»X|mmihIvi>, 
and tho tcxtx ko cntn|il<-t« iinil nccnrito, tliiit il ur>iili| Iw n pity 
to Ift tho sei-irs drop. TIiIh nionlirH voIiiiid-h uri' " M:iii(ti>v!llo'n 
TruvoJs " anil Wlilt<''H " .SollHirno," tlir rciuiiliiini; uorlCH U> Im( 
included In tliu llhrury lM-<inK Witllon'N " Lives " und " Coin- 
plotc AnKli'i* " in ono volnino ; tlio r>o Qninri<y voliiini*, anil 
Lockhnrfs " LIfn ot Hi-ott.'Mn nvi> volnMn>H. Tlii>ti-xt of M.inili>- 
villo'H Ih tliut of tliii Cotton nmnuHi-rlpti now for tlii> ni>t tiino 
printi-d in itji rntirrty. Tlio " il1iLstrativi> nurnitiviw from 
Hiikluyt," wliieli iiro priiitiHl ah ii siippli<nii>iil, aro IIiom* of 
Carpini, rinliruk, mid Odoric, Tlir ni'W edition of " HollHirnc " 
is ri<prlnt4'd it is lii'licved for llii' llrst tiini- from tlii< ti'Xt of 
tlio tirst (.nlition without diminution or " additional notes," 



Wo nn< promiHed hu English Temion of tlii> Momoir^i of 
Mudnniu Lonixo Michel, tho well-known Fivnch iinci»li!il, who, 
It is said, was ronvertiil from a crnHailit in KnKlund hy the 
sijiht of our Kn^lish workhonst's nnd tho homely efforts of the 
Knfclish poor law. This, it is true, did not tuitiHfy the tHH-iulikin 
of Dickeus II Ki'>i<^'i">'>"U buck. But the novelist huv to draw u 
diflfcrcnt picture now of workhouse life, and Mr. I'ell Kid^te 
does it in the " Son of the Stale " which wc n-viewed on 
August 2(1, 181K), when it ap|H-are<l in Messrs. Metlinen's Six- 
|M>iiiiy Novelist S<'ries, and which is now, we notice, published liy 
the same house at lis. (id. Stepniak, Prince Kro|H>lkiu, anil 
Madame Louise Michel will help the historian of the futui-e to 
write a dilticult chapter of modern history, that of uiideri;nniiul 
Kui-o|H', which ha.s rarely onu-rRed into public view, an if did at 
the tinio of the career of tho Paris Commune. About that 
omergenco AfaiUimo Louisu) Michel has much to tell at first hand. 



S|)eakinK at tho Carlyle celobralion in DocemlK>r, 180."). Mr. 
.loliii Morley veiiliii-ed to doiilit whether .iny one now living had 
ivad the whole of " Kr<>derick the (Jreat." Some of his hearei-s, 
iiulood, appeared astounded at this expression of scepticism, but 
the mans of the public who care anything alioiit literatnn> totiK 
asto came to the conclusion that the work is far t<x) bijf. As 
origiually Issued it >vas contained in six l»ix«> volumes (the Oi-^i 
IWQ of which appi-ared almost exactly forty-two years aK"). and 
in clieapor form it has run into ten. Now It is being cmupressa-d 
into three, each costinj; half-a-erown, and it will lie iiileresliii:; 
to note whether the piililiir will take mon- enthusiastically to it 
as a whole when it looks smaller und costs less. " Kn-di-rick " 
cosf the author a multitude of troubles ; and Mrs. «':ip|yl<-. in 
one of her moods of ih-jection. termed it "that tn-in. .k 

(which] made pi\)U)n};ed and ent ire devastation of an\ ry 

semblance of home life or home happiness." But it was remark- 
ably successful, pecuniarily and otherwise, and probably no 
sresiter compliment could have lK>en paid to its accuracy than 
tho fact that tierman military students wiere set to study 
Frederick's battles in the pages of Carlylo's work. 



Ill the preface to his edition of the " Letters ol Samuel 
Johnson " Dr. BirklM-ck Hill spoke of the ho|H' he enlerlained 
that he should live to complete the main work of his life as a 
scholar by a new edilion ol the " Lives of the Poets." He was 
turned away from his purpose for the time by a letter from Mr. 
Leslie Stephen askiii}; him to iilit all tho.st> writings which have 
lK>en included under the general title of " .lohnsoniana." The 
task pi-oposed, Dr. Hill has told us, seemed pleasant in itself, 
and oven it it had been irksome lie would have hi»<italeil much 
iKjfore ho declined a ref|iK>st coming from a man to whom every- 
student of our country was so deeply indebted. The accomplish- 
ment of the work Mr. Leslie Stephen suggested was delayeil b> 
ill-health, but accomplished it was, and Dr. Hill gave us his two 
volumes of " .lohnsoniau Miscellanies " three years ago. And 
now it is satisfactory to know that life and health have l)een 
granted to him to return to his original purpose, and that his 
eilition of tho " Lives of tho Poets " which is to crown his lifc- 



nnt 



-.i»f> b-jnt. 



when (ieorve Hand wua the n. 
follow Ciuikuolo into h>"' • .....,,..„ 

HuiloNlmlt, anil It 1« i> i (o Mr. ' 

talent to »ay that hi« < mi,»ii<'mi |« not 
ten-xtins than (Scorge Sand'n. Kvelyn I 
' nor even her un<>|MM>kalile B^nii.-r-,  I 

I'm ; and Ihu mm-ihiiI hilt <>f (■'•r runxr 
siiulj »( convent life. Mr. M<.. 
reuiemltoreil, a rcalixt, with the : 
alHiut " human il<M-uiucnl*." He > - 
Celtic frieiidk, and U now, no w<^ h . 
thonuh not " a mystic," it will Iw umlerMonU 
gical iionM< at that word), who nbuts li.> ki.xhIi U. 
il tide of his convent pirtum I* k 

When Mr. Monru has flnisheil ' .".mi. iii,-,., n.- 11,^.111, i-. 
re-wrltv " Evelyn Iuuch." A piuun «i«h auy, poriuiia. bn 
vxpriKuHxl tliat the Barum' '-■ rwnouldnl iutu aamtn 

si.>mblaucv of an tCnglish C' Tbv whole work oMjr b» 

ready hy noxt spring, and will cmiUiin thrro huMlrMl I 
woiils. 

Mr. Ueineiiiaiiii is issuing a \" 

:iii,i ;i, i.---i,..ii~;i,:i;^ ^ i,.r ti,,- w ., 



" i liiiiluiiK atw 
title and 8ui>je<.'t ol 
autumn. 

The book tnide, not»vilh«tnndin!r th«« dopi 
six or eiglil nionilis. is r 
MMison. War Ixsiks com 
has put a little life into iii< 
what niixht U- ti-rmiil noi 
stopiMMl. Within the next 
have virtually enter<yl n|>iHi 1 
\'oluiU(W re. Ill \. ( till' !•. Mi 
m-si-ripl i 
Di^von all' ' 

is a new \oiuiiif ul siori^** tiy 
enigmatic titl<> of " TI 
Melhiien's M'ries of L 
Oxford. 4*:kiid>riili;c. ami 



(no of III* l««4 



Mr. Henry Jaiiii'^t. 

S..fl Siile." 'At»..if M,. 



• V Ml"-! Tp_>utl>' ck. 



Intel' 
priv.i-. 
on till' 

lilsiiti-x 



I of aboni 



I 



Housti of 

of the aiii . 
i giH-s back to 
id," who had 
was ilist'ltargiMl by the Lord 

" A Keview of Irish 

I ''lit of Irelanil," 

l>v Mr. Kisher 



Mii,\<>r ol i 
History in 
l.y .l..hii I' 

I'liwiii. 'r 



<h- Rrn^al 



c\pl,iili 1 
coiisiih-r- 



Another b<M>k which Mr. 

<-lllir l.'.J " Mv \ It. I'.lr.. .in ' I, 



iiMip i* 

;.,( ,. .1.'. 



writes the in. 

einl>r;iri' the v 



.Ml-:,-is. M 

rights in his il 



,. . . . 1 
•p eoiiB<l«"nc«« 



liui 



well 



III Ikl'ltK 



A .-. 



ou 



LITERATURE. 



[July 14, 1900. 



Another 1' to th«> forihi'.iiiiiiiK I'l^-iidotiti;!] 

Election in Aui< .iil>l!slii<«l liy M<'^sr>.. Hiir|M>r :iiiil 

BratlH>r«. It is i-^llttl ■• ihir Prr>ii«U'iHs aiul Hmv \Vi> .Makr 
Th««," au«l i« hy <'.>l<Ki<>| A. K. MrChin-. It ooiitiiiiis iiii 



ii: 



M. 



ft^r tin- AiniTii'itii 
178U, til in II to the 



t»" 



:i |.>-.»i. 

iiic«> that 



tlio first two volniiM»s of 

■:ir in the niitiimii, a mtm's 

\^ • - :  !.■■ . .rf«Ts (if •• proiiiiiioiit iiicii 

:r M.luMU'- tli.iii ortlliiary fume in tlu- 

V life." '• T\«'lv<> (Jr»>at Aotors " and " Twolvo 

<■ " I>v Mr. Ktlwanl Koliins, author of" Kolioos 

<'f tin- the llrst two roliinies. 

T' !i<>d ill ihf Ciiitod Statos thJH autumn a 

ti: - Hoiii<>»i of (irt>at Britain '" — " llaby," 

1'; iikI ; " (i|<xl(la«-tli," by Miss (.'onstaiict- 

Suulillc ; •• i;iaan>," bv Ladv (iluiniK ; " Knolo," bv l>ii-(l 
Saokvillo ; •• Bli.-klinjr." by Ror. A. H. Malan ; " Kufford 
Abbey," by LortI Savilo ; " t'onipton Wyiiyatos," by Miss 
Alice Dryden ; and s«'voral olhei-s. A liinitiKl (Hiition of tlic llrst 
sr- •■ ' ,h was publisluMl in the L'liitcHl States last year, will 
b' ' oat in London by Messrs. Putnam in the early 

ai. 

A vohiine by Mr. W. L. Mauson treating of the bagpipe in 
its relations to Seoi'i^ti :iinl Higlilanil life is at pn-sent in the 
prens, and will be by Mr. Alexander (Jai-dner, of 

Puisley. Like a tn - Mr. Manson declines to aecept the 

theory that the bagpiix- «-as inijiorted in to .Scot land from abroad. 
He holds th;ii thi- instrninent was evolve<l, from a rude stjile to 
i'- II, within the Highlands. The volume will 

<■ u> various pipe tunes, and is to be of a 

" |j<'pular ' chaiai-ter. 

The Arm of Bruckmann in Munich has published a very useful 

on the different methcxis of art reproduction ; the 

- one of the first positions in the whole world for the 

of its illnstrat<>d work. The title of the publication 

• xlerne Werkstatte fiir Buchgewerbe und graphischc 

ion." 

Pr«'lK'ndary Harry Jones is aboat to issue a volume of 
addresses on current topics entitled " The Tides of To-day." 
Mr. Elliot Stock will be the publisher. 

Fiction. — A good list of new novels for the auliinin haslH>en 
prepare«l by Messrs. Maomillan. It includes " Hichard Yea and 
" I' It ; "In the Palace of the King," by F. 

ii'rii Broods," by Charlotte M. Yonge ; 
I II... . ...> iiolf Boldrewmxl ; " Foes in Law," by 

); 'i.li'on ; "Rue with a Difference," by liosa N. 
.1 ,.w v.,)m.u..v l.y Winston Chnrchill and Egerton 



Mr. William Piulley Foulke, the author of " Slav or 
Kaxon," has alMindoiiiHl ivonomic <|U<>stions for historical romance 
ill a new iHxik which the Piitiiaiiis have in haiirl. It is a story 
of the mysterious ruins of Yucatan in Central America, the 
heroine. Princess Maya, iH'iiig the last of the kingly line which 
built the now cnuiibling palaces. Another aiiiiouncemcnt in 
Messrs. Putnam's new list is to the eff»)ct that " Love Letters 
of a Musician," by Myrtle Heed (now in a third edition) is to 
l>e follovv«»d by a volume of " Later Love Letters," with musical 
<! notations to suit the sentiment of the corres|)oiidenci'. 

Mr. Paul Li'icester Ford will Ix- n'|>reseiil«'d in the autumn 
by a new story eiititle«l " WantiKi, A Watchmaker." 

Tolstoi is siiid to Ih^ engaged on a new iKxik entitletl " A 
New Kind of Slavery," dealing with the wretched lives of the 
railway employes. 

A new sixpenny illustnttod weekly, entirely devoted to the 

great business of Miwlern Travel and Touring for Health and 
Pleasuiv, is announced by George Newnes, Limited. It is to Ihj 
calle<l The, TmfeHi-r with the sub-titlo " For Whom the 
Worbl is a Playground." 

Yet another Clerical Directory is to come into existence in 
the winter — viz., " The Church Dir»>ct«ry anil Almanack," to be 
published from 21, B<>rners-st reel, Oxford-street, W. Bi^sides the 
cnstomar.v lists it wll contain a variety of information (including 
a series of lioiiiiletical hints), and will !» published at '2s. net. 



I 
I: 
r 
i' 






HI. ..i . 
Carey 
Castb . 



Book* to look out top at onoo. 

POLITICAL HISTOKV — 

' A History of Political I'arties in the United 8tat«8. " By Jamea H. 

Hopkins. I'utnnms. 10s. Oil. 
' World I'olitics at th<' End of the Nineteentb Century." By Professor 
Puiil S. Kcinsch. .Macinillan. 9s. 
ART— 

'The Ropresontative Significance of Fonii." By Professor George L. 
Ksymond. Putnams. 9s. 
KICTIOX — 

• Thi- Descent of the Ducboss.'' B.v Morlcy Hoocims. Snnds. Ss. 6d. 
' The Shield of His Honor." By Itichard Henry Savaiji'. White. 6s. 
' For Britain's Soldiers " (in aid of the War Kiinds). Methuen. Cs. 

' 'rbe Soft Side." By Hi-nry James. Methuen. 6r. 
' The Crimson Cryptogram.'" By Fergus Hume, John Long. Ss. 6d. 
nr.rRiNTS — 

 Voving April." By Egerton Castle. Macraillan. 6d. 

' 'less of tne D'tirix'rriTles. " By 'I'honms Hardy. Harper. (5d. 

 .Vylwin." By Thfodore WBtts-Dunton. Hurst and Blackett. 6d. 

• Ked Badge of Courage." By Stephen Crane. Hcincmann. 6d. 

KOfS — 

of I'o-day." By Prebendary Harry Jones. Elliot Stock. 
-'■T Ablwy." By Miss Troiitberk. Methuen. 3s. and 3s. 6d. n. 

• Uiii tmuor : A Descriptivf and Historical Sketch. ' ' By the Rer, 8. 

Baring Gould. Uethueii. 6s. 
' Stable Management and Exercise." By Captain M. Horace Hay ci. 
Hurst and HIackett. 12i. net. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



Rionn APHv 



' -I!, oi Hcrcfoni. e 
^•or>le You K"-^ 

, .i\ \\ ..!,,■ 

V ^ -'y.t.JI 

Urvitol. .\rruwMiiiili. 

DRAMA. 



u.. I.I rciil'**, 

Wunri.r Allirrl. 

H.kIh Itr. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

Etuda* Bup I'Anttqult^ 

Or*cque. fi-/rir ir,  - 



i.. ' // . 
I 
Bob«>rt Or 



Tho "^btpoi 

llnrr. h 

Th« Mapri' 

JoSn Utr 



BonoD. 



On Allen Shores. By ArsViV 
Krith. n^ .iiTi, .'Mli pp. 

Mur^t A; Klackm. (>.. 
Th» OatOBofTemptn't^n "■ 
.1. .S. nnitlfhi: 
I' 
Ail Unotuiny OIpI. 1... ..... ./. 

.Sndlir. TJx..'>in., '.aoi pp. 

firet-nfnK. --. 0*1. 
TheAutobloflTPaphyora Char- 
woman. Ity A/inii U'lilii iiiiiti. 

X  '.III.. ;*":! tip. .M.'lr.jiu-rli, 

The Monk and tha Dancer. Kv 

A. S. Smilh. 8>..'iill.. -.'lO pp. 

|i>>vvn">. :i-. M. 
Li — «„-.-„ H- V-- .I."'- '■-■ 



HISI ' 
A History etc I /'r.,(. 

J. II. Hiirl. 7. 

Ancient Britain 

.Mrnlorn .\nMiii'<il. ... 

Hy Alir l>rl Mar. U  lim., lUi pp. 

N. « V..rk. 

< .inibrldgn Knrjrclopavlla Co. 

LITERARY. 
Pascal, 'I,'' lintnd" T.rHrMn" 



MILITAHV. 
Voluntoor Soldiers. By fajil. 

M. II. Iliiti. ...1 K.l. 7 • .'.In.. I»pp. 

Kr|{(in Paul, 

MISCELLANEOtJS. 
Sovsa Oai"' •-. 



The Enfllsh Dialect Diction- 
ary. Kd. bv l>r. Joseph H'rii/ht. 
Vol. II. II. (i. lixUJin.. 7;ipp. 

Frowd*.. 

Index to Periodicals of 1899. 
lu  xin.. it.) pp. 
•• l:e\ icw of It'Viiw- •• I Kll.o. 10«. 

Notes on a Century ol Typo- 
graphy at the UnlvDrslty 
Press. i:i  loin,. i:l' :  .. . ' 
Thf I'ni' 

How to ReKaIn Hi I 

Uve 100 'Years. !>.> 
Hill It. Triinslalid from tbo 
Italian of I/owU Cornani. llxSln.. 
II i.p. Iturl'-igh. Is. 

The Human Frame and the 
L.aW8 of Health. 'T.niple 
I'nni. r-.l I' '  " * ' 

Srirr. ! 

(ii-rioait t. 
140 pp. 11. ru. 

PHILOSOPHY. 
Ppobl^mes de Phllosophle 
Positive. Hy Huilltmm' ilc 

lirti I. 7; l.iti.. li;!i pp. 

Srhll^irhtT. 

POETRY. 
Translations nnrt othor 

V. rses. Hy ' 

nojip. 
Uu I'Aube au Soil'. 

Urnutnt. 7i>.(liu., 1^ pp. i'ltri-, 

n«>'. Lemerro. Kr.3. 

POT TTTr AL. 
Ljt Deml-I'. 'le. Note.< et 

)('-ncxio!i' I'olltlguede 

la Krani;c. liy (. . i^ouzon U I}ur, 
;ix«|ln.. Jllpp. I'lon. Kr.a.io. 



REPRINTS. 
Byron's Works. Vol. I V. Letters 
and .lournaK. Kd. by Ii. E. 
I 'rot litrv. 8 .> aj i n . . M> pp. 

ifurray. Ii«. 

Lavenrro. By Ocoruc Borrotr. 

Sx4Jn..«iM pp. NViinl, Lock. 2m. 

SCIENCE. 
Examen Psychologlque des 
Anlmaux. Hy I'irrrr llarhtl- 

.Sijuiilil. 7i • IJln., lliopp. 

.Sclill'icliiT. 

Text-Book or Zoologry. I'arl I. 

M.iniln.'il-. Hy Ottn Hchmril. 

"''  I I ho (iermnii by 

1. by .1. Cunning- 

• pp. 

\- ,V < '. HIaik. .-!-. (Ul. 

Ycni'-nook of the Sclontlllc 

iiiul Leiirned Societies of 

Great Britain and Ireland. 

".t- jjin.. JsOpp. (Jriniii. ;~. (ill. 

SOCIOLOGY. 
America's Working' People. 

Hy C. II. Spolir. H . .lin.. i."il pi). 

I/iMKnialib. h-<. n. 

The Distribution of Wealth. 

Hy J. II. ( 'lurk. !)> (iin.. HI ])p. 

I'll!' Mm inillan ( u. !■.'■<. ii. 

La Femme Cathollque et la 

DAmocratle Pranfalse. Hy 

the I'l'romf f »«« Adtunuir. *ix4)in., 

317 pp. Perrin. Kr.3.ari. 

TRAVEL. 
Scrambles In the Eastern 
Oralans. (I«7« IS(7.) Hy Ucorw 
fcid. tkn6la.,/!iv\f. 

Cnwiu. 7s. 6d. 



itcratuic 



Published bv JLbC ^imcd. 



No. 144. SATURDAY. J1L\ Ji I -■ 

CONTENTS. 

NoTEH OF THE Day 37, 38. 'K, 10 

Pkbsonal Views— Ibsen as IdealUt, by Prof. C. H. 

Herford 40 

FnnKidN LETTEn—Frnnce 41 

A MOKKIIN HlHI.IIMIKAPHY OP CHINA 43 

Kkcknt Excavations in Crete II 

The Dkama, by A. B. Wnlkl.v II 
Reviewh— 

Tho Campnign of ISl.") 45 

A History of Simskrit Literature 40 

HIdn I.IkIXx no l>i'' Virion nt Trrrtir Wi-mIi-v iiiul MntKrwHan. 

LuUicr and Ih- ' 

Hiilc <if I'uri! 

Middli- Aboh \ :i :..^: ;: ^ ... 

liiiUiiiiK T'luc<s>- liuiilu to Alauuli<iBU>r— V'uluiiloer HoldicrK — 

IIimiltKHik nf .Iiiiiinini 47 4f) 4J( 

fiUlucAt ioiijil BoolcH , ^P ryi 

Hobert ()r»n«;r Kor KriUin'K Holdierw — Tbo Chovkller of tho' 

Spltiiidid Cn--)! Blni-k Hi-iirt .-ind \Vh((r Hcnrt Tho f'hl.nnir.i, 

Slono- Ki "'. "■  Tj  - 

Thi! lYi 

Thiiiic ' 

LooiH' — In liKli' I'laio^ .Mr. liojtun il) 51 

LllllWKY N0TK8 52 

authokk ani> pfblisheiw 52,53.51 

List op New Books and Reprints m 



NOTES OF THE DAY. 



til. 



We publish elsewhere a hlhlioKraphy of moclern l)ook.s bear- 
ing oil China which are now available. The crisis bidii fair to 
prodiico almost as inauy books as difl the outbreak of «-Br in 
South Africa. Messrs. Sampson Low, who have just IhsuihI 
their work on " Knroix-an Settlements in the Far Kast " announce 
" China and tho Present Crisis," by Mr. Joseph Walton, the 
Litieral memlwr for South Leeds, who recently retnm«l from an 
eight montlis' journey in the extreme East. Though there has 
never been anything to compare with the Poking massacre, 
history has been repeating itself with strange fidelity in tho 
present crisis. This has inducMl Mr. Murray to annoanco a 
reisstie of the late Lortl Loch's " Personal Narrative of Occnr- 
rences during Lor<l Elgin's Second Embas.sy to China in 18W) " 
(which has been long out of print), and tho book will be ready 
before the end of the month. 

« « * • 

Lord Loch (then Mr. Loch) was attached to tho 
headquarters of the army engaged in China daring tho 
war in 1860, and shared with Mr. (afte^^•ards Sir Harrj-) Parkes 
tho perilous duty of negotiating tho surrender of the Taku 
Forts to the combined French and British forces. During tho 
subsequent march on Peking from Tien-tsin, Loch and Parkes, 
with a party of Sikhs and a few Europeans (including Mr. 
Bowlby, The Tinten corresixmdent). were treacherously captured 
by the Chinese and brutally maltreated in Peking. Loch and 
Parkes wore tho sole survivors, and in his book the former 
gives a vivid account of his experiences. Lord Wolscley 
(theii Lieutenant-Colonel), who accompanied the expedition, also 
wrote a book about tho war. which is now out of print, but we 
luiderstand that there is no present intention of reissuing it. 

Vol. ml No. 3. 



that 

pp.-.- • . ... 

of I'lu' I'uiu, 



1>. 




>i ! ; titi 1. 1. >« .'I. I 

irnKto t»U> n( anotk<«r ct m i— p 

y^ - •». the brilliant AiMtrmlUa )>a 

whoHO telegranw from iVkiiig r»|M<«l<Mlly arrlvnl alHad i4 i 

III' The nunilMT of 

hn  it the |iint of duty witkia 

pmhably niipr(<e<><lent«><i. hut tint aloe* lb« daatk of Mr. 

at I.!idyiiinith has sued n wrioaa gap baaa ■Mcb' "nC i 

of Kriti«h journalisti. Dr. Motriaoa'a lUa w.. rttmmmam 

and adventure, lie was soithlng of • tmroUer •▼«■ to Mi 

student days at Melbonme. and «nM haraly of asa friHS. I 

voyaiires to the South Soa Islands and New Guinea, 

his famous journey, nn foot and uii.-i- \» Dm Aoslralian 

continent. Then ho went again to ^ .noa and aanowly 

esoapeit death from a spear woand In hl« side. After takiar 

his M.B. at Edinburgh in IffiT. he vUltcd J:i' .Ml 

Moroi'co (where he played the jiort of Court pli n^ 

to Australia, and allowed another wandering (it tn take him or«>r- 

land across China to Bnmui. In Chlnow drt*w and pigtail, boi 

alone, unarmed, and knowinc very little of the iangiufftt. TtM< 

sequels to this retii m 

tn China," and li .i 

The Time*. 

• • * ' 

Major Pond has, nxi understand, socuntl .M ....to 

S|)eneer Churchill to deliver a scrie* of lartun;<t this aatoain la 
the L'nl^' It is said that .M ' ' I pmpOMo* (o ask 

the Ann nston Churehill !■. •> tlia Icrtarer oa 

his first ap|M<araiice, which will pmlwbly be in N«w York. 

• • • • 

At a uMMaent when half I^ndno is oomaltinc tfana-tabl** 
and the other half in wmhiag it eoald dn mi, thnre coaMs (ram 
Messrs. ^■ 
on a pen. 

publication thai lora it h 

though one must n-.. ...... . ihat the 

already produced somcthiogof the kin 

Tho TniKellt'f merits a » 

number there is just a sugc 

boat circular. The photographs are re| 

worthy of the hL" 

those smudgy araiu. 

too often illustrated — and other rvsorta beside* the obrfama oamt 

are dealt witli. 

•  • • 

We trust, however, that the editor will see his • 

expand hLs scheme. There arc, at loa.si. twn ways in wbi 

might do so. In the llrst place, ho wonld interoat many of as if 
he would c<>' tnd pictares) about the f<>v 

remaining di^ coaceraini; which even et- 

perienced travellers are, as a mle. Ignorant. The OoTonwe*. 
tho Sierra Nevada, the Cantabrlan Highlands are regions nnn 
would recommend to his attention. There is much that U now 
to be said about them, whereas there is little that is new - 
said alMut Ober-Anuuergan and Ais-les-Baina. 




LITERATURE. 



[July 21, 1900. 



It wx^ii . ill a publtoitiloii of (lits kliul, to fliul 

popular ar. . »i(h lit(>niry, artiMtlo, niid liistoiiftil 

aaaociations. There is an attojnpt in this dir(H>tion in nn nrticic 
OB Barbi«on, but it it too short to bo MtiHfactory. Ami th(<r<> 
u« nwny other " reminiscent " articles which oiiltivat<><l 
trmrellers would be glad to n>ad if they %\vr«< projierly writt«-n 
by tlMMe who know. The history of tho KnKliHli t-nloiiy nl 
BoologBe, for instaniNs should malce Rood readinfi;. Thu early 
■weata of tho tSr<>sH CliM-knor would l>e worth writing up, nx 
then la no full account of them in KukI'sH. And one could 
•aggeat as other wubjivts tbo Kepublio of Andorra ; a {mpor 
tm the Tyrol with rvfcrenco to the |ie«kHants' war ; tho Martin 
Latker country ; tho associations of Femey, of CopiK-C, of 
Ckaabi^ry. On all these subjects there is much that is interest- 
ing to be said, and a magazine devoted to tho entei-tainraent of 
trmvellera aeenu the pUee in which to say it. But every thine 
of course, cannot be got into a first nunil>cr, and the editor of tho 
Troreller »e«»ins ti Imvc ciitcr|)risi> <'iioii:j:Ii to I'iso to tho 

oeeaalon. 

    

Why is Mr. Augustine Birrell liko Lord Macauhiy ? This 
is not a conundrum, but a qnestion prompted liy tlie descrip- 
tion of Mr. Birrell by tho headmaster of tho Blacltheuth School 
for the Sons of Missionaries as " a modern Macaulay." Both, 
it is true, are or «t?ro members of Parliament, both have con- 
tributed to our literature, Iwth aro or were Liberals, and 
enthusiasm for Disestablishment is also a common possession. 
Most of these things are truo also of Mr. Gladstone and of Mr. 
John Morley. Yet the headmaster of the Blackheath Sctux)! for 
the Sons of Missionaries would hardly, one supposes, cull either 
of these " a modern Macaulay." This comparison is surely 
inept. As well might Charles Lamb bo bracketed with Gibbon, 
or any literary light-weight with any other literary heavy- 
weight. There might bo excuse for pointing ont some 
similarities between Lamb and Mr. Birrell. But l>etween 
Macaulay, the complete exponent of machine-made English, and 
Mr. Birrell, with his genial whimsies and irresponsible somer- 
saults, are not the differences too wide and deep to need 
— i..,.,j, J Tijfl headmaster was doubtless led away by tho 
II. Mr. Birrell's " Obiter Dicta " was one of his prize 
V. ' doubt, was Macaiilay's " Lays," jierhaps 

tliL i. .- , .Macaulay's books and Mr. Birrell's looked 

moch alike in red and gilt, with mottled o<lges, the headmaster 

• o his Gilbertian jest. 

• « « 

.Mr. Birrell's address to tho boys was in his familiar 
happy vein. A good deal of it was not (if wo may adopt tho 
phraseology of tho Latin grammar) so much " to or for thelxiys " 
a* " to or for " their elders. But once or twice ho " rang tho 
Ijell " as ho seldom fails to do. No doubt tho boys greatly 
relished his allusion to the " sort of stout gentleman who usod 
to come down to his school and give away the prizes. He could 
remember the contempt with which they listened to him, and 
bow gtad they were when he sat down." And Iwth lK)ys — who 
are not without nn appnviiation of irony — and elders probably 
vnjoyed his oltiter liMum that " for his part ho had never yet 
met the boy, however clever, who <'ould not learn something or 
other from his teacher." It demands an uncommon equipment to 
deliver • sDCceAsful prize distribution address. If it chances to 
be ooe's own old school, the atroosphero of awe is a serious 
haiMUcap. No Knglisbman is perfectly at his ease in the 
p re e ca ce of his old headm-isU-r. Mr. Birrell was not in this 
distrewlwg situation, and he, therefore, spoke his mind with 
freedom ; and oim is worth recording and 

with which we ar- .•, was that the reaction 

against examinativDs i* iu danger ut going too far. 



It is nn old complaint of men of letters that a (Hirtion of tho 
Civil List Pensions intended for their benollt is n'von to 
|H>rsons whose claims ou the Itoyal iK-nelli-ence by no means rest 
n|H>n lit<'riiry, scientillc, or artistic sc-rvitK's. This year they 
have not, iterhaps, so much as usual to complain of ; " other 
IK-rsons," in the shn|K> of the widows of explorers, colonial 
Kovernors, Ac, only getting CH)l out of tho A'1,'2(K). We 
should, of course, be most reluctant to deny that tho services of 
Sir llenry Barkly, Lientenant-t'olonel Kills, and Captain John 
Bisi-oo merit this kind of recognition ; but at tho same timo we 
lire strongly of opinion that the Civil List is not the fund from 
which the recom|x«iisos for such services should he ilorivod. 
Tho fund was not instituted for such purp<is<'s, niid it ought 
not to Ih> iliverteil to them on the strength of an oversight in 
I he (Irarting ol nn .\<-t of Parlinmeiit. 

» >  * 

We are indehtetl to the Diiily Srivn for nH'alling a curious I ittlo 
it<>m of Stevensonian history. It is apropos of tho sale at 
Sotheby's of the MS. of a short story written by Stevenson for 
the /'"// Mdtl Giizclti; fifteen years ago. Asked for a blood- 
curdling Christmas story lie supplied " Miirkhcim." This 
afterwards appeared elsewhere, but did not satisfy the flesh- 
creeping instincts of tho P(i/I Moll lluzette. Stevenson then 
sent " Tho Bodysnatcher," a story which, ho averred, would 
" freeze the heart of a Grenadier." It dealt with an episode of 
the Burke aiul Hare iKriod, and was jnst tho thing for a genial 
Christmas llro-side. Tho Pall MtiU (lazctte set to work to 
secure a g<x)d advertisement for the sensation of its Christmas 
iiuml)er : — • 

Six plaster skulls were made by a theatrical properly 
man. Six pairs of coffin lids, painted dead black, with white 
skulls and crossbones in the centre for relief, were supplied by 
a carpenter. Six long white surplices wore purchased from a 
funeral establishment. Six saiidwichinen wore hired at doublo 
rates. One quiet morning, when all was ready, they wore duly 
attire<l. With some difficulty they made their way up to 
I'iccadilly, along Ke^jent-stroet, down Bond-street, every- 
where attracting i)rofouiid and universal interest. The one 
subject of conversation in tho Clubs and the West-ond was 
the mysterious and appalling phenomenon which had suddenly 
appeared in tho motrop<iIis. Amongst those who had been 
startled in Bond-street was tho late Lord Londesborough, who 
took the usual course of shocke<l and angry Knglishraen — ho 
wrote to the newspapers. Tho next day every newspaper in 
the Kingdom had a description, vivid, scathing, denunciatory, 
;i<-cording to tho humour of tho writer. But the objects of 
this wrath had already been paid off. Scotland Yard and tho 
Law had stepped in. Tho " Pall Mall " phantoms wero 
certainly the most remarkable advertisements that over 
:ip|H>ared on the London streets. We wonder what Stevenson 
himself thought about, it :ill. '• The HiMlysnad'hcr " went, 
like wildfire. 
Stevenson, ;ulds the Dnilij .Vcicx, ivtuiiied part of tlio 
honorarium sent him for the story because he thought it exces- 
sive. Wo doubt whether such a proceeding is, as our con- 
temporary suggest*, unheani of in the history of letters ; but it 
is certainly exceptional. ,^ 

» •  ♦• 

In the reprint of " Lavengro " which .Messrs. Ward, Lock 
have a<lded to their Minerva Library Mr. Watts-Diinton gives 
some very iiil<'rcstiiig |K>rsonal notes on Borrow. He raises the 
question wlK'ther Borrow was a " literary amateur," but do<'s 
not answc'r it very doflnitely. His amateurishness shows itself, 
as it seems to us, now and then in his style in a certain sonten- 
tiousncss and artificiality. Surely it is an amateur who writes — 
to take an insfanoo from (he sewnid chapter of " Lavengro" — 
"Spirit of eld, what a skull was yon ! " But Mr. Wattjt-Dunton 
means that ho was an amateur in tho sense that he wsis a man 
first and a writer afterwards, an<l thai therefore no one critlciz«'s 
him adequately who did not know him |)ersonally. Perhaps Dr. 
Knapp has done something to e<iiiip the critic of the futuro who 



July l-I, 1900.J 



LITEIUTURE. 



99 



will not have lind thl» advantapfo. Mr. M'atts-Danton gixon a 
•leliKhtfiil acunuiit of his first mootinK with Borrow. Il«. qImi 
forosws a jfrnwInK inU«r«sl In " IjiveiiKro " iiiicl " Tin- K«.in 
Ryo," to which the issuo (>r r«|irlnt>i— for Mr. Murray li.i« 
Just wIssiK-d " LavtMiJicro," wllli oIIut IkkiIvh of Borrow w..|ii, 
to U'»tif,v. 

Th<> iiioi-« IIk' foiilim-H of our " ll«<aiitiriil Kiinluii'l,"' lo 
tiso hJH own pImiM-, iiiv chiinpHl by Iho ninltiiuilinoiiit odocU 
of tho railway HyHt«'m, tln< more uHruotlon will MMwIcni nnil In 
lx>okM wliifli dopiut hor Ix-forc hor Itvuuty wus inurrud— iNiukM 
which do|iict hor In thonu unto<liliivlun (layn whon thorf ww. 
such It thing ax spaoo In tho i»lund— wluiii in KnKlaiiil then- 
WUH n wnso of diMtano»>, that Mcnso without wliii'li llnTf tail 
lio no niniaiiiM' -whiMi tho slaK<'-<-oai'h was In its glory -wlu-n 
tho only nuigic-ian who oonlil ronvoy man anil liis lM>longinK-< 
»t any rato of n|m>c<I bi-yonil man's own walking ral«< was tin- 
horse— the Iwlovcil horso whoso praises Horrf)w loV(«<l to Ming, 
and whoso ideal was renehisl in the mighty " Shales " — when 
the great high ri>;uls were ali\e, not merely with the bustle of 
business, but with ival adxentiin* for the tnivuller— days and 
scenes which Borrow better th.in any one elw- ennid |Kiinl. 
A timo will come, I say, when not tmly Inioks full of des4'ri|>- 
tivo genius like " Lavengm." but even such eomparntively 
tame deseriptlons of Kiigland as the " Cleanings in Kuglanil 
and Wales " of the now f.irgotlen Kasl .Midlan<ler, Siunni-I 
Jackson I'rutt. will be read with :i new inten'st. 

• » * » 

A eoinmitte<> has Ikhmi foriiK<d in I'aris to er«'ct a monuuM'nl 
to Arthur Kiniliaud, whose strange cnr<s'r IhiIIi as syudHilist 
I)Oot niid explor«<r, the friend of \'erlaine and of Meneiek, has 
iHJon told by M. Pnterne B«TriehoM. The relations of Kimlmud 
with Verlaine have also lioon deseriUsI ri<<-ently with new details 
in tho " Verlaine Intime" of .M.t'h. Donos. IfimlHiml whs liorn in 
18.')4 and diotl in 18i)I. M. .\niitole France is on the eonnnittee 
which is to honour Itimlmiurs memory. Times have ehange«l 
8incc M. France, as critic of /-.• Tcm/w, found no i-pithets 
too ironic in which to ridicule the utterancivi of the symbolists. 
Yot the famous " Sonnet of the Vowels " was the beginning of » 
sobool of poetic expression which, now that it has survivisl .>(. 
Anatolo Frances raillery, ho |)erlmps thinks it genertms to 
l-eoognizt'. The ivatler of the following lines will ihmIiju., i-. ,.i.r,. 
to understand both these attitudes : 

VoVELLfX. 
A noir, K blanc, [ rougt>, U vert, O bleu, voyelles, 
.)e dirai i|tiel((ue jour vos naissnnis>s latontes. 
A, noir cors«'t vein <les mouclies eclatanles 
(^)ni bombillent aiitour dos puanteurs crueller, 
(iolfo d'ond)re ; K, eandeur des vapours et des ..•mi<'~. 
Ijlncc dos glaciers froids, rois blaiics, frissons d'omlH-lles ; 
J, ponrpres, sang crnche, rire des levivs licllos 
Dans la colero ou les ivrcsses |M'-nitontes ; 
l\ cycles, vil)rements divins des merw virldes, 
Paix dos pAtis sem^s d'animaux, paix des rides 
Quo I'alchiiuio impriino aux grands front^t studieux : 
O. supivme ClaiiMU plein de strideurs ef ranges, 
Silences tmvcrses dos Mondes et dos Anges : 
— O I'Oaiega, rayon violet do Ses Veux ! 

* * * , 
Our Paris Correspondent writes : 

Professor Joseph Texte, of Lyons, whose name Lili'mture 
has so often had occasion to mention, had obtained in Knglaiid 
and Oerniany a reputation second to none as a student of com- 
panitivo literature. His fine book " Jean-Jacrines Rousseau 
et le Cosmopolitismc Litteraire," which Mr. Mathews trans- 
lated into English, gave both his name and his method a vogue, 
and placed him immetliatoly among the few critics who attempt 
a scientific system free from the prcjiulioes of nationalism. M. 
Tcxto was to have been present this month in Paris at the 
Congress of Com|>!irntivo Literature, and to take the lead in 
its proceedings. Indeed, it was chiefly to him that the original 
idea of this t'oiicrco wms due. But f'>i' •> ^-n- ii.>" li.- had been 



diMi k 

si j'l I 

loin eiicont d'etre n^tabli, . 
me M>rn !m|Hm*|ble d'aller k ik.i.. , . 
■•• pr«i((ramme. J'aiirnU «>u . . 
at the very oulwl of hi« eare«'r. I 
have lo»t one of I heir imml ronwii 
devoli-es. Uaiiides the fuiiioUK I- 
published " Kliule* de I.ll ta'-r:tl>ir>' I 



T IT R l>« ««• troag vtumgk. kammttr, 
"  . . 3f Miti trltrancnt iiigmtf 

tmmU 






tiiiKiie AukI.iii : 1^ \ic ■!( | 'i •• 

(readers of l.itrnilurr will i. ,4s 

Kniune in our roluinn« on May 'II lint year). I •«! 

forwartl to the day when, in op|KMltion tm fl— • U^ 

nationalist phibMopby of ao tnauy of hln all 

Kuro|H> would have a rU>»rer notion of the Ir - 1 if- 

ity of the nations, " of the nMH-Mlty," to n l«. 

*' for any nation v! ' " 1 (n 

contact with tho t hi* 
aenno hi» d(>ath in a lou to Kur»|K-. 

• • • • 

The Sh:ikeH|ieare-loving Corniani and Auvtrlan* ar« eoa 
stantly holding up their haniU in pitying amaamapnt at Uw 
degeneration of our stage. Pnif. Kix'her, of Innsbruck, la • 

loading (Serman |M>rio<ll<^l, derlarm that the '   -* thv 

ino<lern Knglish theatre is as Imd aa iteanlic, l> ><«• 

of its intrinsic badnens it is In' It. 

In all Ijondon thealroH. we are i- :c»- 

arc of more -' t,. 

Nowhere ari .>,„ 
public as in Ijunduii. 

There ari> almul tw»Mit\(i «iv» Prof. 

Fischer I huiblled in or near 1 1 . and a(h< in 
the suburbs where the Imurff^..^.- — •'•■• " 
successes of the town. Bat oat of ' 

is et>n»e«'nit«<«l to n|iora or to pur.- i r.ii;i-.i> . i, , „tt 

o|>ont enjoys an episodical cxislcnee in i'ovml <<.>r,l. .. l.ut il 

is not an indigenous fruit of Brit' ' tie 

im|H>rtatinn. a luxury Itevond ili< .-li 

and extravagant, and n-. ,< 

imply that tle-re is nny ,111 
means mcr^ 
Wagner's  

hand, of The iirile of \rw i'urk ty|H 

o( plot, vulgar absurdities, and IIl-Iii . ii- 

to tho native ear and heart, for ' ilr 

unmusical tbmigh ho Im>. drarly I" ^« 

tune in it. Tho mimnting of these <iil 
misses in enitfmhif th<« rhii <'f I ^ :iii<i i 
individualizini; of detail. 
Knglish niel 

while the sal in 

for contemptuous eonnuent. i (4 

romantic tnigedy, the happy 1 -'ul 

eccentricities, cnlminatinK in " r«'. 

unadulterated Sh:iki>i»' m' shoul:. .. ., lie 

draws a cry of an- Prof. FiM-ber. "I Im» 

world," ho conchiil. -. .,..' Iher< -• " -n. 

and the public pays more for ' re 

else, and yet wsthetic n'^nl' .1.1 1 is 

varied. Scenic effects bio ' > - .cti the i> of 

technical |>erfection. ~" r- 

thele««»rt cuts a l»p^ <s 

sor' r- 

esi i . '* 

fuhit oicJi u<T iW • irw i« ilr' 
London hoinmt er 

5-2 



LITERATURE. 



[July 21, 1»00. 



We meatiooed iMt week Mr. W. H. M»ll<H-k's article in the 
Anulo-fktxoit Rtvifw on "The Liiiiiutioiis of Art." 
'*■' The title ii«ie« not very nccuratoly de^wribe the 
p " rt-al ({isl of the «rticlo. h is un attempt to arrive 

^^' „t itiMue clear notion with rt-ganl to the "novel 
with a piiriKKie," wh'it it iuuan«. and how far it is legiti- 
mate. The view here put forwjinl clcwrves careful con- 
vldemtlun, booaute Mr. Mallock, though ho N by no raeaus 
alttmys eonviacinK. is, at any r.ite where literary subjects are 
i"oncerne«l, one of the few critics who sincerely try to think a 
subject out, and to state their conclusions in a simple and lucid 
manner. He Qnds a curious contradiction emerging more and 
more definitely in the wxirld of present day Action. On the one 
hand the noveJ in growing lUily in importance as a vehicle of 
8«rkHU thought. Yet in many quarters the novel with a purpose 
meets with the utmost obloquy .is a form of art. Mr. 
Mallock discu-ssf^H in detail one important and obvious qualiflca- 
tion to the thoiry that there can l>e nothing in a true work of 
art but the pn-scntatiou of artistic truth — viz., that in every 
literary crt>ation the individuality, the tastes, and the moral 
juilgments of the author inevitably find expression. Hence 
the presence of a purpose— even of that bugbear of the critic, a 
moral purpose — is to some extent a question of degree. Bnt it 
is worth while considering whether Mr. Mallock could not go a 
good deal further than he does in admitting the novel with a 
purpose into the Temple of .\rt. He cxcludt>s from the inner 
sanctuary any work of Dction in which " men's lives appear in the 
light of a prtwupposed theory of life," or in which we have " the 
adventures of some theory that is in dispute illustrat<>d by the 
lives of men which are manipulated for that s|X!cial end." The 
writer of such a work of fiction " uses art for an end, and he 
achieves a result which is essentially not artistic." How about 
" The Pilgrim's Progress," or " Don Quixote " ? Surely this 
critical and suspicious analysis of the end the artist has in view 
is a very fallible method of proceeding. We, rightly or wrongly, 
certainly estimate a work of art much more on a considera- 
tion of its style and tn-atment than of its object. A man's 
motives are always complex when he engages in any under- 
taking, and they do not lH>come more simple when he undertakes 
to write a liook. How many b<x»ks are produce<l from a pure 
and single-lniart*'*! desire to produce a work of artistic truth 
and beauty ? .\nd if the conscious pnrpose is to raise and 
spiritualize the mind, even though that pur|>oso run within the 
groove of a particular theory, «loes this necessarily poison the 
vrhole ? It is often forgotten that the moral sense has its 
nsthetic side, a fact realizetl by some of our earlier Rnglish 
moralists whom nolKxIy reads at the present day. Moral 
deg rj «lation displeases because it is ugly ; s<»lf.sacrillee, on the 
utber hand, providi-s us with a real lesthetic pleasure. This 
kind of moral »«>nse is iiide|M-nd>'nt of any particular moral coilc, 
and mnst be taken account of in the efermi controversy as to 
Jhe relation of art and morality. At any rate the whole hist^ory 
of religious art and poetry goes to show that puriiose is not 
eaaentially destructive of art. The real test of artistic great- 
ness is to be found in the expression of the individual mind — in 
the povNjr, the tact, the sense of beauty, which shows itself in 
tbe Wky the sabject is handled. The artist need not necessarily 
be devoid of opinions or even of the ilesiro to pminulgate them ; 
if lie is so, it makes him not a greater, l)ut a lesser man. 
Bat whatover ho writes, and for what<*ver purpose, he pnMiuces 
by the law of bis lieing a work of art. The very sincerity of 
hi* purpose, tbe unconsciousness of the artistic quality of the 
work b« i* producing, may add irameiisely to its beauty. .Vmong 
poets we see it in Milton, or on a lower piano in Keble, l>olh of 
tkcn true poet« writing with a distinct and conscious aim. No 
one can have more dellnite an uiti^rior object than the orator or 
the pamphleteer, whether his method Ite the purely rhetorical, 
the piet«rial, or the narrative, yet we do not deny him the art of 
ri oqaeaoe. And It is possible that as the novel occupies more 
ami MOM widely the Held of thought wo may l>e too severe in 
pMsfaig Ml ■■hesitating condemnation on any work of tlcticju in 
io which some trace of a purpose i* discoverable. 



H>cveonal Uicws. 

—  

IBSKN AH IDKAl. 1ST. 

At a dinner given in celebration of his return to Norway, in 
lti02, the rare and dreaded cmcrguncy »f a public speech 
extorted from Ibsen ouo of those pregnant bits of self-confes- 
sion whieb the less formidable crises of ordinary conversation 
fail to extract from men of his resolute ta<-ituruity. Previous 
speakers — warm-hearted old friends and enthusiastic young 
disciples — had celebrated the deflnitive triumph of his work, 
the Kuropeun fame which had crowuod his long up-hill struggle 
with antagonists and d<>(ractors at hoiiiu and abroad — more 
particularly at hoaie. The little square-built spectacled tlgure 
stood nervously grasping his chair as ho uttered the incisive 
sentences : — " Kvery field of victory is strewn with corpses. 
On the field of iiiy triumph lies the corpse of my happiness ! " 

However we may interpret these words (which I had from 
the lips of the friend at whose tabic they wore spoken), their 
Ibstmian flavour is unmistakable. Triumph, in the world's 
sense, is always, with Ibsen, attended by something sinister 
and disastrous, some fulillment of a tragic omen, or some omeu 
to be tragically fulfilled. If there is any souud and well-omened 
exultation to l)o found in Ibsen, it is among the jieople whose 
success is, in the world's eyes, unmiligatod disaster. 

It is clear that this recurring burden of the Ibsonian drama 
— this ewige (leMnfi coiilinually resountling through the 
troubled air — is due less to any dellnile teaching of experience 
than to a fundamental psychical iMjut, an inner core of asceticism 
and idealism, which has shaped all his thinking, and of which all 
that presents itself to him as experience has taken the hue. 
Ibsen has dealt so largely with ugly and sordid materials, with 
the sensual dross and the soulless debrix of hu uauity, that such 
terms as idealism and asceticism, applied to him, will seem to 
many readers, even now, strangely out of place. But he is not 
the Urst in whom an iron grip upon actuality has gone along 
with a no less inflexible disparagement of it. It is the paradox 
of Ibsen's nature that, while impelled by his own fanatical 
criticism into a fierce estrangoiuont from the phenomenal world, 
he has yet baen hold to it by bonis which grew only more rigid 
and despotic with years ; so that while his criticism of society 
has remained as implacable as over, his solutions and remedies 
have gri)wn vaguer and more hesitating, and the famous " ThirtI 
Kingdom " itself, in which the author of " t'wsar and Galilean " 
saw the future crown and culmination of Paganism and 
Christianity, li.a« become a forlorn and discrtulitod myth. 

It is.of course, to the earlier plays, and, above all, to tho early 
poems, that we have to turu if wo would appreciate the idealism and 
the asceticism of Ibsen at their full value. One romombers the 
subtle significance which attaches, in this early verse, to the 
ideas of light and darkness. Helena Alving, in fi/iooln, complains 
I hat tho world, haunted by the phantoms of the past, is yet 
" afraid of the light," before which they would vanish. Twenty 
years earlier his charge against the m.iss of men was that they 
were " afraid of darkness." Tho two complaints, under diflerent 
symbols, meant much the same thing — the aversion to the realm 
of ideal truth which tho light of common day, the glamour of 
current conventions and easy self-content, obscures or obliterates. 
" When I was a boy," he tells ns in the verses called " Afraid 
of the Light " {Lytrted), " I shuddered when the sun went down 
behind the crags, and trembled all night before imaginary 
goblins." But with manhood there came a change : — ^ 



July 21, 19U0.] 



IJTEKATrKE. 



41 



Ntiw It In Noanitey'M Koblln*, 
Now It Im Lih-'w iinivnt. 
That dart lhi> fri'«'zintt horror 
Into my litditiiit; lirrast, 

I lililc iiic iiiiilcr (Ik- cover 
Of l)iirkiii'"><<'«i •nihil- tniiii, 
Anil my Mtiil iiiiN on her armour 
Of I'nKlo-ltnldncH)! airnin. 

Thou, f«>iirl<"i'i of fliiiiM>H or of fiiirKC*, 
Like II fiiloon I rlciivc I he sky, 
Vorjri'ttinK "ly !"'Kni''h of tprror — 
Till the morrow'H ilikwn I ilt>s<'ry. 

But. when Night ilenlc>« lior mantle, 

I drift on a rudderless hark ; 

If ever I win me Klory, 

"r>vill 1h> liy a d<M'd of Hie dark I 

The " Darkness " whose niven plumes exercised so stroni; a 
spell upon Ihson was ol)viously not that which ap|>cal9 to the 
self-protective instincts of oliscunint.s and ostriches. It was 
rather (to use another line iiiiiiKe of his own) the darkness of the 
mine, where the dazzlliif; delusionn of day are unknown, and 
l>reoious ores are laid up, to Ik* had only l»y the lonely toil of 
1 ho delver's hammer. Ft was the darkness which shroniN the 
fearless explorer, seekiuR the answer to life's endless enigmas 
in tlie deep, " where aloue is peace, i>eaoe and desolation from 
evcrlastinjt." From the «t--)nd|H>int of ordinary liiogniphy Ibsen 
••anuot by any means be said to have led a lonely or friendlesH 
life ; but no mort* lonely nature ever exist<?d, nor one that drew 
richer inspii-ation from loneliness. The nlory ot friiMidship and 
of love boning for him when the fact's of friend and lover are 
IransfldurtKl in the soul-liprht of memory. The Rlory of the 
hero begins when his last ally deserts him. 

Had this romantic astrangemont from society exhausted the 
))0SHiltilitios of Ibson's nature, he inight have been r<'meinb)>r<'d 
as a iM>it;nant lyric |hM>t, but certainly not as a dramatist. H« 
miitht have reminded us, more oft+>n than he does, of Khellcy — a 
Norwegian Shelley, uttering a like passion for freedom with the 
hard and rigorous tom|)cr of the North. But Shelley's repndia- 
tion of the despotisms of society renmined lyric — a radiant 
bubble t)f el(Kiuont anger against kings and priests. Of the 
actual processes by which society exercised its despotic sway, 
ho had Imt the most oloinoutary idea. )1is animus iievor 
transformed itself into vision. Ibs<'u, on the other hand, has, 
almost from the first, showed an extraordinary insight into the 
facts which bore out his elementary hostilities. The vague 
]ilatitadcs which satisfy most of us about the contagion of the 
moral atmosphere, the constraining influence of environment, he 
li-aTislates into concrete living example delineated with the 
analytic precision of a medical illustrator. A whole world of 
facts, on the other hand, for which his elementary bias suggested 
no interpretation esca|)e him altogether. Mis environment is 
habitually insidious and corrupting ; the subtle filaments of 
society transmit .in iullucnce which is only malign, its jiarts 
work together only for ill. That the life of a conununity can be 
healthy, and «»n stimulate the h(>al thy energies of those who 
conform to its usages and share its life, Ibsen would probably 
not deny. But these are not for him the normal conditions ; he 
fastens rather upon the diseased organism, the corrupt com- 
munity, the hollow marriage, and shows us the moral malaria 
which such an organism diffuses among its healthy raemlters, i( 
they submit to it, and the disabilities which they suffer if they 
do not. 

It is easy to understand the mood in which a mind with such 
preoccupation-i as these approached the problems of tragetly. 



"I, 



Tin- . ..nil.. 

which U in 

for him, a tmilif which b<  <i 

h-ave, but tbv form which aoy dra. ^ -,, 

must inovltably awMime. I'fr«nnality,fall of lirr»i«> i 

U ,.. 

stai. ' 

llM^n the p<<rvudiiu( problon irf lUt>. No ikiabt la llw iMor 
plays this pmblew U no |i>n^r •ppn<b<>n<k4 with Iha mm* 
simplicity as beforo. l'iT.»ii»liiy !• h^m holiMjr 4t«liiix«l4M4 
from ItA environro<nit ; a man cannot fr««o himmir, Itkr Hrawl, 
by (hec-r force of will froa the obwTwino u( rtrraiadanrc ; ik« 
|MNt claina iu iMrt in hlra, and Ito ffb<MU miii<tUi i»iik iba 
|>u(reautry of l> i mora CMMpaaitaoM^ and «•<•««• 

of the lat4>r i - riearty imiividaaliani, tkair 

mental proltlca ara mora inlrteato and nabtla, kM Mat ima 
prfM-iso ; thivy compfl ns In facp the tarn |.r 'liolacy 

and ethics, thongh the Mtlution i« m> tcMix< . nnntfii; 

letters on the page. Iltsen ^ Ii-d a iwwi of ra». 

if wo will ; but It is this nn y |M«t, beyond all • - 

who has taught us in art the powvr of tho |Mwt, and Ito »• .ik. 
If any man may claim to Im-U to mndnm liiiia Iha 

essentiul tragedy of 'A' li/>u> i is ttm uutkor cl (:t^•^'l^. 

.\nd ho may Im* called, if we will, a poet of " NataralUn 
it is this " Naturalistic " (met who ha* dooe aori' y 

other to rescue the Kuropoau theatr* fraoi Um «<>i '4 

what giH-s by that namo, to ntdoom it from the monul and 
moral insigniflcanco which is often, in ethics as well •• in art. a 
graver crime than iiid(^.-ortiro, to restore nnikvr form* controlled 
by tho M'verost realism the inner r4 

idims, the mortal struggle of \v ... f 

life and of good. ItMon haa been called a "Symbolist' 
so he is in the sense that Ito habitually mean* mora than no 
says ; but he differs from the school ot M. ManCorliuck in o^nf 
as " symlxil " not the most fantastic and visiooar.v. bat tha 
most human an;l vernacular, oloniont ot hi* tbonKbt. M. M 
linck bringrs Poetry visible and folly arrayed, apon the ai 
and we cannot Ih> Ion grateful ; Iim «nrdld 

domestieilii's to which It»sen <ift«Mi .ii us, the 

interpreting mind has gllmpasa into tho oternal wurfc»bop o( 
Nature, and liecomos a%vare of the T' ; a( the 

whirring loom of Time, ami of the imn. > warp 

of which the moat trivial human story is ih- 

< , II. IIMCI-UKL'. 



Jovcion Xctter. 

— * — 

PR A NCK. 
THK NKW SCHOOL OK KKKNCH KHTION. 
During the last twvnty yi^rs anew and n' > • . '. -.1 ..^ 
Action has arisen in Franco. One cannot help •> 

group of writers which includes .\natol'- K 

Pierre Loti, Bourgot, I^ivislan. and It 

literature as do those of their ppedi.HN- 

Ihirties .ind forties, and amoni; wh' 

time Oil. • 

say nothi: 

said to have i > 

wi>rld by mear 1 

Pn^vost's first novels, " Ijk < t 

as is the mo<lom group, we !•- < 

more for a George Sand. Indeed, con- 

intcrct>t which the woman movcaacnt has ai- — 



42 



LITERATI RE. 



[July 21, 1900. 



writers, it b 8iir|irisln|c that there should lie no modem French 
woman writer alilr t» claim even an <y|ual |>la(H> with the soiindiT 
■aiiKir novelists and ojna.visti, who form, as it were, a solid back- 
ground to their im>rt< lirilliaiit roii/rrrcn. Zoln anil Dniulct 
oeeapicHi a |)lat*<> apart. At one time the critic*, hailt*d n coming 
Balaac in the yoiithriil Zol:i. lint, nionurnciital ns Ims Imhmi tli<< 
laidc he has achieve*!, he cannot Im> sjiid to have jtistille<l tin- 
|>roinise of the earlier volnnien of the K<>np>n-M:ie<|iiart seric. 
This at all erenta b what one fo«>ls on tiirnin;; from " I.a Kante 
«le rAlil»> Monret " to "Dr. Pascal." The IkmiIcs oh wliicli 
l>audet's le^^iliinatc fume \vii.s hastnl all came out iM'twtH-n tlie 
year IMVK, when " !.«> Petit Chose" was |iubli»ln>d, mid 18iC>, 
when "Sapho" a|)|H>ar«Ml. DuriiiK the last ten years of his life 
the state of his health conipt>llc>d him to leave the flehl 
almost entirely to his yonnjp^r rivals, who found in him 
even to the end their most ardent admirer and their shrewdest 
critic. 

The di'MninunI note of nuMlern Fr<Micli fiction is the direct 
appeal to the intellipMice, with as little dc|>fndence as |X)Ssible 
on that love of story-telliiiR and story-heariiiK which is as old us 
humanity itself. It would lie hard to sa.v who was the first to 
•et up this new roethtxl ; but, whcH'vcr he was, his example 
was quickly followed. Anatolc France has more than onci" 
admitteil that he orifrinally l>e(ran writing Action in order that 
he mi^ht place certain philosophical ideas and theories iM'fore 
the widest readin)^ public. Hims<>ir the son of a publisher, 
he W-.1S aware that for one reader of a brilliant phiIoKO|ihical 
treatise- a thousand will Ix* found for even a [Kxir novel. What 
be wonI<l |>erhaps be less frank in admitting; is the fact that. 
through the nie<lium of Action, he has Ikmmi able to make use of 
some of his extraordinary erudition. There are pages in 
*' Thais " and in " I.ji KAtisserie de la Reinc Pedauque " which 
must delight and instruct even those who have made a life-long 
Ktudy of the two widely different historical |)eriocLs with which 
these wonderful stories deal. The world owi>s Anatole France 
the st<iry-teller. as contrasted with .\natoIe France the |mk'I, 
the historian, and the scholar, to Henan. Who (lersuaded him to 
make his first attempt in Action, anil who actually suggested to 
him the plot i>f " I.e Procurafenr de .ludtV." He has in a 
literary wnse travelled far since " Le Crimi> do Sylvestn* 
Bonnard " was crowned by the Academy as lK?ing not only a 
work of art, but iiot^nliarly fltteil for family reading. M. Franco 
might well exclaim " Le style, c'(.>st moi !" It is to his style 
and to his erudition combineil that he owes his scat in the 
French ,\cademy. But his style, remarkable as it is, would not 
attract much attention in the hind of style were it not that lie 
pooMMHes alsi> in a rare decree the |)ower of telling a story. 
Of him a fellow writer once oliservwl, " His work is full of 
genuine surprises, and that without his desiring in any sense 
to priMluce any but legitimate elTwts. As a writer he is 
innocent and |K'rverte<l. ironical and sentimentnl. infinitely 
credulous while full of scepticism." In one matter M. France 
is singularly fortunate — he has no imitators, and but few 
disciploi. The realists naturally fear him, for, while priKliiciiig. 
ma few of them can do. an atmosphere of reality, he dcpreenles 
any attempt n-ally to reconstituli' evim fragments of ri-iil life. 
his only aim iM-ing ihal of giving a poetical iiper^u of what has 
Imh'ii or might In-. He is. acconling to his own accoiini, n 
follower of Paseal : it is his aim to pii-ach tolerance and 
charity; and, while adiiiiriiig as<-etieism, and having a cerlain 
aymfialhy with it, he has ^> Ikmiih i.r iln- .iiu'l viitins :il,.,v>. 
all, i>f a distortt-cl " justli ' 

Man-«'l Pr«'<vohl and In- wmu >l i<( mu rai-i spiiinl ai ii'iii ion 

in Kngland and in America, if only Ix-cniisi* his methiKls niiil 
idenU an- eiiriously Kngiish. He frankly M-ts out to write 
pri>l>l<'i>i iii.\n|«, and. as tiiiH- gin's on, he lR'comi?s more 
a' aclier. eager to bring the world round to his 

V Although his first novel 8p|M«iiil as recently 

as l«J»7. be publishisl wven volumes iK'fore he iiiiiile his first 
iHfi.uIar siicc«-m with " Di-mi-Vierges " ; and his ex|ierieiice 
Illy show-s that the wider n-ndiiig pnblie is much the same 
'■■■■'■' ■••'•■. Tlioiij;li " Sciirpion " attracteil instant 



attention from the eritles, and is In |M>int of style, in the- 
opinion of many, b,v far the licst lMH>k he has ever writtou ; and. 
though he publishcil successively " La Confession d'un Aniant," 
" L'Auloiiiiie d'une Femme," and that astounding litoiiiry f'jiic 
i/c fofcr. " LettHw de Femmes," it was not till " Denii- 
N'iergcs " made its ap|M>nrance that M. Pn'vosl could call 
himself successful. Of this Ixsik — said by the author to Imi 
written in the interi>sts of Fi-ench mothers, though the title 
alone banished it from most ordinary French librarii-s, niiil 
still more from the average Fii'iich drawing-room— TiO.lMK) copies 
were solil in a few inontlis. To M. Pn'-vost's honour, lie it said, 
he did not follow up this mirrc.i ile urniiiliile with another IwKik 
of the same type. Probably to the disappointment of those who 
had appreciatcMl " DiMiii-Vierges," he turned the whole of 
his attention to the feminist movement. His first lunik dealing 
with the subject, though in a tentative and hardly definite 
fashion, was the volume entitled " Notre Compogne," and 
having the sub-title of " Proviiicialcs et Parisiennes." In 
" Fredi'<rii|no " he shows his strong sympathy with the advo- 
cates of wiimen's rights, and the fact that he has chosen to 
place the action of his story in Loudon shows that M. Prevost 
has made a thorough study of the subject. Of the innumerable 
writers who have attemptiMl to describe London under its many 
aspects few have succimhUmI in interpreting the gliwmy iniddli^ 
class working life of the city as M. Pn'-vosl has done ; and this 
is the mon^ remarkable when it is considered that M. Priivost's 
tliree heroines — liomaiiic Pernit/., the ardent mystical Slav, and 
the two French girls, sisters, whom she completely dominotes 
by her ardent love of humanity- only mix with London life, 
as it were, from the outside. " Frederiiiiie " is to he followed 
by a continuation and conclusion, " I>ea," now on the eve of 
publication. One asks oneself with .some wonder how fur M. 
Prevosfs studies in femhii»ine will lead him. An account of 
the French beginnings of n movement which has luado the 
iniblication of such a paper as /.ii Frontir not only possible but. 
'tinaiicially succi-ssful would Ik- welcome from many points of 
view. 

Of M. Lavedan. in some wiiys pei'liaps the tnost brilliant and 
the least cosmopolitan of the younger writers of French fiction, 
foreign critics have as yet made little account. Pcrluips his 
literary style and methods of work may ha Iwst explained by 
saying that be has completx-l.v rout<Hl " Gyp " on her own 
ground — " Gyp," that is, ut her l»est, the Gyp of " P'tit 
Bob " and of " Autour dn Mariagc." " Nouveau Jen," M. 
I.avoilan's most jKipnlar volume, is likely to remain for 
a long time to come the most pitiless indictment of that 
frivolous irres|>onsible sei'tion of siviety which has its countei- 
jmrt in every Kuropcan capital. L'nfortnnately he has found 
play writing preferable to novel writing. " Le Prince d'.\umc 
proved that the last word concerning niodern comedy had not 
iM-en .said by Dumas filx, still less by any of his clever disciples. 
The drnmatixation by the author of " Nouveau .leu " wns also, 
though a very different, revelation of what could Ik' achieved in 
this way of literary faive, and the great success of " Le 
Vieiix Marcliein- " is not likely to deter the inventor of this 
novel j/ciiif from olTeriiig tin- most critical audience in the world 
— that galheriil fiimi the nmny-longuiHl world of the boulevards 
the fare of which they seem incapable of palling. But while 
M. Laveihiii is appan-iitiy absorbed in turning out the most 
riiM;i(c' us well as the most polisheil dramatic work ever seen in 
the lioulevurds theatres he is lieing rafiidly overtaken, if not 
distanccfl, by a com)>aratively new writer, Paul Hervieu, perhaps 
bi-st known till now as the author of two stories of modern 
French life, " peints par Knx-meines " and " L' Armature." 
Doubtless iM-caiise he takes so seriously to hi>art the vici-s and 
follies of his fashionable fellow countrymen and coiinlrywoinen, 
his writing is almost entirely unrclieviil by humour, Olid he 
completi'ly lacks the sharp and soini'tiines almost impish satire 
whii^li seems to inspire much of what is wrilti-ii by M. Ijavedan. 
-M. Hervieu is grimly conscious of what nnderlii'S the irrespoii- 
sible lives lie seta himself out to anal.vse and describe. He 
never li'avi's his reader in any doulit as t<. Iii.w he hiuiselC 



July 21, laOO.] 



LITEKATURE. 



rofriirdM Mm <-liiirn4-i<-rH, h« hiw no Hyniimtliy wlHi thi«lr fii|bl<i«, 
mill his iuj<li'rshiii(liii|; N nut of tlir< t,V|M> (lint iH'Ki'tn pity. Hl<i 
MH'Hiiin); is iilwiiyx clt-ar, nnd " L'Ariniitiir<- " niittlit w««ll linvn 
MOrvcil lis II writing; on tli<> Willi to tliiim' wlio, in tli<< oii(< rnin|i 
nnil III tlii> otiior, iiiikIo sih'IiiI, lliiniiriiil, niiil riirini cniiitnl out 
of tlio DroyfiiM oiisi', cai-ini; littlo for tin' tioiiDiii'. ami fvu li-.» 
for tlio iirentlgj'. of tlioir uiifortitiinto ooiiiitry. M I 



A MODERN BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHINA. 

[t'..Mi-ii,Ei. BV E. A. UKYNoU)S-IJALI,.I 

Tlio riiUowiii}; |>0|)uliir liiblioKruptiy of t'liiim in uutinly 
contlnoil to to|HiKi'a|iliionl, lilNtoriciil, uiitl |M>litivul work* on 
China ptililishoil in Kiiclnnil nnd Kniiiiii within tho lunt two 
yi«iii's. Kor conviMiii'iico of ioforon<-o »oiii<> of Iho niandurtl workM 
also 111*0 !i|i|>i>iid<Ml, 

Till' iiii|)Ossil>ility of ((ivinR anythiiiK like a coiiiplotv l>iblii>- 
Kr.ipliy, ovi'ii of riK'ont works <m tho Chinoso Kinpiro within 
tho limits of iiii :irt!i-lf, may ho Iwttor iindorstotMl whon it is 
roiiiomlioroil tliiil tho siiuuliird Kronch bililioKiiiphy of workn 
iH^latillK to C'hiiui (pulili>hc(l in l.H8.'>) coiisisli of n\rr TOO octavo 
luiKU!* of Humll type. 

Bi:i(l'XKoiti), Loiii) t'il.\i!i.i.s.^" Tho Broak I p o( t'liiii!!.' Maps. 
I'is. Hai'por. IHW. A Htudy of (.Miiiiu mainly from u 
commori'ial |H>iiit of vii-w. 

Bishop, Mits. (Kmiki.la L. Biiti>). "Tho Yangtito Valloy and 
R<>yoiul." 5T4PP. llll illiist. Maps. £1 Is. m>t. Mnrray. 
18!«). Hiill a standard book of travol, though an 
iU'coiint of oxploratiiiii in ISiHl. Tho lomoto provinc(><< 
of I'hina ai-p »<> niii-h:iii!;inK that tho ro<M>rd is almost as 
valnablo as if it dosi-ribod pr»>sont-<lay travol. 

Bl!Al>nil\W". — " Tho Ox-orlaiid Ouldo to India and tlio East." 
:U(lpp. >tai>s. .w. Adams. IWW. 

C'oi.ijriicnx, A. K. -"Tlio 'Ovorland' to China." 478 pp. 
Illnst. Maps. Ids. Harp<-r. 1000. Wrifton by one of 
tho loading aiitlioi-ltios on China. Contains an oiioriiious 
amount of political information, 

Coixjfwois, A. K.— "China in Transformation." Ma|is. Itis. 
Harpor. 1S!H). A standard authority. Till rvfoiitly tUo 
last word on the China problom. 

CfM>liN(i, C. K. li<>i!ln>v. — "Wanderings in ('hina." Illnst. 
(Is, Now (>dition, Blm-kwood, 1000. Oiio of the most 
informing lH>oks on China ovi-r written. 

Doi'iJi.As, I{. K.—" China." 470 pp. lllusi. .">s. Fislior Cnwin. 
1!HH). One- of tho "Story of tho Nations" S.-rios. Oivos 
an adininiblo outline of tho history of China. 

Fkaskii, .1. KosTKii. — " Knund tho World (m a Wh<s>l." KPi pp. 



(U. .Mothiu-n. 18ir.». 
"China." .'(20 pp. Maps. 



(U. Sands. HIOO. 



KHI illn.sl. 

CoitsT, II. S. 

Oiu" of tho "liii|M'iMal Intort'st Library." 

Hai.<"<>miik, C. •!. H. -" Tho M.vstif Klowory Land." "iiS pp. 

7s, M. Lnzac, IS'.H*. A roviso<l tHlition of a |io]mlar ijook 

of travel. 
Iliins, SvKN,— "Thnvigh Asia." l.'-tll |>p. •JIU illnst. Maps. 

2 \ols. K\ 10-. not. Mothuoii. ISOS. Kinphatieally a 

inoiiumontat work. 
JoiixsTox. J, — "China and its Future." 11)2 pp. 3s. (Id. 

K. Stock. liMKl. A welI-diK<'st(Hl study of tho political. 

social, and ii'li};U>n.s conditions of tho (.'hiiiese Kmpin*. 

KuAi ssK, Al.K.vis. — •" China in Decay." 412 pp. (5 maps. 21 
illnst. ris, net. Chapman. l.SlKt. A useful contribution 
to tho pi-obleui of the Far East. 

Lirri.K, Am Miii.vi.ii. — "Thwiijjh tho Yangtso Oorjres." 310 pp. 

Map. 32 illnst. Os. Newcdition. 1000. Low. A cheap 

e<lition of a well-known Imokof travol with the toi>o(;raphical 

information cai-ofuUy brought up to date. 
LiTTi.K. AiiciiinAr.i). — "Tho Far Ka-st." Maps. One of "Tho 

World in lOIKl" Series. Heiiiemnnn. UHKI. 
LiTTi.K, Mits. Akchihai.i).—" Intimate ("liiiia: Tho Chinese as 

I have setMi them." Hut<'liinson. ISlKt. 
-Maktin, W. a. p.— "A Cvcle of Cathay." llliist. Map. 

7s. (id. Oliphant. ISKK). 
Moiiuisdv, G. K. — " An Australian in China." 300 pp. 30 

illnst. IIK. Od. Horace Cox. 1805. 



NoRMAN'. M 

pp. < 

1 ii.iii. A ucll'luiuuu wur.. 

OltlXANs. PlIlN 1 ' 

\n iiiu-t. 



' Xtl>ll> i'l luUls. ' i. 



I'l 



I 



I.rm- l.h.-.) r.rr.y.;n 

'•uMl ul llto rM tmttmK t4 
l«itln.(. a*. Hh 



..,.1 .-li' 



2W pp. 100 
••'I. Ilaryar. 



lUlltmr ' 



tho C«lralUI)i." 774 J>p. 
 'M. .\l>ri(iKv<l rnMB " Tie 



Hurst. 
Hcil>Mon»:, Miim K. R,—" Chins • Tli 

ilin.i. 8«. n,\. net. Ma< ' 

I li i|iler» on the di>e.ideii. 

Smith. A. H.--"\ 
.'MMIpp. .11 III.. 
A truthful anil u.-ll uuiieu u< 

the lower e:mt44 Cliiiie^*. 

Smith. A. H. CbormctcrUllr*." 

edition. I . 

Stott, (Shack, -" Twenty Six Ymr* nt MlMtonary Work In 
China." 374 pp, 8 illiut. .Inl ••dlli.m. HnOOtv, 1M0H. 

ThiiMmin, .1. " Through China  
illuMl. 21s, nut. Countable. 
7s. (kl. 

Walton. Johkph. M.P.— " ChiM •nd tliu lV«-*ut Crl«l.. " 
SaiujiMin Lo». 

Waiiiikh-Smith, D.— " Kiiro(H " *•* - ■' far Ibwt." 
32 iiiiiit. Mip. 7s. (II. imMjtor 

tnub-ni, but uf much intt.. -. ■•■ ^. ... . ,, ,.,.,.... 

WII.UAMH, F. W.— " A lliittory of Chlaa. ' II.. 8. Low. 1800. 

WiixiAMs, S. W.— " Th. i 
New Map. 2 Vols. tJ 
An exhaustive sIiuIn ..[ ii.. 
and s<M<i:il eouditioiis of I'l. 
elassieal work on China f' ^ 

VLAniMiit.^" Kiiwia on the r 
Illinit. Ma|>s. 14s. S. I 
this work with .Mr. C.' 
(s«?e aliove). 

VoiM;HrHUANl>. K. K.-'" Atnnnir 

lllust. Map. 7s. M. M 
Heart of a Continent " (-■ 

\ few n'prenontativc Kivnch woribi rrcmlly paltllalMsl are 

(jiven Im'Iow. 

Anon, — " L* Chino : Kvpanslon dm Grandii* PniaMUien* ««a 

KxtriMne Orient." 222 pp. P»ri«. IHUO. 
KAitfi,. K, " I^H. Chlnois chei Kux." .IIW pp. It tllint. Mr. 

aOe. Colin. Paris. IWW. 

CoTTKAf. K.— " I'n Touriste diin^ rKt'n'-mf OHnnt f1«1.2)." 
3 Mh|m, :t8 illiisl. 4(h nlltion. I' 

LKitiir-B»:Ai'i.i>'.i'. Pi»uiit»'„ -" I^ Henox . 

Chini>-Ja|>on." 4rr. Colin. Paris, llNH). .\n  

study of tin- decr«>pit Kinpin> the- si.-k mm of II.. 

— the results of two years' eon- 'd. 

MaDIIOIX»', C.— " lA'm Peupl<>s < I „ -. dv la CIili.o 

Meridionah-." Paris, IMIH. 

MATliiXoN, J, J, -■' Sn|H>rstitiun. Criiw. et Mi j fcw ea Cb>... . 
72 illnst. L.von. 18W. 

MoNNiKii, Maihki.. " I.e Tour d'.\»ie." IHUO. Plon. ParU. 
Thi" fruits of four yeiirs" tnivel in tho " Mickllo Rnpins " 
as eorres|Mmdent of Lr rr«i|w. 

RolwiCT. L.— " A Travem la <'hint>." Map. 28 illiut. Srd 
edition. 4fr. Hachette, Paris. 

STANDARD BOOKS OK KKKKKKNCK. 

Bam., J. D.— " ThiiiKK ChinoM." 10». Od. 2nd «djUaii. 1«M. 
S. Low. 

BoiuiMi, D. C— " Hiatorr of China." 1.378 pp. Map*. 2 VoU. 

New (Hlition. 1000. Thaeker. 

CHAVANX»>», KdoIARO. — " L<>s Menii.;r<- Ili-t. .r iiin<~i de Se-M» 
Ts'ieii." 3 Vols. aln>ad,v 
piiblishiHl in Oi-tnlKT. T,<- 
of Chinese hist.< 
of the " five p. 
The historv is i 
" Bo<ik of' Hi-^ 
rescucil from ti.." r.m(H'n'r .■smn ii\\-iTtg-iii s |a 1 ninenv 



44 



LITERATURE. 



[July 21, 1900. 



!"■ - " . r ■" " O 'i 1ii>1iH*aii»t in tito tliii-il o<!iit«ry 

»' y is m>w |i|iu-<><t witiiiii tin- 

rt-aiii Ml hii^-ii-ii rv.mir-. im- i lie Ilrst timo. 
ClMON, 1>M!I>.- •• Pmlil.-iiiH of ihi" K:ir Rist." 444 pp. IIIiinI. 

MttjiH. Tsi. (VI. I'oiiNtablo, 1«WJ. A ».lia ]K>li(i<.>al tnsatiMj 

which (li-sMTVi-dlv milks as ii i-l:iK.sio. 
D.iVil>, J. F. -•• Th« l'hiiH>M«." 2 Vols. Ljist .nlition. 1857. 

Lonikin. An «'nt"yrlopRHlio work full of nolid inforniiition. 
I>>ii:i..\S H. K.— " StM-ioty in Chinii." Ilhisl. (Vs. liiiio-s, IWM. 
Df B<»s»:. Kkv. H. C'.— " The H<>li};ioiis of Chlim." 4<H< |ip. XI. 

Richinonil. Virginia, l-S..^. .\ iis<>fiil iiilnMliii'tioii (otlio 

•• thiw rt'ligions " of China— Budtlliisiii, Confiiciaiiisni, uiul 

Taoism. 
<Jiur. J. H.— " China : A History of the Laws. Mannors, &p." 

2 Vol*. Lost fditicMi. 1878. London. ludisiMMisablu for tlio 

student. 

IIOHiK, .\.— " Throo Years in Western China." Os. Now c<lition. 
1M>7. G. Philip. 

Hcc, l'.\bb4.— •• L'Kmpiro Chinois." 2 Vols. 4th edition. 18<52. 
Pari*. 

LANsiirxi.. H.— " Chinese Central Asia." 2 Vols. Illiist. X.I IIW. 
.S. Low, 18Ua. 

Loch. l.<mn.— " P«>raonaI Xarrative of Lord Elftin's Kinbnssy 
to China in 1S(M»." Portraits. Illiist. is. (mI. net. Now 
edition. lUOO. Murray. Of peculiiir iuten-st at the present 
monient. 

Lczac, C. G.— " Bililiofcraphical List of Books on the East 
(1802-4)." Is. Liizuc. 

Vlaoimib.— " The Chiiia-Ja|iauese War." 400 pp. Mans. Ilhist. 
Kfct. 8. Low. IWW. 

VorNiiiUKBAxn. F. K.— " The Ho.irt of a Continent : Tiavols 
in Manchnria." V.M) pp. £1 Is. Miiriay, 18SH1. .\ work of 
aterlinft nK>rit. One of the best travel Ixxiks on China. 

The Foreign Oflloe Correspondence, Parliamentary Bhie- 
books, and the various Consular Kp|)Orts will, of course, be con- 
miltcd by all those ro<|uiring otticial inforinatiou on our |K>iitieal 
relations with the Chinese Knipire and the development of 
trade and comnieree, but these hmhI not lie hero en uinorate<l. 
They can all be procured at Messrs. Spottiswoode's. 



EECENT EXCAVATIONS IN CRETE. 



" ' 'viva " is ill a s|M'clal sense lH>comiii;j a reality 

<rf g"' ' to the growing world which loves Hellenism and 

all its ways. .Mr. Arthur Kviins, the Kee|K'r of the new 
AsbinoIe:in at Oxford, has recently di'serilH?d to the Hellenic 
.Soiriety his re<'ent excavations in that now tramiuil island. Not 
tbt; least r«>inarkable feature of his diH(!overies lies in the vivid 
colouring displaye*! on the walls and reliefs which he has 
rewuf-d from the dust of |>erhaps some thirty-three O'ntiirii-s. 
This valuable addition to the evidence denionslniliiig the colour- 
treatment of (Jreek an'hile«'tnro even in its origins received a 
pointed emphasis from Sir W. Riclimoiid, U.A., who ut oiicc« 
ollermt his iienonal wrvices ii|>on the island lor next autumn. 
The 8o<-iety is generously subsidizing Mr. Kvaiis' own zealous 
arid generous lalK>nrs, and their work, aiKirt frotii accomplished 
facts, may prove of prime value in this bninch of science. 

,Mr. Kvans, |>artly no doubt by rr>asonof the Mwurity brought 
to unhappy Crete by Britain and the other Powers, has bet>n 

able to succ<-ed where Sclili aim an<l Dr. Dorpfeld have failinl. 

Anxious to dig out the civili/.atinn to which M-rtain gems he had 
found could Im- allribute<l, he attacked the hill of Kepliala, lying 
to the «>uth of the historic town of Kiios<m, while Mr. Hogarth, 
of the British Sch.K.I of .\reliieo|ogy in .\tlieiiK, made parallel 
**^ under Mount Dicte. Put shortly, the result has 

'** . '«"■ a " MyeenH-an " Palace, the site jirobably of 

tbn court of •• King Minos " ; the extensive and highly de<-orat<>d 
.iiiff of buildings at pre««Mit uncovereil U^long clearly to the 
.•mean" .tge (say 1400-1100 ii.c). The fn-sc-oes are as 

> 'K IS and, in |)arts, as fn-sh as thr>se of PomiH-ii which they 

may anlici|jate by fourteen centuries*. Mr. Kvaiis des<TilM-d a 
J^" '• area (" pcrh/ip* the original dancing ground of 

-^ '■ (firt with vast gy|>sum blocks, and entere<l by a 

«loublc d«orw*y. Here, as well as in a great corridor running 



round the edge of ilie terrace excavaltHi, \vei-<' found well-kept 
fragments of fresco work-~c.(/., pieces of a great bull (the 
Minot.iiir?) and of life-siKed hiiinan llgiires; one of the latter 
wears an armlet in which was M.<t an agate g«>ui like those 
previously found. ThoM> inlerestcil in classical architecture and 
its early forms will (when plans and photographs are published) 
notice with interest a large system of maga/.ines and galleri(*s 
which (III a great part of the plateau, and which everywhere 
show signs of som<> vast catastrophe, since the <la»e of which the 
site has evidently been undistiirlH-d. 

But woiiiler will be cliielly roused al the building in the north- 
east corner, wliii-li Mr. Kvans slyle<l " The Throne Koom." Hero 
the fresc(M>s have li<>eii found particularly lirilliant ; a river with 
llsh, Wiiter-plants, ile<M>rativ<> grillins and the like are to bo seen, 
but also crowds, literally, of men and women ; the latter, whoare 
seen in niiimate<l conversation, are gaily dres^eil and exhibit the 
most elal>onite coiffure* of one uniforni and therefore presumalily 
fashionable kind ! These |>aiiitiiigs aii|Hnir also in an ante-room 
and in the women's quarters, which Mr. Kvans felt justified in 
styling " harem," by reason of the fair white complexions of tho 
ladies in contrast with those of the men. In the throne room 
itself wei-c I'onnd part of a shrine, like one fonnil by Schliemniin 
at Mycenie, and a remarkable carv<'d throne of gypsum, exhibit- 
ing " criH'kels " and oilier " got hie " detail I In the " harem," 
too, there came to light the head and other pieces of a great 
bull of painted iji-xso i/iii-o, decorative work of this kind having 
evidi-ntly formed a feature of the palace. 

These remains in themselves will prove an admirable illustra- 
tion of the social life of tho tsarly Ciretrk world describe<l in tho 
Hcmieric ikkmiis ; but much new light, we may well guess, will bo 
thrown by the interpret at ion of (he new "alphalM't" of seventy 
•lillerent characters or syllables, u copious Mipply of which has 
be<?n found in the course of the excavations. They are likely to 
M|>ell out an iiuligenoiis and primitive form of t'relan (ireek and 
should tell us news of tliiscivillzalion of thirtyand more centuricH 
ago, of the rclalivo height of which the biiildiiigs alone are sutll- 
cient indicaliuns. Both .Mr. Kvans aiul his lollow-workers and tho 
Society are to be congratulate<l U|kiii the present results of their 
lalxMirs, which redound grejitly to the credit of British archico- 
logical reseai-eh. 



THE DRAMA. 



" LES THlLv\TRBS DB LA FOIRB." 

Meeting .Mr. H. I). Traill only a wi-ek or two iK'fore iiis 
ileath I couiplaiiieil to him that Inioks of theatrical gossip, of 
which a particularly tiresoim' s|M-cimeii had just tlu-n ap|KMre<l, 
were as dull as entomological i-ecords. He n'plied, with a sly 
smile, " ,\re (hey not very <if(eii (he saim- (hiiig?" The M-mark 
was just. When .IoIiiimiu was asked to compni'e themi'ritsof 
two minor |MM'ts, he said, " Sir. I cannot pretend l<i disdiignish 
between a louse and a Ilea." The disdnction ImMwismi this and 
that small ac(4>r of a past generation sih'iiis (H|iially minute and 
futile. Whether it was Hart or .Mohun, Ouiii or Mussop, who 
played this or that part in this 4ir that way, who cares 'i What 
diMjs it matter to " the griMt mundane inoveinent ? " Yet 
c|uestions of that sort are the staple of oiir theatri<-al memoirs. 
We have ixi history on aiiylhing like a scientillc liasis of the 
stage as an organism, showing the causal n-lationsliips of things, 
giving a rational account of its gitiwdi, determining the law of 
its evolii(i<ui. And the history of the li(*>rary (Iraiiia is studied 
in the printed page, without reference (o the variations in the 
mechanical conditions of the playhouso which have influenceil 
its form ; that is to say, it is wrongly sluilied. Thus a re<;ent 
e<Utor of Congreve aecounlt^d for the dficoiisK of his plots and 
other |M>cnliarititts n|Miii some faiHasdc thistry of a purely 
literary kind, without apparently the sligh(<>st suspicion (hat 
the explanation was really to bo sought in the incchaiiieal 
disposition of the Itostoratiou Theatre. I hav<3 seen a b<N)k, 
iis4h1, I lM-liev<', by iniiiM-eiit sch'N)liiiaslers, wherein Sliake- 
s|>oare's plots are dealt with in the same misleading way, wiili 



July 21, 1000.] 



LITERATURE. 



flicir Ntnii'tiirnI pcciilijirllli's rxplalniMl liy thi' Irxl nlniu'. NoJ, 

II hint tluit (ho iiiTiiiiKciinMits iif thi' KII'/.alM>lhaii |iluyh»uM< woro 
onnoorni'il ill the iiiiittor. if wo hail glvon lo our own w«'nlo 
hlHtiiry Olio titho iif tho Ntiuly l>OHtou-oil liy (ionimii M'holnnt on 
tho Hthioturul |R'<«(ilIarIti«'H of tho <irf4>k th«si»r«i ulmurtlllloH ..f 
thin kimi would havo Imnmi iin|Hm-iil*lo. 

Tho Ki-oiich an- far ahoail i>r Id lioro. Thoy hnvo priMliioocI 
iiiiiiiinoralilo iiioiiiiKra|ihs ih>nliii(; liitolll;;ontty with thoir vnrioiin 
(Iraiiiati)' M|)o<-ioM an coiiilltioiioU hy tho vui-yiii); (■iri-iiiiiMtniiooM 
of thoir |iros4'iituti<iii. Hiioh n iiioiiii;;ra|ih Ih " I>^ Thi'-Alrt-M ilo 

III Foiro," hy M. Muurioc AJlH^rt (PariM, llnuhotto), n is>in|iiic-l 
littlo iMMik KiviiiK tlio hiMtory of tho thoiitnm which, botwiwii 
l(MH) mill tho Kovoliitioii, ((row ii|) oiitHido tho orlhiMlox CoiixWIio 
KraiivaiNO anil Aonih'-iiiio ilo Miisii|uo, HiicooKHfiilly rnuglit thoir 
priviloftoil rivals, anil in tho courso of llio W^Ul ih>volii|HMl now 
forms of Ihontrioal art. Novor was nooossity a iimro pn>lifli' 
motlior of iiivontioii. Tho tiniiMorH, iMpo-ilanoors, " Htronj; 
men," conjurors, liallail siiipiors, and drolls who had Ion;; onlor- 
raiiiod tho i-rowil at tho two ;;roat Paris fairs- that of St. 
<iormain on tho loft hand of tho Soiiio, and that of St. Lnuront 
on tho rijtlit — found in mid-M>vciitooiilli century thoir entertain- 
iiiiMit iiioi-c iMipnIar when thrown into a ilraiiutic fmnMnvork. 
Gradually tho draiiintic camo to pro|M>ndorat(> over what wo 
should now call the " variety " olomont, till tho eiitortalniiioiits 
at tho fairs wore to all intents and piir|KiHos staj;e-plnys. This 
dovolopmenf, as a harofaeoil iiifriii;;oiiiont of tho exeUisivo 
privilop> hold Ity the " Coim'-dii'iis dii Koi," led to protest and 
for a time to the elosun> of the nnlicoiised iMioths. But the 
demand for drama, for a connoetod story more or less an 
imitation of life, proved in tho end too strong fi>r privilo^fo. 
If the Court had its theatre, tho crowd insisted on having 
its tlioatns too. .\nd tho history of tho century (say, 1(18(1 
to 1780) is a liistory of tho iilgonloiis devices l»y which 
tho prohibitions against stage-plays outside the Court were 
ovado<l and ultimately set at naught. A play is in oss<<nco 
continuous action carried on liy dialogue. Dialogue l»«>ing 
forliidilen to the unlicoiis*><l players they adopted inonologiie, 
and for continuous action they siilistituteil a sories of scenes, each 
purporting to Im> complete in itself. Deprived of " cuiuulative 
intoivst," thoy wei-o driven to give each scene an interest of 
its own liy amplifying tho stage " liiisinoss " and s|M^ctacle. 
Hence the liirtli of a fn-er, iiior«> nexililo, niori' various fonu of 
ili-ama than that of oHIumIon comedy, tragi-dy, and fa n-o ; 
vaudeville, lMirlesi|uo, pantoiiiinio, " n-vue," camo into lieiiig. 
Asi to the monologues, they won- only dialogues under another 
name. The s|ioaklng actor addroMsoil mute llgnres, and then 
delivered their replies for them. Or speaking actor .\ would 
leave tho stage, to he sui-ct'odiHl hy another speaking actor B ; 
.V and B lioiiig thus in reality interlmMitoi-s. Tliereii|Miii 
outraged authority coiiilemiied the actiirs to silence. Not to 
he Ilea ten, the playei-s took to miming their parts, while wrolls 
of dialogue, in nijiid succession, wen> held alxive their heads. 
And they had the lu<-k to i-nlist some |M'culiarly aide writers on 
their side- notalily, Losage, PiiMii and Kavart. Thoy had many 
lips and downs- all to Ik- found nieticiilously but not tediously 
recorded hy M. Albert- and in the end they triumphantly 
vliiilicated their right to play what they pleased, wlier*' thoy 
pleased, and how they pleas<>d. The vindication of their right is 
an interesting historical fact ; what is nion- !m|>ortant is tlu-ir 
invention, in tho coiii-so of this Yindication, of new forms of 
theatrical art. 

Something of the sort might Im- traced by the curious in 
the history of the Knglish stagi\ We. t<s), had our unlic<'ns.'il 
players tight ing and nltiniatoly overcoming tho i»rivileg»'s of the 
old Patent Housi-s. But with us the story is not so signillcant ; 
partly, no doubt, lH>canse our iiiilieensed jilayors never had their 
Li>sa_go, and so never produced anything which eoulil count as 
litoratniH", but still more, I think, Ixvause, if I may s|>eak like 
tho electricians, our dramatic " |iolential " Wiis lower. Nothing 
is mori' remarkable in the story of these Kwiicli Uxith-t heat res 
than the iiorsistent energy of the dramatie idea, the tendency 
of every kind of entort«inment to take ou, as far as it could, 



tho form of a |iUy, m atory In iIUi 

(Imnw \%vn< tho mvwiwdtjr nf a Kr< ' i 

wor«i iiKirw roiilent to iaki> o\. 

HM-ri'ly for »li ' i 

that, while I 

uclors, Kiigluiiil lu'. ,,i, ihi< •.!; 

.\nd that has Ihs-m inie f.-r nt I. 

ImiIiiIh out that " it i> 

and her philowiphen ui" 

■•ightoenth i-oiiiiiry. It Is ulw> h<-r |>i'i 

and clowns." .ViH>th(>r isintmst : th. ...- 

do la folm " N. rini|chly, ibo ■torjr of •• nu<itvlMlt ar 

(akiiifc to tho Rtriilar iitngt* ; wh<<r<>a« It-' 

nliout tho L<iiiilon ntafCi' lonliiy U t|M« i 
ri'gnlar drntnatlc artii|)i arr^ ukiiig to the i 



45 



;h>b 



UJvl.KY. 



IRcvicws. 



WATEBLOO. 

Thk Campak.n or 181.'). By W. O'CoNxon Moniii*. (C.nmt 
Kichardii, 1? i 

The Literature of WatorliNi « iio» t.i ;;r..w ; f..iif cr 

Ave giKsl Kiigli->li and Krem-h iiarnttiv<n> <■( •<! 
have come to light during the I.ihi Um- n,.,,.. 
long-supproHxed iliary 1% the 

original authorities, tho uiili 

I»€»st French couniu-ntary on tli> 

|M>ar(!4l — the ■' 1815 " of M. Hem. •>!>. wm. 

d<M>H not attain to complolo iiii{' s • far ' 

approach to thai idoul than any < 

Channel. Wo liuvii now to no' 

endeavours to suin up 

ten years very iiiui'h on i 

•liidgo O'Connor Morris i^ in |> 

tion ; it is cli-.ir, n-adable, and iiH' 

iiii|iortaiit Knglish siiurci>s, and ha« 

French autlioritii-N than any of h\- 

fnmi our side. .M. Houwuiyo'v 

holiMil him in this finint ; a ishin...- 

materials for history havo iM-aiHiie i 

author diwovurcd them. The n ' 

aci|naiiit hiiiiHeif with thf> main I 

by reading a single IsHik will (or t 

.Morris lor his instruction ; hi- 

Ifois's, l)ors<>y (ianlnor, II 

Knglish narrator of the pi>-«< 

|>oints u|>oii which sonii' 

incliniil to think that, m 

estimating Wellington'i) anil oven 

But ovi-ry writi-r is ontitleii to hi-. • ijr 

niastonil all the available eviilonrt*, aiul this il <*ann»t Im 
donieil that Juilgo Morris has lioiie. 

The main ol>JiH-tioii which is mnilo lo WellinKinn'* ■tralt'Cy 
is foiiiidisl on his ill iii.ido on f " ' 

of (^iiatn- Bras anil I i tht- !•<■ 

Following M. Hoii-.>,i_M', .liidgi- .Mi'i 
commaiider ornsl gravely in "••( . 
eastwaril the moment that tli> ' 
ilir«M-tioii of Cliarleis>l. The v 
hours, Wellington, it is nllegtil, 

iiMirning of .lime l."», tho onb-r« U>  I 

(^iiatro Bnis, \vhii-h,as a matter of fact, 
uiiilniglit. X can-ful oxauiiiiution of the >..- 
that his ilolay was just ilia ble. A Krnpnil 
re|)i>rt« s«-iit to him (roin his out|)OBtii ; lie i> hm- hi> : 
playi'r wniling for the infomiatioa dnltsl mit In I 
niiipiro. Till h<> has a clear indication of t1 ' 
must act «> as to In- able to (ace any one of • 
iiH'ilts of tho game, Nov\ on Jiiuc 15 it u^a kuuMU that. Lbs 



46 



LITERATURE. 



[July 21, 1900. 



KtCtirh ««•«• iH>t fur frmn tin* fr«>i>ti<'r in tlu> dlr<M'tion of thp 
8miI>n>. Tli>-r>* vti-r«> tux> fn>iitK on iMtli<>r (nr Im>iIi) of wliioli 
Xapoleon'K Bitark iiiieht Im- (li-livi-rtHi. On th<> KiikIihK fmnt 
Domh(>rir with ono (ionnan and four UolKinn «>avalr.v reftiuioiics 
vr»s watt'hinR tho frontier fr<»ni Tonrnny to Bineht' : on tho 
Prnstiian tho division of Stoinnu-t/. lay tou<<hini; l)<»rnlM'rK'!< 
left, and «<xt»«ndinK as far as Mnrcliicnmvi ; iM-yond liiin, 
oaKtvrard. lay nnotlirr Prnssian division — that of Pirc-li, from 
CharloMM to fliAti-lol. Till WflliiiKton kni-w wlilrli of thrso 
UutM) iMVtioii* of tin- B«'li{ian fninru-r was assailod hi' ponld not 
nukke a divi»iv<> nMivc. fnfortnnatoly for him, ho was vt-ry liadly 
aer^-od, l>oth liy lii« own hrifrailior and liy his allies. Kirly in 
the ilay both tin- Prnftsian divisions wvro furiously atlaoktHl by 
nnmrrou)! Fronrb columns advancing on every available rood. 
I>onil»orc's front, on the other hand, was not the least molested. 
But Wellinjrtoii r»>»-eiv<sl no ni'wstill 3 in the afternoon, when he 
Kot a single dj-siiateh from Ziethen, to whom St«'inniet/.'s and 
Pirx'h's divisions lM-lont;<'<l. to the effeet that he was heavily 
awailetl by the enemy. The KiiKlish eomnmnder r<'fns«>d to move 
his whole anny till he had nioii- information, anil nion- «>s|)i'eially 
till Im> should bax-e heard from T)ornl>erfr what was {foinR on in 
front of Mons. It was not till at night that he learnt from 
that oflleer that all was quiet in his dirertiim ; al>out the samn 
hour ho reeeivMl a seoond Prussian despat<'h, in which Bliirher 
told him how Ziethen's corps had lie<>n chaswl and hnrricnl nil 
day by the advanciiifr columns of Xa|Hilei>n. HavinR at last 
the ne<'ess:iry i(otn in his hands, Wellington issued orders for the 
march at dawii on Qiiatre Bras — the correct move, but one which 
would have Imimi more effivtive if it had Inx^n made iM'fore noon 
on the loth instead of at 4 a.m. on the Kith .Inno. With our 
pr<«iont knowledge of what had Imh^u happening nil through the 
long snnnner day we can see that the whole French plan of cam- 
psifni would have l>een frustrated if the .\nglo-Dutch army h.id 
b«^n to concentnite eighteen honrs earlier. But Wellington 
wra.s dependent on his informants, and they h.id faile<1 him. 
Ziethen should have sent him not one tardy aide-de-camp, but a 
string of messengers with hourly news. Dornberg, as the direct 
KulKirdinate of the Duke, was even more to blame. The moment 
that he heard the cannonade Itegiiining a mile or two to the east 
of his flank he should have commenced to hurry off news to his 
coronuknder. But Ziet hen's des|Kitc)i did not arrive till 4 in the 
afternoon, nor DornlM-rg's till 9 at night. Wellington had bi»en 
ill-treat«Hl by the chance of war and the stupidity of the generals 
at the out|>o»ts, nnd lost a day's march thereby. Now, when 
Napoleon HUffere*! in a similar way, as ho did more than once 
daring the campaign, all the blame is laid on his siibonlinnte — 
Xoy. D'Erlon. (Jnnichy, Soult, or whoever it may Ih>. It seems 
to us only fair that Wellington should l>e tri>iiteil in the Hnnio 
fashion. His adveiiwry i-ertainly committed one fault far more 
serions than any made on the Knglishside — the inexplicable halt 
of eight hours which he made on the morning of .Iiine 17, during 
which he lost all the advantages that he hail won at Ligny. 
Nor can this halt Ite ascrilMnl entin'ly to physical ill-health, as 
Jndge Morris would wish ; the Emperor was well enough to ride 
all round the field of Ligny, nnd to engnge in a long and 
nnneeewsiry conversiition im Parisian |>olitics with his stall when 
he Mhonid have Imh-u nuirehing hard on Quatrc> Bras with all his 
re«er^"eii at his Iwick. 

In his rriticinm of the details of thn aetuni flghting .fudge 
Morris sei-ms to as ver>° sound. He ex|Mises si>verul mistakes of 
M. HiMiiMaye. notably his ort-rstatenient of the elT<<ct on tho 
Knclish wiuareM of Ney's gieat cavalry eharges at Qnatre Bras 
and his allegation that Na|Mi|is)n presaeil liaril on the retii-ating 
Knglish lN-tw«s>n (Qnatre Bras and (ii-napiie on the 17th. The 
li»t of casualties — nniler l'M> ummi —shows that the pursuit can 
not have U-en very iles|>erate. We have only found one |H>int 
wherfw»» should pM-fer to »ei'<-pt M. Honsssiyo'sstaK'nienl r:ilh«'r 
than .ludge Morris' correetion of it — viz., tin- view that I^i 
Ha.ve Kaint4' fell into tlM- liaiids of the French at fl rather than at 
4 n'cliH-k on I lie afternoon of the IHth of June. Tho hnlancu of 
pvidene*-, vnp tliink, is eUnrl.v In favrmr of the Inter hour. A 
innre nmlcMilit<'<l slip is the assertion, on' p. 83, that the (ienvral 



Steinmeti who commanded one of Ziclhen's divisions was tho 
same olllcer who sorve<l at S|H'icliei-en and tJravelotle in 1870. 
They were, we iK'lieve, uncle and nephew ; tJie illvisinnal general 
of 1815 would hnvc Invn 1U-' if he had burvivod till 187U ; tho 
Stcinnietz of Speichcren v\ii» only aeventy-four. 



SANSKRIT LITERATURE. 

A HisTonv OK Saxhkrit Litkratl'ri:, by AiiTHt'R A. Mackonfll, 
B<Mb>n Pnifi'ssor of Sanskrit and Fellow of Btilliol. (Heine- 
niann, (h.) 

Befon' this volume was published there existed no history of 
Sanskrit literature as a whole in Knglish. Pisifessor Max Milller 
ilealt only with the Vedic |H>riiHl, and his book has long been 
out of i)rint. Considering the intense interest Itelonging to tho 
oldest Aryan jioetry, and ri'inemlM-ring the liideratignblo 
lal>ours of Max Miiller himself in intrcHliicing Sanskrit resMirch 
to English ii-aders, this iledciency is not a littli- surprising. 
But one is apt to forget how very miMlein tlie study of Sanskrit 
really is. Tho lM>ginniiig of the systematic study of ancient 
Indian literature dates very little further '.lack than Cliampollion's 
llrst discoveries in Egyptian hieroglyphics. Warren Hastings, 
whose priHligious services to India are onl.v now beginning to be 
ado<iuately appreciated, Rave the first impulse by onloring a 
digest of ancient Indian law to l>e drawn up by certain 
Brahmans and to l)e translated into Persian and English. This 
was in 1770. That extraordinarily brilliant Orientalist Sir 
William .lonos, who ci-owded such original and |)roli(lc energy 
into a life that did not attain fifty years, printed a Sanskrit 
text for the llrst time in 1HY2, Then came the solid, judicious, 
comprehensive works of H. T. Colebrooke.and after him Sanskrit 
lioenmo tho study not of Englishmen only, but of Contincntnl 
scholni"s. Schlegel intrmlnceil the comparative inethwl, followed 
up by Bopp, Kuhn, nnd Max Miiller ; and Koth, after )>ul)lishing 
his inspiring essay on the " Literature nnd History of tho 
VmIb " in 184(1, conibine«l with Bi'ihtlingk to priHlnce their monu- 
mental Sanski'it-Gerumn dictionary (7 vols., 18.")'2-75), which is 
l)erhaps the most perfect lexicon hithi-rto completed of any 
language. It is se<'ii how very miKlern the development of 
Sanskrit interpretation is. Anil when wo ivmi'nil»er that the 
bulk of thesis ancient Indian writings exci'ods that of classical 
Greece and Koine put together, that the language is dilllcult 
enough to daunt all but resolute students, and that, in spite o( 
the wide range, tho dilllculty, and the small numlier of Sanskrit 
scholars, almost the whole of this large literature has l»eeu 
edited, and the greater part tninslatiil, liy competent 
authorities, we must admit that theii,> is no giinind for coiupluin- 
ing of tlu' energy or the |H'i-M.'verance of Sanskrit sdidents. 

The work of the jjioni-i-r, editor, and collector is now almost 
completed, and the task of the encyclopn*dist and synthesist 
l>egins. A comjirehensive view of the itwults of all Sanskrit 
res4>arch is nnri- iHting pi-es«-nte<l l>y alM)Ut thirty s|H'cialists of 
various nations in the gr«'at " Encyclo|uedia of Indo-Arynn 
Hesi-arch," eilitwl llrst by the lat<i Dr. Biililer and now b.v 
Professor Kielhorn. .\nd in a mini- limited Held Professor 
Macdonell. of Oxford, has just collected in a convenient volume 
the chief ri'snlts of a century's investigation of the history anil 
charact«'ristii-s of Sanskrit liler.ituri'. So clear and thoj-ough an 
ex|>osition of the subject should attract more stndenis to what is 
one of the uiost fascinating studies in the worlil. Professor 
Macdonell maintnins rightly that " nniong nil the ancient 
literatiir<>s that of India is uinlonbti'dly in intrinsic value nnd 
lesthetic merit wconil only to that of Greece." Indi-ed, as a 
diK-nment in the histor.v of human evolution. 

Its earliest |)eri<Kl, In-iiig much older than any product of 
Greek literature, presj-nts a nion- ))riinilive form of belief, and 
t lierefoii- givi-s a dearer pictun- of the development of religious 
ideas than any other lil4-niry monument of the wurlil. Hence 
it conn's Hint, just ns tho discovei-y of the Sanskrit language led 
to the foundation of the science of Comparative Philology, an. 



July L'l, 1900,] 



LITi:i;\TIIMv 



I 



nri|li:iiiilatiC0 with tho li tern til  ol the XimIms I'l'Mii ifi. 

foiiiulatioii of Hip wIpiico of Coiiipanitivii Mylliolo(fy. 
Ah cvpi-y oiio knows, n>li|;ioii niiil |iliiloso|>liy I; \ •> 

t>xor<'isi>(l II Hii|ir(<iiu> iitlrtiction for thi> Indian inliiil. '>i .n. 

HO linril to atliiin In our iiio<l<>rn liiiNy lifo, wiim llif iiiniii cmtiiihi- 
tion 1111(1 (li'li^lit of liniidrifN of llioiiHanils of tli<> rlwi-llorv in llu' 
vast forest NolitinloN of Indiii, wIhtc tin- Ntrii(;(;l<- for lifi- ««« 
Hiniplilloil hy frnifiil lialiitw iinil tli« lM>iiiity of imtiiro. Ili>iif« 
Indinn litoriiliirc is doininiiiitly r<>llt;loiiN iind pliilonoplilrnl, (iiid 
to what lioljriits and depths of s|>rH-(dalion fht'sc iniciont philoso- 
phors nttaiiifd those who road Professor Ma \ M filler's sl(eteh<"> 
of the " Six Systems " ar«> nwar<>. Soienee, tiiatlieiiialies, law, 
iiiedioiiie, K>''><i><nJir, nil have their plaee in Sanskrit writlnpt 
the Krcal<>st lack Is in history- hut none eaii eoiiipare In iiii|)orl- 
Hiico or orlKiiialily of treatment with the evolution of rollKion 
lind metaphysics. 

Originality is the llrst chai^K-leristir of aiiri '"•• ..;-i. >... 

rould add niCHlern) Imliaii tliotiKht. 

Naturally isolatiMl liy Its {;i(r:intii- moiintairi li.inifi- mi IIh- 
north, the Indian |MMiinsiiln has <<ver sinee the Aryan invaiion 
formed a world apart, over which a unique form of Aryan clvili/ji- 
tioii rapidly spread and has ever sin<-e prevailed. When t lie 
Greeks, towards the end of the fourth century H.c, invaded 
tho North-West, the Tmlians had already fully \vorke<l out a 
national enltiii-e of th(>ir own, nnaffeeted by foreign intliicne«'s. 
And, In spite of siicppssive waves of liivaHion and eonquesl 
by Persians, Grc'ok.s, Scythians, Mahomedans, tlio national 
dovelopinent of the life and literatur<> of the Indo-Aryan race 
remained praotieally nncheoked and iinmodilli'd from without 
down to the era of British occupation. No oth«'r hranrh of the 
Ind()-Knro|K'aii stock has e\p«>rienced an isolated «'Volntioii 
like this. No other country, except China, can trac«' liaok its 
lanfrnafc' and literature. Its reli;;ious liellefs and rites, its 
tlomestic and social customs, throu;;han uninterrupted devplop- 
inent of more than three thousand years. 

This is, of course, jterfeptly true. Sanskrit is still (he tongue 
of the learned Brahiuans as it was iti the days of Alcxnndpr the 
Oroat. The \'edas «!•<• still pommitted to memory as they were 
at the ejioch of the Trojan War. The same Vishnu who was 
\vor8hippe<l a thousaiHl or perliaps two thousand- years iM'fore 
Christ is still adon-d all over India. The mo«leni Hindu Is 
married with the same o'lMMiionies as his ancestor of the a(;e of 
Pericles. Never was there so pontinuons and «nchanf;«Hl a 
national life. The liistory and jc"^^*'"' "f •••<" wrItiiiKs which 
embody this life the thouKht and <-ivill7.at ion of India ar«> s«>l 
forth with much perspicacity in Pi-ofi-ssor Macdonell's valuable 
work. It is a book for the student ratlicrthan thepcnenil r«>ader. 
who will tliid it somewhat techuieal, thoiif;h i-ven the uninltiateil 
eanuot fall to bo interp»tp<l in th(> chapters on the Vetlir Ap*-, 
tho fii)j:ve<la, the Epics, and Fain,' Tales. These art" sniijpots 
already familiar to all readers of )iopiilar books on mytliolojry 
and early ivlif;ion, thoiiKh the writer is able in many caM's to 
<'ast fn'sh lij];lit or put old ideas in new and instructive forms. 
To the systematic student the Isiok will l>e of the greatest use, 
first as a comprehensive and consecutive survey of th<' whole 
.subject of Sanskrit literature, and, secondly, as an iuvalnabic 
fcuide to the liiblioj^raph.v. What he cannot fully understand in 
tho text he will be able to follow up in the ample bibliographical 
notes which form an im|)Orlant and nieritorious feature in the 
series to which the volume belonjp*. We coiif;ratnlatp the Bo«leii 
Professor on a very real service to Indian studies, perfonneil 
with learning, skill, and coiiiniendablp fairness toothers' labours. 



OTHER NEW BOOKS. 



side Lifrbts on Old Ppanoe. 

SiDK l.K.iiis ON 1111: Hkicn ok Tkruok. iHMUfc the Memoirs 
ot Mademoiselle des l-A'horolles, translated from the Frt'nch by 
Mario Clolhilde Bjilfour (Lano. 12s. (kl.), are authentic memoirs, 
adinirabl.v translated, and handsomely brought out. Their author. 
Mile, des Rcherolles, was but fourteen when the Revolution burst. 



I li- I 

he h 

 •■^s tta* •riuol. I 

giiill' npiti- of the .:. ., . . 

whirh tho phild made (■• olifain a i 

thii> deaU wllh th« old ■>• -• •  —  

wroiiK.wrf<aketl iimmlly m 

lN>fore, and yet whi, ' 

side lights. Us |Ih> i 

Very humorous i» tlM> whole ai < 
PoiLsiii of des |>;ctMTolle<i, hIhi u8«'nil tilt 
the exeeuliiin <■( ber aunt, anil «hili< b< 

liidinfc. Mile. Molon wa» < ,....i... 

fortiiiH.', and Iht liabitii mud ' 

rrgimr. SIhi reftiwHl to ino 

I'lideavoiirtMl, iiitk^otl, to inalo 

aiui> with Imt capr 

ill the lioiisi- in i. 

She was mil a Ik'huiiIuI old bult , ' 

crim|>ed and drt-swl lii;;(i r,u the lop . 

a bilge fiirehiniil, I realili'ii' 

wide o|>en nostrils, •  liaiids ;<: 

little askew. However, Huch as sbe ww, klx'. 

and lier money. appi-an>d bighly d«<«iralilo |x.-- -- 

oertain iMmsaiit, who, ealliuK oim< daf wIm-ii nhc wan at ill 
asked to se«' h«'r without (lelay : — 

Mile. Melon sent wor<l thai »be wmiW r«««^vp Mtn 
but once ill her pn'sciirc Ihc iiuin. vt 
barrassineiit or stupidity, eould nut \' 
the objtH-t of his visit. After lieitig i lolil In > - 

out, he at last tof>k r<iiirag«> : " ^'^^ - - am a" <-' 

he said, " I have c«>ine to * r, ' yoo." 

you mean ?" retuni*Hl Mile. Mt-i "■..■ '■■-' — ■• 

" I say that now we are all free to i 
put you in retinisitioii." •• And what dtw ' 
asktnl, somewhat im|«ti>>titly. " Why. it tv 
must marry nie !"* (The* tranalalor '• " 
several d<<|iartinents the .l!i«il>in« I 
such niarriapes.) To ' 
sei74- her cane and lei 
ing land astonislu-d) 
stepped iKiek. but sli. 

to ninrry me T Ah, ah I here Is a wwiiiing for 
this, and this, and thin. . . !" The •"■" 
wards, utterly Mtn|ielle<l by this n 
CUoyrnttf ! I thought -" " Ah, I am a < >f 
I ? Wait a little, wail a little. Thut'n lot t 
. . . Hen- he fairly i. ' 
sinipli* Im'U." Mile. M' 

But what a delightful s«>eiie. straight (mm 
the dull-witted |M-asant, full of ciiiii<i;t v Imi mom •• 
the ox lie drove, and the ugly, p •■, oW w ' 

lady, who, doubtltvw, in her youll, ..  ^■-■"' 

he being dogged to iSt^ath for trifling • 

to warm his seigneur's chilled feet, i iic wn m- 

Kevolntion lies In a pmp«'r appreeialiiHi of ihe  

iH'twiS'll llle-e two. 



Two Epooh-makcra. 

Mr. F. J. Snell's eontribniioii to 
Makers " — Wehlet and M — - "^ 

a picture, ably drawn. • 
life, for it si. i 
and over the 
rather as the !>«>■ 
would have done 
fully into the con 
previous history in : 
gives us instead a good deal • 
luent in which ingenuity is <k.i; 



The World', t 
T. Clark. ' 
-ley. Il I 



41 



LITERATURE. 



[July 21, 1900. 



M in Um tUaouwkMi ot thm Metbodtet vi«« of eurtUy pl«UHreH. 
Mr. SmsII illiwtntoit thla by » lone qnoutlon from M. Max 
O'Satl's MJeouiit of RcnanV |thilnsi%|>liy of lifo, uiul coininitK liiio- 
nell t« thm sUtwawttl tliiit ihwuKli tlu-re Y.t\vii» a k"" lx-*>^^'<'*-''> 
Wcvlay and Keuui, >-ot betiweett Itenau and th<> MviJioUiMin of 
today " tkm« exisU no ■nUHpmlim outsitle tlit^>liiK.v." Mr. 
Snell's r«tieM«b to not uoaiineiidtMl to iin by his acouuiit of the 
twunesion botiroen th«» Wesloys and I lit- Wcllt-sloyi*. H«' lolls \\s 
tkat a Mr. Garr«<tt \Vt>sley, ul (li)> Irisb faiuily, wim williiiK lu 
adopt Charles \Vo»l«<y, who dccliiiiHl the offer, .\fterx\-iirds Mr. 
U'^oil^^y •• choHP in his Ht«-ad a iwion of the hoiiMJ of C'i>lley and a 
relation of his own," who aflt-TwariN l>o<-iinie " Barron 
■n." .\s a niatt«>r of fact LomI Morninglon siie<-<f<led 
lo ttie •••.t;Ue-. of Garrett Wesley, who w.is his eonMiii, and die<l 
wiihout issue. In his old age Charles Wesley beeauie a friend 
of the second Lord MoniiiiKton. There is not much in the way 
of relBt!on»hip in all this, tboiiKh Mr. Snell s.-»ys " even this 
coincidence does not exhaust the network of relationshi|>8," 
and further adds a reference to the corrcs|>ondcnco betwo«ui 
.lohn Wesley and " a Mrs. Delany," who wsis L<ird Mornington's 
godmotlier. The real coincidences wt>ro (|uite different. There 
aeMDS to have tK<«>n no original connexion iK-lw-t-en the Devon- 
-liiri- f.Tmily of Wcsiley from which spning .lohn Wesley, and the 
In-li family of Welli'sley or Wesley, of Dan(ri», which in the 
early part of the eighteenth century merg*"*! into the f.imily 
'4 Colley, of Oarbury. The llrst Colley-WelU>sley was the 
Duke of Wellington's grandfather. By a curious coincidence, 
however, the Devonshire \\>stleys intennarried between liioO 
and 1620, first with the Wellesleys, and then with the Colleys, 
so that there was a link betwi>en the two families of W'esley — 
both of them spelt it so at various times — but not one that 
aeeoants for the similarity of name. We may add that Mr. 
8aeirs book deserves praise for the knowledge it shows of 
Wedey's charncter and writings, and also for its style, which is 
thongfatful and interesting. 

It might well be thought that there is nothing new to Ih> 
said about Luther, os|>ecially in a little iMxtk such as Ll'th>:k 
AND THK Ukuman Kix-okmation, by Thomas M. Lindsay, 
I ' I '. (T. and T. (.'lark, lia.), which )M>longs to the same 
- as Mr. .Snell's l)Ook. But Dr. Lindsay, by address- 
• If particularly to tho task of showing the great 
I as he lived among the people of his day, has 

in writing a most interesting, fresh, and to some 
.M.iii. tiriginal book. He writes from a strongly Protestant 
poiDt of view, and in his discussion of doi'trinal questions 
— notably, tbe history of the doctrine of indulgenc<>s and 
the Eucharistic controversy Ijetween Luther and Zwingli- - 
he will certainly not win the approval of the majority of pro- 
fesse<I th<-olof;ians. He is a little iiidinc-d, t<K>, l<i go out of the 
way  his own opinions on d<M-triiial |>olnts ns if they 

wx'^rc I II when they differ from the accredited interpreta- 

tions of schools of which he is writing — thus in his chronological 
-iirnmary he static that in the English XXXIX. Articles the 

• I'Hirinea of Predestination and of the Lord's Supper are 
t'ajvinist— a view hard to reconcile with the teaching of 
Anglican divines or of Calvin himself. Ho is also frankly and 

• luaiiitly Scots, and sei'ms to write entirely for a northern 
.,i,,ii..nco. Certainly Knglish folk, and foreigners, will Ite 

f not by Mohra Ix-ingtmnslatt-d " Muirtown," at least 

irg being r«'iidered " (Sled's Tower," and by Luther's 

lieing made to say " My <-onscience is thirled to the Word of 

(>od." More curions still is the contrast that Dr. Lindsay is 

fond <rf drawing lietween " the Medieval Church " and the 

Church rrf other days. He repeatedly H|>caks strangely of the 

men of those timea as recognizing that they lielonged to tho 

*' Medieval Church " — as though one wrote of tho (Jrecks 

rvjoicing in tho consciousnesa of living in such or such » 

11.0. He dwells at length on the monastic life, forgetting 

• T cannot ncciirately be described as a monk at all. 

f cities the book is very pleasant reading, 

."I'l ''f genuine lalmur, and, on the whole, of 

aeearacy and of vivid portraiture. 



CrMnw«U. 

.Mr. I'irth's OUVKX CBO.MWKU. AND THE KtJUE OP THB PVBI- 
lA.ss IN Kni.UANU (HeriH's of the Nations, Putnam, 5s.), though 
the lust, is assuredly not the least of the M'ries o( biographies 
ealknl forth by the recent tercentenary. The author iH>s»esses 
Ml exhaustive an acquaintance with tho history of theperioti 
that his latest omtribiition to it has been waited for with much 
interest. He may lie congratulated im tho rttslraiiit and dis- 
)ias«ionateu<«s)i which he hns shown in this review of his hero's 
career. Without attempting to disguise his sympathy with tho 
Puritan cause and its leader, ho has avoided the biogiiipher's 
besetting sin of indiscrimiimtu eulogy ; and it his narrative iu 
some iKirticulars, as in thu account of Strafford's trial, is not 
exactly impartial, he is never bitter or dolilmrately unfair in 
judging the defeated party. 

Perha|>s the most disputable thesis maintained in the bmik 
is that Cromwell deserves to be honoured not only as a great 
soldier, but also as a great statesman. In proof of this Mr. 
Firth cites the many ordinances of the Protector, which were 
nearly all conllruietl by his second Parliament, and adds that " if 
Cromwell's reforniing zeal has loft no trace on the statute book 
the i-eason is that all the laws passed during the Pi-olcctorate 
were annulled at the llestoi-ation." We may fret^ly accept this 
explanation of the lack of |x»rmanence in Cromwell's work, 
and yc^t hesitate to credit him with any higher merit than that 
of a capable administrator. Even Mr. .1. U. (.Jretni, as fer\-ent 
an admirer as Mr. Firth, denies Cromwell's title to statesman- 
ship. It has been well said of Cromwell that "he was a successful 
governor prospectively and hy|X)thctically, not actually ; he 
masteriMl (he mechanism of government, but he could not get 
possession of men's hearts and minds." This, it might l)e urged, 
was his misfortune, not his fault; but the excuse will not serve. 
Mad he l>e<Mi a statesman, and not a fanatic, he would not have 
rcgardtnl himself as the minister of divine vengeance in the 
execution of the King, and in tho massacres of the rebel Irish. 
At the time, as inde«Hl ever since, he was regardinl as mainly 
i-e.siK)nsible for tho llrst of these grievous errors of policy ; and 
Mr. Firth's suggestions that even in Deceml>er, 1(V48, ho " doubted 
t he policy " of it and that he was " one of (he last of his party to 
lK>lievo in its necessity " stand in much need of proof. As to 
the second error, it is curious that Mr. Firth is entirely at issue 
with Mr. .John Morley in his article in the .June " Century." 
Mr. Firth says that the massacres succeeded for a time " as 
Cromwell hoiied, in saving further (>ffusion of lihxKl " ; Mr. 
Morley, we think with giK)d reason, iHjints to the ix'st of tho 
campaign as absolutely disproving this view. Cromwell could 
crush men ; he could not win them ; and it is surely the first 
i(uality of statesmanship to lead men's wills and not to force 
them. In the very able characterization of his hero in the 
" Epilogue " Mr. Firth himself supplies the reason for Crom- 
well's faihire, viz., that ho lacked i)alience ; he wanted to go 
too fast, and would not stop to weigh the results of his own 
action. .\ statesman would have foresin-n that by allowing the 
array to wreak its vengeance on the King he would ruin " the 
Cause " in the eyes of all miMlenite men, and leave no room 
for any but a personal government founded on uiilitarism. 
Cromwell's enemies have not s<!ldom averred that he foresaw the 
conse<|ucnccs to hims<>lf of getting the King out of tlii.> way ; his 
friends should rememlM>r that, in denying him this foresight, 
they thereby im|H.>ach his title to the higher statesmanship. 

Mr. Firth has given much att(M)tion to military questions 
connected with tho Civil War ; and in this work he publishes 
plans of the lights at Marston Moor, Naseby, Preston, Dunbar, 
and Worc«'sler, which, together with his own admirable descrip- 
tions, will be of the utmost help to students of the campaigns. 
There are also a numl^er of excellent illustrations, ini'liullng 
one of the roucb-discussod statue at Wcstiniustor. 

Bysantlum. 

A discursive essay on Btzantine HifrronY in trk Early 
Middle .\<iEii (Macmillan, 2s. (Id. n.), wide in scojie, furnished 
with references to the more obvious modern iMjoks on the 
subject, is Mr. Frederic liarrison'n contribution to tho dis- 



July 21, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



lindiiUhcd Horlen of Rode locturen. It may serve cxcoltcntly 

for itH ))iir|ioH<>, which Is to <lir<'«'t RiiKliNh M-holar» towurdt 
Miuio (k-taili-d wurk at thw rriii«fnl hintory of lli<- rn'W Uohm-. 
I'crhaim iiiti-iitioiially, Mr. Harrison Mefam to iiiiilfrvaliif the 
work Ihat huN Im><-ii doiiu ; in archil4-<-tiir<', for inntnni-*-, h«> 
liurdly diM'H Jiihlic<> to Ihv iiiv<-Hti|(utiuiiH of KiiKlinh wriU'rx, and 
h»- w-viiiN, ind<><-d, still to be iiiidt-r th« rule of l-VrKunoii. U-yoiid 
wliuui wo liuvo tr.iv<-lli-d far. Uiil h« in rorliiinly fully jUJ>tiHi-d 
vullinK allontioii to ih« fat't that " tli« lonriiinK •>■> tlio 
nneco-Uouiuii law Ix'twcvii .luntiiiiau and tliu 8c-btx>l of Bt>lt)(in» 
■< vutiroly coulliiod to foroign Huholurs . . . it Ih a viricin 
-'oU Uiat lioH t>pen to tUo ))Iouk1i of any inquirinK Ntudonl of 
law." Tho ciMktH of Leo HI. and CoUHlniitino V. and ilio unmt, 
It'gal Work of tlw BuKiliun dynasty would fully r«-|>ay that 
<'laboraU> invostiKalioii wliii'li llioy dt-niaiiil at, the hands of 
KuKJisli Ni'liolarM. In jjoint^ HU<-h as tliosf Mr. Harrison's iiidox 
liiiHi'r will do UHcfiil sH-rvico. Tlioro aro |>assii({«.H in his ItH'turo 
whii-li aro very <>liN|iu-ully f\|iri'ss»Hl, and llic Konoral idou 
(which is that Ioiik a^o )>ni|ihasi7.(><l by .Mr. Kr<>oinnn) is happily 
illUHlratod. Bui the skoU-h \h nt'cossarily tiNi sliKhl to l>o of 
-••rvioc to any liul b<.-K>>>>»''l*» i" historical inveHliication, and Uio 
Kites will \m> vhiofly iisoful bvcuuso they Nhoiild load to furlJior 
n'soarch. In the trcatuiont of tho Hul)ji>ct., which shows Mr. 
Harrison's familiar caso and litorary skill, two iwiintH only strike 
lis as unsatisfactory. Whilo tho (•xcollcnco of the administration 
is dw<>lt on with the nect-ssary force, hardly enon((h attention, 
^ve think, is |>iiid to the power of individual achiovenient in the 
iiaintenuiicc of the Kinpire ; and thus there is a losn of pn^iKir- 
lou in the historical prcsentiuciit as w<fll as in pictnres<|noness. 
V^aiu tho curious contrast that Mr. Harrison stHjins to desiro 
Id make between the Kasterii Churches and the re«t of Kurope 
ill relijjious matters is expressed in the title which ho always 
Ives to the Western Church, as it seems by contradistinction, of 
 the Church Catholic," a phrase which obscures the historical 
lelation between Kast and West, and unduly magnilles the 
:irli<'r history of the great Western patriarchate. 

Mr. Harrison in his conclusion do<'s not doubt that the 
civilixation of the new Home as compared with that of the West 
fivm the times of Charles and Otto was " a lower ty|K'," and 
" that n<>ither in State nor in Church, neither in policy nor in 
arms, in morals, in literature, or in art, did it in the sum o<|ual 
or even approach the Catholic Ketidalisro of the West." We 

• ■onfess that we think that in his own eloquent lecture he has 
himself refuted this view. 

Ouldv-books. 

Wi;rK-KNi)N IN Hopi..\Nl) (Homeland .Association, Is.) is the 
 Itle of the llrst of a new series of gn!de-l)ooks iiitonde<l appar- 

• iitly to instruct bicyclists who run out of town from Satunlny 
to Monday. It deals with the road to TunbridKc, and is small, 
:ind rounded at the corners so that it can readily l>e slippe*! into 

lie pocket. The text is satisfactory and so are tho pictiir<>s, 
.lioughwe do not know whether they were s|H?cially drawn for 
1 he book. 

A new and ex(«'iisivoly revised edition has lM><>n s<>nt to us of 

BrAIIMHAW's Dini-xnoltY ok BaTHIM; Pi..\CK«, Ct.l.MATICAL HfL\I.TH 

Kii«.>iiTs, MiNKKAi, Waters, Sea Bathk, and Hyijuoi-atiiic Kstab- 
Umhm|::nth ('2s. (>d.). It directs our attention to a largo nundK>r 

• >r places, but the iiilonnation given is in many instaiu-«>s too 

•anty to 1k< of mm-li us«>. In particular we sliotild like to know 
iionMibout the nature of the accommodation at the out-of-the-way 
bathing establishments in such countries as Spain. Nor is the 
IxKjk (|uite five from mistakes. The statement, for example, 
that Martigny is ."i.lXMI feet aliove the level of the »«i is incor- 
rect. According to Baedeker the altitude of .Martigny is only 
1,5(W feet. 

Messrs. Black have sent us a new Ilth edition of their guide- 
book to MANCH£»TUt (Is.), a useful little volume. 



19 



.iir 



I I ii»- |nirj>i'«. - III .1 ^'iiuHl 

f htHm U , mitwsT tla*. 

"■■- ^ awl • AMvHb' 

•uatate Vmk. TUa 

•II V fiir iIm* iMiriHi^ 



Voi.UNTEEU Soi,uiiiii.s (Kegaii Paul, Is.), by Captain M. II. 
Uale, is a new and revised edition of u book published some 
loiirteen years ago under the title of " Amateur Soldiers." It 
includes an historical sketch of the \"olunt»>er Movement, an 
account of the organization of the force, and some geiu-ral re- 
marks on various aspects of the subject. We shall be glad it it 
stimulates recruiting : but wc arc iioi sauLMiine iliai it will. 



TU IlMMOOK 

connixlH for llMaMt i 

;» till >■■.'—. 

the 1 1. 

but it 1. ,. 

iHMlk. It ' 

labli's. i»;i( ' 

I I 

i-\ i 

eau In) hintl (or 1^1, and it in 

Henry Nornuin, who |«iil for the 

ascent can now Im< :i' 



BDUOATIONAL. 

Hide by siilo with the Oxford Text „l .\.iH>|>i..>ii. v 
noticed on July 7, cotneii A CoMMr^TAHT on rni: Hi.m'm. « 
or Xknoi'iiox, with intmducllon and spiimmIm 
Cndorhill (Clun>ntlon Prem, 7k. Ikl.). Mr. rnd<>rli 
the te\  

a h<>ai : 

exegetiiitl. We lai. 
u.H the very thing a > 
duction <leals with 
and MHS., and the .i 

and Ibially, a aerit-s of <'Xcunus on mure i 
|H)ints, with full indii-oN. TIm! dilUcult <|i>">' 
obj(M:t ill writing tho Imok, itjt divinionn, ' 
are treated with adinirablo lucidity ami •<>u^-. ne 
in doubt what Mr. I'nik^rhill is driving at, and be 
ready to call a case proven. In 
(■are, and he has chiK-ked an'l 

inscriptions. There is an ev<v.iy on ii.' ijtu 

|M<riod, which is new in tn>almunt il i ih* 

Athenian attempt to recover a maritime emiiirv rfwilig tkm 
Corinthian \«'ar is brought into clearer light l>\ .liil of In^crintlona 
recently discoverecl. 

The Rector of Lincoln puhlishe» >ii.-r |m.i« m m* 

school oilition of .\ri»topham>s, tho Peack lliy VI. W. Morry ; 
Clarendon Pr<>nM, :tn. (hi.). Tho editor'* maniM>r !• •aMri<>ntly 
well known to teachers, and tho I'rae* bs* lioon cditnl with the 
same taste, hunH>ur, and gimd ncnM- as Ibe otborm. Th« 
translatiouN are orten rai-y, if thoy do uniw-k of «lan( a trill<> too 
much. This \t\r macb bi 

school-lN^ik, but >lr<iem<4«<- 

for school wxirk. 1' 
riilUibo* (p. 7U) ; il 

rea«l Don Quixote [•■■■• . uoriA 

whilo to c«>ra|iaro TryK"  ■' >aaa'». 

Th«! .\ndromaciik oI Km \ . K. K. 

Hyslop, :iclde<l to M.icmillan's < i i oi ea 

iv rMr.O.Murr' i«« 

sii" h we lately r>- .lop 

has not tn^ 

ductioi. Hied 

not Qrst-ralel, but insists on hik ; |t 

also contains a few judicious ri" .K tern 

slage-diroi^tions are i ntll Ijc a help to 

schoollwys. The not< .1 not too Ionic. 

Mr. W. J. ' •• work or 

has produced a > OK Binis 

'Js. (Id.), in the I ic*. Tbore i» no otbvr 

e«lition of this sp. •  so far a» »f nn* jnurp, 

and the sjieech will bo a novelty for scbooU. •■ of 

Isovratcs has something of the obviousooss of !>>•■ I . _.je, 

and it may help the schixillxiy Co andotrstaad .oaot bjr 

literary form. Tho introduction gives a »k.- l>omit«a* 

life, works, and influence, and of Alcihiades, and of the circ«n»- 
slances which are a»»umt>d by the speech. The notes are jntt 
what they should l>e. Thk KKATuMVKXai and .\uoRAiva or 
LVHIAS are <><lito<l in the sain<' J. TbfMBpaon aad 

.Mr. T. K. .Mills. I.ysi;is i. w.<l; .ol readioc ^ kia 

simplicity and <i itwoivaiigk* 

have lH?en made  m : th« eAot 

which is so ch.i igbt o«t 

by a few exeunt \v*t and 



50 



LUERATURE. 



[July 21, 1900. 



good : it dpalu with the history of tlio (leriod, the life of Lyslas, 
AMo oratory bd<1 law |>rtM><><liirt>, and tlif !i|M>o<>tu« in liitiul. 
The DOteH »r«' t«>o <>l<>ni<>nlarv, and clianooN nr«' miswHl of sottiii;; 
int«lli{;<*nt niindHul work : (hi< woni Jxtiot h om* instnncc (lii. I) 
why should il im>an Imlli " holy " and " profano ? " 

Tilt SATiit»> ttr HoiiACK, iMliriHl by 11. J. Huyps and K. C. 
. dot's not dillor fr»>iu moHt others of tho I'nivi-rsity 

1 .Sf>rii>» (C'livi-, 4s. M.). Th<'r»> is the usual intrcMluotion, 

with a very «liort nki'toh of Horaoo's lif«>, a ikik*^ or two on 
philoaophical RcctK, and metrical not<>s which will Im> nwful for 
reference. The btwt |>art of it is a fow |Mira);m|>hs on Lurilius, 
X    iintMis of his n>iuaius (translat<Ml), and on th<* satire as 

\ Hor.icc. Till- not<>s, as usual. Bivo eU'UKMitary help : 
wliun' tln'n» is a r»>al diffloiilty, as in i. S, 120, the disvussion is 
not ad(>(|uat<'. 

Mr. A. K. Hort lias ad<li-<l yet another to tlii> e<litioiis of 
Livv. Book V., in Kivinjfton's Middle Korni Classics ("is.). 
There is nothine to note in it save the lirevity of the iiif rodnotion 
»nd tJie simplicity of the noti>s. Wo think an inlrmluction 
ought to contain Hoinethin^ almut Livy's wiurces and his value 
as a historian ; and the notes seoni to Rive loo much help. They 
are, however, «|uite pio<l in themselves, and tlie translations are 
idiomatic. 

An edition of CiCKno is Catii.inam, I. -IV. (Blackwootl's 
Classical Texts, Is. Od., illustrattHi), is ati o<ld prinlucfion. 
Mr. H. W. .\uden. the JMlitor, is consumed with a desire for 
clearness, which leads him to number, tabulate, compr»>ss, an<l 
Kuramarixt>, until his paragraphs look like jottings from n not<'- 
book. There is no sontm' of literary style in the intro<iuctory 
part, which contains a large number of notes which are not even 
complete sentences. This does not inspiit> us with conlldeiice 
when we ar<> offered " Six Hints on Translating," one of which 
is to " avoid the word t/iiii{/," and substitute various flowery 
paraph riiM'-,. Mr. Auden's ideal of sentence-structure soeins to 
ho M - |K>p-gun style ; we cannot admit that " t'leariiess 

is e\ _.'■ though it is certainly the chief thing. The 

wlitor's own example may, we fear, lead l)oys to di-op out their 
definite articles and verbs. The Hoctions of the introduction 
are not properly arranginl. The notes, however, are gtHxl, and 
tbert^ are Mime UM>ful hints in an apjHMidix for the practice of 
" J>> ' '■" ill middle forms. The IkmiU cont4iins a nuinlM>r 

of i _ pictures and plans — Cicero, the Korum, the 

Appiiii >i.i\. and (a novelty) Prof. Maccari's vigorous fresco of 
Catiline in the Senate. (Catiline's llgui-e is repeat<r<l on a larger 
ncalc op|K>site p. xx.,and is a tine stiiily, which will c<-rl<iinly help 
readers to r«'aliz<^ his chantcter. The restoration of the Forum 
(p. 32) has the Arx and the Temple of .Jupiter on the wrong 
INMks of the Capitoliiie. 

Wo can re<'onnnen<l an «<lition of ErTlloi'irs. I. -II., by W. C. 
Laming (Blaekie's Latin .Series, Is. (M.), an well suit<>d to young 
boys, except that it has no vocaltulary (we iM-rK'Ve an edition 
with vociibulary is pro<-urable). It is printed in large clear tyiw, 
and has a nunilior of effective pictures and plans. Mtmt of these 
arc fnmi monuiuents. but some are imaginary ; and we should like 
to learn more almut the School of the Vestals (frontispiece), 
which conUiins a round dow-n of novices. 

Bell's Illustrated Classics has Ikmmi increased by Oviii, 

Trihtia. III. (H. It. W<M)lrych). C»Aii, fSAixir W^aii, Book \'. 

(A. Heynolds), anil SKl.fX-TloNs KlioM Vihijil's -f^NElt), VII. -XII. 

iW, a. CiKist), is. IWI. each, with intriMluctions, notes, and 

vocabularies. We have already called attention to the chief 

fault of this s«-ries, its small page and siMuewbat small print. It 

Would l>e a great iiiiprovcment even to double, the margin. 

<"'"•■•''■-<• they are ni"-«' lsK>ks : the editing is well done, and 

lira's are really illustrative. The "Tristia " has a 

• if oiitlliie cuts, and s«'vi'ral go<Ml priwi-ss plat«rs 

'I !.• r r. ..( M ii. .-Ilus, the Korum, the House of the Vestals, and 

I (.iililn^ v.itli |i Mpiis. .Mr. Woolrych diM-s his eilitiiig with taste 

and skill : but he might have siiid s<mu>thing about the elegiai- 

metre. The "fVcsar" contains a bust of the Diftator, a numlH-r 

of <■■ ,• things warlike, and a very clear map of (Jaiil, 

whi' no hiHp towarils understaiMling the natur.il 

I Mtry. Hen- Mr. Liddeir— f the Roman 

Mr. {'oast has proviil' - of extricts 

vii! ' ' ' .ry of the ".hiiiHi with the help 

o( i: I mild have Imh-ii convenient had 

' t:f . . ... ;,.„, !>).<, II nuinl(ere<l continuously. 

Ill' '■■■ - • Mil- jir<?(a<-e from the traiislatiniis of 

U-yJiu. I„iji;ii,„i: 1., l^.vi 1,, and Mackail, which will certainly 

bo oaefttl a» models. A One utattie of Jaiio is the frontispiece. 



FICTION. 



Mrs. Cp«Urla'a New Book. 

Ill KoHKitT Okanci:, by .loliii Oliver HoblH>s (L'nwin, Os.), 
we have the stMiucI to " The School for Saints," and the further 
history of Orange and Brigit. As one of the characters in the 
Itook observes. Orange was lM)rn to be a Homnn Catholic 
eeclesiastii!. And, although some four liundreil pages are devot4.Hl 
to putting obstacles in his way, although he is ilriven to commit 
bigamy — of course, unintentionally and munler-iu the form of 
the duel as he gix's along, nevertheless he reaches the goal nl 
last, and we leave him at pence nml a Monsignore. Kor as an 
iiilili-iiiliim omitted from the concluding cimpter remarks " The 
jiassioii of love invariably ilrives men and women to an extreme 
step in one direction or another. It will wmd some to the 
cloister, soinc to the tribune, some to the stage, some to heroism, 
some to crime, and all to their natural calling." And their 
natural calling 8e<Mns, if we may judge from the story of Orange 
and of Brigit, to Ix' that which is marked iinl for them by 
our old friend heredity. Mrs. Crnigie devotes immense |mins 
to the painting of Orange; she admires and lov«>s him, and 
stK'ks diligently to make the reader love and mimire him too. 
Admirable he certainly is, since hi- possesses every virtue, and 
most of the talents, but as the French proverb has it :- 
" Ce n'est rien d'dtre admire, le fail est de se faire aimd." We 
cannot say that wo felt any particular affection for Orange, it is 
difficult even to keep up an interest in him ; and one wonders 
why Brigit was so immensely in love with him, until one 
remembers that Brigit was but .sevent<>eii. Hers is the l)ost 
drawn of the clmracti-rs. Her curious Ix-aiily, her indefinable 
charm are conveyed to the reader subtly as they should be, 
without too much analysis. There Is tiw much analysis of the 
minds and motives of everylnidy else ; of the tiri'soiue but 
carefully drawn young piH'r Heckage, who is engaged to .\gnes 
Carillon, but is in love with Lady Sara ; of .\giies, who is In 
love with the painter Uonnes, with whom she presently elo|)es ; 
of Pon8^>, the friend of all, and still the sweetest flguro in the 
entourage of the two Ijooks ; anil of Ijady Sara herself, the red 
and brown gipsy beauty, who is in love with Orange, and 
Ih^coiuos a Carmelite nun after he has joined the priesthood. 
Nevertheless, it is a thoronglily able book, full of careful 
characterization and Hue touches of comedy. The real ability 
of Mrs. Craigie's earlier work was somewhat lost sight of 
|«"rhaps ill its brilliancy. Brilliancy no longer predominates, 
although there arc cjiigraminatic phrases which stick in the 
mind. There is also a French phrase which we wish did not 
stick in the mind, as it is the French of Stratford-atte-Bowe. 
•• A I'outrance," says (^astrillou, the wicked young French 
nobleman, whom Itolx'rt kills for the crime of having acted in 
lirivate theatricals with Brigit ; anil " A I'outrance " assents 
HolK-rt, altliongh he is half Fn-iich at least, and representative 
of one of the tliiest families ill Kmnce. It s<s>ms impossible to 
teach the clia meters of llct ion either to avoid foreign tongues, 
or to use them correctly, but this solecism is the one and only 
blot up<m the otherwise adorable iin|M'ccabllily of Roliert 
Orange's can^er. Mrs. Craigie introtlui-es Disraeli. She gives 
two lett«'rft from the great man, one to Orange concerning his 
unfortunate (losition as bigamist, and one a1>out him which 
serves as epilogue to the lK)ok. Both are felicitous and full of 
admlraliiv cliar»ct<'ristic touches, but we can hardly " see " 
Disraeli in Charles Wyndham's favourite yiart, and it is dinicnlt 
to shake off a fe<>ling of unreality as we Iist4'n to Mrs. Craigie 
s|>eaking in the guise ol tin- Conservative I'remier. 

Pop tha War. 

Foil BiiitAIN's Sm. nil. lis i.Mi'il 1, ti-.i !■• nil I 111- -iiiM- liiM- 

as " The Ladysmilli Treasury," which wc reviewed last week. 
That is l<i say, it is a collection of short storiiw by various 
authors, the financial pr<M't>eds of which will Iw given to the War 
F'und. We shall not institute invidious comparisons between 
two meritorious pnidnct ions, but will iiMJomiiiend everyone to 
buy them l>oth. The otlitor, in this case, i» Mr. Cutcliffe Hyne, 



July 21, 1900.] 



[.ITER ATI HE. 



51 



who also confrlbutoM a atory ontltlcKl " Tho R«'ni't{ii<l<>." 'Ihr 
Mllior colli i-ibiilors .ire Sir W;iUf>r Kivinnt, and MtxMro. W. L. 
Al.l.'ti, S. It. (•|^.<•koft, B. M. Crokor, K. \V. Horiiiiiik'. I{.iil.v;if.l 
Ki|ili:i)r, ,\. K. \V. .MiiHOii, Frankfort M<K)r<', .Max I'<<nilM-i'i<iii, 
^U><'tt Kidtfo, Morlcy KohcrtH, H. <i. Wells, Pcrty Wlilto, and 
^■>\'alU<r W<hhI. It, nluxild liu a<ldud that it U nnt only tli)> 
^Httithors but aJNo lli4' |ml>lislior>t who cnnlribiito Ihi-ir prolltn !■> 
^Btho Kood caiiHc, and Hint tho iHNikHollorN nro cordially inviti-d 
^Bn tbo prcfat'o to do the xaino. How, in tho circiim-itniicf><<, can 
^Hk inoro inoiiibcr of IIik oiiuM.- ,.,,i,i;.. .|.. i,...s rhan buy tho lH>ok ? 
^B An HIstoploal Novel. 

You sliiiiild bo •toiiii'wliii.t, viTMil ill iviicri'i', mill not iiii- 
ii-fiunintcil with tho days of KiiiK Kdward I., to laHti> thv full 
ll.ivoiir of HIr MorlM-rt Maxwvll'H new book TiiK C'iikvaukk ok 
niK Ki'i.KNDll) t'Kh>T (Blarkwooil, Oh.). .\iid. In pan-iit he-tin, yon 
vlioiild never have r«'ad Diinias, for tho hi-,toricnl novels of that 
woii.lei-fiil man s|Miil your palat«> for tho hi.storicnl iiovcIm of 
 verylMHly pIm'. To )k) sure, " Tho Chovallor " Im one of tho 
iiest of itH kind, and does not disap|)oint tho oxpeotatlons 
iiutumlly raised when so skilful a writer as Sir Herl»ort .\faxwidl 
diverges into tho llelds of m-tion. We hardly think, thoiiKh. that 
the sjiirit of illusion is helped by eonstaiit assurances that this 
is true, that the other is drawn from authentic diH-ninents, 
liy fiOfiiient fiMit-notes, and by tho insertion of iii:ip«. 
Oood Novels fop the Holidays. 

Ill liiACK II|':aiit and Wiiitk IIfakt (LonKiu.oi'-. <>^.i. Mr. 
Uider HuKRiird mounts once more those trusty stotnls of hl^s, the 
nobility of tho savage and tho rascality of tho civilizetl white. 

110 rides, tixi, with all his old dexterity, and the throo stories 
eoncorning Zulus, witolios, battles, saerillcos, and traitors, of 
which this volume consists, will give tho old piciisuro to his 
liiciids. 

Although 'I'liK Chicamon .Stonk (Smith, Os.) is simjily nn old 
;ory retold — that of tho search for gold, this lime up in 
\laska — it takes on, at the hands of Mr. Clivc Phillips- Wolley, 

111 entirely new dress. For the author, a Canadian, knows 
1 lioroughly the wnntry of which he writes ; he knows tho Indian, 
and ho knows the L'illaiuler, and ho uses his knowlwlge t<i give 
an air of reality to tho s<>nsational incidents which ho rei-ounts. 
Tho result is a book which even the reviewer was unable to 
read without delightful thrills and a sense of fearful joy. 

KNOt-ii Wiu-oioHiiv (Downey, tJs.), by Mr. .lames A. 
Wickersliaiu, is a rather curious novel of unfamiliar .\mericaii 
life. Tho history of tho Quaker Willonghbys and of their 
spirituality and spiritualism will not we fancy bo very generally 
twpular, but it is a carefully and cleverly written Ixxik, and 
will well rejiay pcrnsal. 

Thk Comi'lbat Bachki-or, by Oliver Onions (Mnrrny, 
2s. 6d.), iH'longs to the same literary category as the " Dolly 
Dialogues," to which work it is not visibly inferior. Tho 
episodes are in the main plausible anil ent«'rtaining, and rea<lers 
of the fair sex will be reliev«>d to learn that the bachelor niM-ts 
with the common fate of b:iilii'Inrs. mihI is ..nf.K- and painlessly 
I rappe<l on the last pagt\ 

Mr. Morgan Robertson -i mm n 'i min (i.riini liichards, Os.) 
i-i a collection of stories of sea life. Ho knows the life of the 
mercantile marine and Xavy, and lie has, we think, dip(>ed thre<( 
times in Kobert Louis Stevenson— much to tho advantage of his 
readers. For those who like a book to taste of brine " Spun- 
Yarn " will servo to mitigate tho (oiigiiciirs of the South-Eastern 
Railway. 

The secn>ts of The Pi!Ison-hoi>k (Blackwood, tJs.) which 
aro divulged to us by Miss .Jane Jones are not all agr<K<able, 
but they are interesting. We do not recollect the name of the 
authoress of this Ixx^k as that of a noveli^st, but her charac- 
terisation of men and women is clear and convincing, her de- 
scriptions of manners show intuition, but lack something of 
observation. The hero who inherits a largo fortune, and is a 
man of exquisite taste, constantly smokes '" cheroots," and on 
the occasion when he does light a cigar he at once goes to sleep 
under a tree iu Kegent's-park— a thing a t'eiiileninn of fiishion 



than • 

" tM..t tr«i:-<l». 

|||4. . 

will k. 

thin Im! n llmi ImmiIc Mt<M Junt^ i* (,, 

I'loAMint the ntnaflle of onnrlaliip, i.iii.r..»inu iih- maotMm 

and mrrlagn ; 
lint the milt who i* wlwiwill alwuln tram Ikp Irrribls thors- 
hit of mnrriairn 
iinoles Minn IVmilhiit < 
iiiafne bill nf Thk Tiioiis i 

'"""" 'ickUivy 

and h< ...^^ 

Thk I'lTixttH.sow or I'AiMiKii THincts, bjr Lilian Ifcmea. 
Kowlands, U one of tho littlo tlirvw-snil^i penny norela 
brtiiight out by tho .New Century Prnm. It i« a handy a^lUwi 

as to size and print for carrying altout on a >' ' . tkla 

casn tho story is worth rendiiiK. Tho pesMii ' iM4r 

sordid little tragedies u: 

done. Martha, with her 

her type. " Did yur lovi; hiiu, Maiitd I i 

hart fur him yet?" asks her idealiolii' .1 

" No," she answers, " I cannn say an I '." It Is 

di'pressing, iierhaps, but gooti, sincere «-^ . I-v.t. 

At tho time when Miss Annie Thnnuw (Mr*. I' lllp) 

.•liens her story, CoMRAiira TuiK (Chatio, »•• 
aro thus d<-«crilM><l :— " They wvrw all 
healthy, happy, and |ioor. Two •<! il- 
.\diuiralty, and tho third was a fine 
agreeable dog pi  
there will lie a !■ 

you will not Ik^ disap|Kiiiilisl hen-. > 
as we hapiM-n to know nr<- quite nn i 

but she tells a very g<iod tale ending on the not« tt " All'a 
Well " with the wt^ldingH of tho right people. 

Tho author of '* Twixt tho Devil and tbo Doop 8«a " givM 



the rather flipimnt title Thk P 
-s.) to a short story which t. 
tr.i ' ^. Her pictur«-s of . 

'■>'■ tho ImxiIc solvt-s 

whii'h :»i titien puzzles tho critic) tm- 
in love with the den-lict «h"W no 
prepared, we are told, to f 
and, as far as the su|>or— i 
judge, she would have to r< ' 

Majop Arthur Orlflltha. 

Fast ami I>kisk (Maeqnoen, Oa.) ia one rU 

thos«> pleasant, rather ex<- 

Major Arthur Cirilllths \, 

appan-nt facility. We Im>k>i> wi>h »u - 

and end with a simple marriage. Hut ni 

adventures which lie lM-lw<<<<n. Tho »ut ' 

with criminal life has shown him that ni<. : 

to every -<lay alTaira than many novel readen *u< 

" Fast and Ia>oso " he •"•-■ ' >--:• - ■-: 

of clues and Frt-nch <■ 
of crime. The story is eMiunj;, imi m.. i 
Tho Major's otlier Ixxik is In Tiuht ' 
which eontjtins sixt<s-n ib i ;■ ~ 

r.g., that of the Yankee cai u . 

London, to hold the liank 
wonderful Indian jewt-1, v 
the s;ike of which Kani Da- 
track ing-down of the virt 

If it h.td not been for Mr. Antl> 
dom stori«>s Mr. F. M. Allen 
B«iYTON (Downiey. 3s. (Id.). T 
Caesar Boyton, ■' ("■ - 
imitation is not 
The author has n. 
stori«>s, and th«- -■ 
li(H>k fri>iii iM-ini: !■ : ': 



vNii ToMiir (Gramlnr, 

'V enoiii^. au affair o< 

iigh it U 

oblcm " 

• h <4 lito hwoia* 

I. Th« bwoiiMla 

,- in tiM man aho loT«a, 

:ititlior iM-nuIta na t.i 



lOO 

kin 
I ia 
'ira 
• In 
!-n. 
«.). 

tn 



, ioMifinsPT ltin(- 

■•k 

'I i'oi.inti. Tho 

imitations aMu 

... II as in his formar 

interest will prcvvat thm 



52 



LITERATURE. 



t'Tuh 21, 1900. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 



n»8lHUw*po«m Memorial Liltmrr in the rcfpronoo d4>|)nrt- 
Bt 0( Mm BiminKhiim Kroo I is |M>rlia|is tlu> moKt 

St «oUaot4oa o( Sbakn«|>na i . nt. Tli<> Hr>t |t.irt 

of Ml Index to ii kaa Jost bean lasno<). sivin;; ilw< KnelNh tvlitinns 
at th» plMfm, aelaeUaiH, anpaMte cilicions of -liiiKU* iilnyn. luul 
tho itocntK, sonnotx, niul soiifpi. This imlcx, when coinplototl, 
• ill have conaitlorahio literary %'mliio. 

Kmm W«it H»m w<» hnvo n novel ami us<>fiil pnl>li<>nt!nn 
limed at .-i - viz., « hnnil-list of tMiok-s in tho 

pulilir lihr > holidny rnw>rts, nrrnn;r<><l nlphn- 

hetieally uml. > i. mios of |ilnp<>s. Tli«> s«>|Kinit<» catali>Kiiiiif; of 
topofrrapiiicol w.irl,^ will tiniilitlitw siiggt-st tho provision of lator 
editioos of aooio of the Ruidc-books fur preHOiit-<lay tourisitx. 

We have reeolvpil minimi reports from tho Cnmhridce 
■nnlrerrity Library ami the Richninnd (Surrey) Piildie Lil>r:iry. 
^ ilix to the Caiiiliri<l(C»! rcjiort gives an areoiint of the 

A.irk done in deeipherinR the Taylor-Sehwhter eolhv- 
tioii trf Hehrew ilocuments and maiiiiM-ripts diseovere<l in Cairo. 
The late Dr. Wright's eatalopno of Syrian manuscripts lias I>een 
oompletwl under the <<nperviHion of Professor Bovan, while Mr. 
Sayle'H r&talogiic of Kiiglish Itooks printed not later than ItHO 
makes good projire«s. Mr. H. G. Aldis was eliosen as Secretary 
to the Library last .lime, and Mr. E. O. Browne, M..\., was 
•pp<>inte«l Cunitor in Oriental Liteniture, to hold oflice for ono 
jnear. 

Tho provision of books for tho blind, and the want of such 
works In tho ordinary public librarj-, has recently attracto<l 
attention. It would Iks a truly philanthropic work if .some pro- 
vision could bt^ made, but the two great drawbacks are cost and 
bulk. Few libraries could afford the s|kicc which tho Braillo 
Tolumea require or lightly incur the expense of a large stock. 
A g<Kxl plan would l>e the est«ltlishinent In London of a central 
lilirary for tho blind, coinbine<l with branches or delivery 
stations if neeess;irj\ Such an institution could deal with tho 
«juestion of selecting a lielter and nior*- entertaining kind of 
literature than has hitherto l)een provided for those irhosc 
aflfliction has not (iuenche<l a love for g»)0<l reading. 

The recent Stuckey-Lcan bequest of £50,000 for tho esta- 
blishment of a central reforcneo library at Bristol is to be 
augmented by a gift of alKiut one thousand volumes, many of 
tbem valiuiblu and all interesting, from Mr. Stuckey-Lcan's 
own library, which, with the exc<;ption of certain liooks diverte<I 
by will to tho British Museum, tho executors have decide<l to 
pr<^sent to tho Bristol Corporation to Ix; " enslirined " in tho 
now library. 

Some strictures passed by tin; «Hlit<>r of tho Library 
Atitoeiation Ueeord on " tho criminal side of book-plate collect- 
hare raised quite a stonn. An editorial in tho Ex-Lihrh 
■il attacks him in uneompromising fashion for his assertion 
iu.il Iwok-platc coll' - a jK-rnicioua craw- and tho threat 

that poaaeasion of mU Library Ixiok-plate would l>c 

regarded as criminal. Many p<!oplo art; of the opinion once ex- 
pressed by Mr. Edmund Oosse that tho only proper place for ii 
I is In the owner's Ixxiks. But it is not often such 

I <' place as the one at Harvard. Each public institution 

{- „' a book-plate offers some tcmiptntion to thief and 

, liut there arc thousands of opportunities for dishonesty 
met with elsewhere every day, and no ono would suggest 
linslness and professional life shoidd be abandoned on 
: .■At. 

Visitors to I,ynton will shortly And another attraction adde<l 

tr. ihni <li!irfTiiii.- vlii:i..,.. fiir Gcorgo Nownes has presented it 

rieil with a public library at a cost of 

\'--st every week is chronicled an 

\-y. Mr. Andrew Caningio is 

' tiU native land, and 

.KK) to erect n public 

library U> LM'i.«.'rUi«.-, ut^rc tkv ActH lutve been adopted. 



T<x> irreat thoroughness may soinotimos bo r drawback. Tlie 
enlalogno of hooks in tho refor(>nce drpartnient of tho Wigaii 
Public Library proniis«>s to 1m> an almost inoniimoiitnl work. Tlie 
latest part issmsl deals with the letter L, iiiiil reaches page 
1,758 of the catalogue. A quarto with much small ty|M». It 
is evidence of great citn* and lalK>nr on tho part of tho compiler. 
Yet as Mr. Folkard, the librarian, is presumably issning his 
catalogue less for future bibliographers than for present readers, 
the «-ork suffers from tro;> dr iflr. The librnry has existed for 
more than twenty yeais-, and, at the present rate, probably another 
ton or flftoen will pass liofore it is provide*! with a complete list 
of lM>oks. Fs this delay in the interests of readers? Thi> voliiinos 
nddixl during the time in which tho )irinting has " dragged 
Its slow lengtli along" will bo numerous enough to demand .i 
Miipplomoiit, and tho catalogue will nocossarlly Im> alw".iys mucli 
liohiiid the accessions. To give .an instance of tho abundance of 
detail more than thre*' pages arv devote<l to the contunts of 
Walter 8avag<» I^andor's works. Eight volumes — three quarto 
pages !— a glance over tho liooks themselves would Just as 
i^Midily convey the infomiation. A r«>ference library so rich 
and important ileinands a goiHl catalogue, and, ex<M>pt for 
its ov<>r elalioratlon, it is pleasing to .rocogiilMi the many 
excellent features of the Wi^ran catalo^^iio. 



AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 



Messrs. Ooorgo Xownos announce a new work on Chin:i 
to l)o coinplote<l In several sixpenny wi>okly parts. Tho 
work will depict China as it is to-<Iay, and give photographs of 
the Chinese lenders as well as of the commanders of the British 
and Allied Forces, and of scenes in Peking and Hong-Kong, 
Shanghai, &c. There will also be a concise history of tho 
pr«>seiit revolution in China, with a map. 



Mr. Walter Scott's announcement of a reissue of his series 
of translations of Ibsoii's Prose Dramas may servo a,s a reminder 
how dotlnito a hold Il>sen, about whom Professor Horford wtUo-. 
in another column, has now got on English iN>adors. Nor 
is England before, but rather liohind, tho rest of literary Europe 
in the matter. There has Ix^cn the usual liattio " with confused 
noise " liotween the Ibsonitos and anti-Ibsenit<>s, but the upsh<)t 
is that, for the time at all events, Ilweti is part of the stock 
intellectual furniture of contemporary Europe. The result is 
remarkable when it is considered how few writers are really 
widely read and familiar in tninslatious. Tho ancient classics 
must bo left out of considonitloii bwauso they have been tho 
text-books of European education. Then- Is Shakespoaro, of 
course, but Moliere, in spite of a few ttx> hnckiioyod quot^itions, 
has never been familiar in English. Besldi^ Shakespeare, the 
other possible English instances that occur to ono aro Byron 
and Scott and Dickons. Of the French writers Halx-lais, Mon- 
taigne, Hugo, and t)unias arc world classics. The Spanish Don 
Quixote is another instance. Goethe's " Faust " Is jiorhaps an 
instance, though the Faust of popular knowledge is tho Faust of 
opera, and that is really not Goethe's " Faust." Dante hasnow 
estalillNlioil this jiositiun, and Tasso and Ariosto once enjoyed it. 
Whether Ilis«'n will hold Ditnto's position when ho is of Dante's 
antiquity is another question. Mr. Archer is revising the trans- 
lations for the r<!issuo and will contribute an introduction to thu 
plays. E.ach play will have a volume to Itself. 

Although in tho course of his cnroor. Mr. Leonard Courtney 
has written extensively for tho Press, tho little volume on tin- 
English Constitnt ion, which ho has in hand for Messrs. Dent's 
" Temple CyclopiPflic Primers," is, wo l»olievo, his first book in 
the strict sense of the term. This honour should properly hav.i 
fallen to another work. About twenty years ag^o tho announce- 
ment was made that Mr. Courtney ha<l in preparation a mono- 
graph on Adam Smith for tho " English Men of Letters" Series. 
As it has never apjieared we sup|K>se it must be relegated to tho 
ever-lengthening list of books projected but never written. 



Jul^- 21. 1000.1 



IJTKHATCRE. 



5S 



Mr. Court Mi'v, hnvMM'i, II iiMi (iii'Mii> iii.'iiihor of ili- in.-..^ 
i{oUH4> of CoiiiirHiiiH wilt) liiiH tlitix )liHii|i|K>iiit<>il tho Kluihuit'x 
cxpoctnlioiiH. Tlio liko ilffHiilt Ih to bo imputt'il to thn lf«il*»r of 
tlio lliiusc, Mr. A. .1. Ujilfoiir, who, nlxo nlmnt twenty y«'nrs 
HRo, wns Mtntod to hnv<> in proptrtition n volnnw on Mill for 
"McsHrs. Bliickwootl's serifs of " Pliiloso|iliirnl riassic!.," lint 
it, too, Imn ncvor ii|i|M>iir<>(l, nnil wo M»|)|)Of«< ncvor will. .\ 
conipU'tu ciitiiloguo of unci. " iKtoks " would l>o iaten'sting. 

MoHMFN. Miicniillnii annoaneo an " odition dn luxn " of 
Pator'n works, siiniliir in stylo to tlio Tonnyson, Lumh, :in<t 
Kipllni; publishwl by the sanio honw. Tlio current editions of 
tho works were uniform and sntisfnetory, hut this additional 
lionour is well de«erv«l. and is quite appropriate. Not that 
with Pater form is evorythinp;. Tlio hei-osy still seems to 
obtain that Pater is to bo road for his nianner and not for his 
matter. The manner, about which he ti>ok intlnite pains, was 
not faultless ; and his triek of lonj; clausOM in parenthi^es and 
apposition jtrew on him, partly from an almost painfully con- 
scientious effort to limit and qualify his propositions to tho 
point of pei-sonal psyeholoRit-al aocnniey. Nevertheless, his stylo 
lit his best (and tho rhetorical passages, uiiich alone Mr. 
Stephen Gwynn admires, wore not quite his liewt) was curioll^ly 
well adapted to convey his delicate lesthetic impressions 
and subtle interpretative ideas. But al«-ays, or nearly alTv-nyv, 
behind tho ctyle thei-e was knowliMljje and thouprht — " funda- 
mental brain work " ; antl Mr. Mallock, whose caricature in 
tho " Now Republic " in spite of its oue-side<l cleverness was 
a cruel libel, was at least right in selecting Pater as one of the 
distinct iiillueuceM of his opoeli. Pater's r«'a«lers may not have 
lH>en numerous, but they innueneed a wider circle. Writing on 
subjects in which scholarship has recently made rapid advances. 
Pater did not escap<> mistakes. With Shelley he still accepted 
the Modu.sa of the Unizi fur a goiuiino work of Leonardo, and 
ho based much of his flno reading of tho lessons of Giorgione 
li|K)n a picture? now g<>nerally helil to be an early Titian. But 
it is possible to make too much of new ascriptions In art. 
Kcholnrship cumbered with much serving sometimes misses a 
gift more needful. In tho coming e<lilion " Gaston I.atonr " 
will be includ<Ml in tlu> volume of " Imaginary Portraits." The 
odition will be limited to 775 copies, "iaO of which have l>een 
»ul)soril>ed tor an .Vmerican house. The llrst volume — there will 
Im> eight in all — will apiKjar in September, and tho publication 
will continue at the rate of one volume a month in the following 
order: — Vol. I., " Studies in tho History of the Renaissance " : 
11. and m., " Marius tlie Kpiourean " ; IV., " Imaginary 
Portmits and Gaston do Latour " ; V., " Appreciations" ; VI., 
" Plato and Platoiiism " ; VII., " Greek Studios " ; VIII., 
" Miscellaneous Studies." 

" White " and " Selborno " will over be prolltable names 
to conjure with. The first classic of it« kind, it is still being 
constantly reprinted, notwithstanding tho fact that it has 
already appeared in more etlitions than any other liook on 
natural history. At tho present moment, b«>sides tho scH'ond 
volume of Dr. Bowdler Sharpe's library edition (due in Sep- 
tember), wo are receiving the work as one of tho volumes 
of Macmillan's Library of Knglish Classics, reprintetl, as state<l 
in Literature last week, from tho text of the original edition. 
Messrs. Constable have also proniise<l to publish in full tho 
daily diary kept by White for more than twenty-flvo years ; 
and now Mr. Murray announces a life of the naturalist by tho 
present head of tht> Whito family, Mr. Rashleigh Holt-White. 
The biography will include much unpublislnHl matter in the 
shape of letters, journals, and other documents in the possession 
of tho family, and a journal kept during a visit to Selborne in 
the suiumer of 17(>li, by one of the " Miss Battles," to whom the 
verses on '" Selhonie Hangei- — a Wiiiterpiece " wei"e addresseil 
by Gilbert White in the antumn of that year. 



1 



M 



I ' 



I.. i|i/.ih, .Tiii.i, ..I >;ii-.>ii., 

Kcnn^D, Levy, of A\x, t^., i-i 
work r«'pre«ents the h«>»t < i i 

)Kirticitlnr Hphere. The ** Aii' 
I ..n». Th.- 

Thns 1 
!■ i'T Herr iUt/'-l, fill 

\ . and the Sf.if.- ; i • 

the conni-xitm iM'twt-eii MK-ial  y ; and  third. 

by M. Steiiimetz, on the du .. .^l tyi"**. lit tlie 

Hocniid |M>rtion of this work wu have a rritical bibliocnipliy nl 
all the iin|M>rt«ut aoeiuluKical book* at tho yemr. 



IS to the pn.-(N . t . 
Mg workK U. |H't ii ,{, 



Wo have 



llll\t u •• 



W. Jfi 



Sociologists have now at tbeir disposal the third annual 
volume entitlinl " L".\nneo Sociologique." which Professor 
Duikluhn, uf Roidcnnx, assi'-ted bv Professors Katrel, ot 



Mr. Murray Is evidently - 
l>ook tride. His new list ot 

most iiii|H)rtaiit that he has umt isnutnl at thi'< iiim 
South .\frica is reprfs«Mife«l by only one ittmi, l.iit i|..- 
translation of Yves tiuyofs " 
Pro-Boor Statements, bas<><l im 

interesting development of the lileniture of thi- war. 
had (Kimphlets by Swiss champions of England's |><ilii \ 
have a liene<lictinn by tho editor of l^ Siectr. 
will he ready early next month. Another Iinpai..,..- 
" The Growth of tho Empire," and is written by .\. 
.Two IxMtks about Afghanistan aro also include*! in Mr. Mur: 
list, both by writers who have be«Mi intimately »WMtciat«-<l 
the .Ameer. " The Constitution and Im\\-» of Afghauiittaii 
Im> pnblislxHl next month) is by the .Am<>er'M private S«v 
of State, Mir Munshi, Sultan Mahammnd Khan. h:ii 
advancitl student at Christ's College. Cambridge. J 
lHH>k is a study of Afghan life in story form entitk>d " A Viiier's 
Daughter," by Lillias Hamilton. M.D., for several ycarsm^xli- -i 
adviser to tho Anioer. It is no secrtit that the Atiie< 
dangei-ously ill when Miss Hamilton «-as »<Mit for, an' I 
virtually took her life in her hand when she jonnieyctl to K 
Every diameter in the story is said to Im> drawn from lift 
as Dr. Hamilton explains in her preface, " should, tliereff • 
far as it goes, give; an accurate description of one phane at any 
rate of Afghan life." 

Since the completion of hi* hiatorr ot the Hndaon Bar 

Company, Mr. Bo<'kles Willsnn hn- 
what similar work dealing with 
East India Company. Much hitberln u 
placed in Mr. Willson's hands; and li- 
the Company's servants will be largely drawn upon. " Th.- 
|)criml of tho first hundred years in the life of the C. n.T.ni.v 
says Mr. Cawston, in his review of the Old Chartered i 
" is generally ncglectetl, or dealt with in a very sumui.i<.> »,... . 
by Indian historians, so that no clear idea U conveye<l to th.- 
reader of tho early growth anrl dev. ' ' of this _  

association." This omission Mr. Willv .kesto r. ^ 

It is hoped that Lord Curzon uf Ko<lle!>loii will contribute an 
introduction. 

Messrs. Longmans announce a number of important ne^v 

hooks and new editions. An eighth and i' ' —  -' 

edition ot Canon M.acColl's volume on 

Settlement" is in prt'paraliitn. *»"■ U  M  

letter has Ik-cii omitted, bin 

added, one coiit:iiijI[i- :iii t\l 

d«H.'isions on I 

8|)eoches, the <"  

in the Fort iiifyfi 11;/ iittciftc ot last Dtjeeuilter. " I 

Beyond the Tomb, in a Oath. .lie Light." by the I 

Passinore. " Keligitm, a Plain ' '>y R. Ku-~' 

Matriuionv," bv Caiitm Ki. . are ani' 



cii it'i I < ' 1 lu* I riit II \ t 
Martiiiean." by A. W. \V 
Hev. Richartl >leux Beii 
and Travel. FVvst and V 
Forward Policy, ami i 
CLE., who gives h 
Commissioner and : 



Mr. r. C. S.1 

 bv Mr. I: 



54 



LITERATURE. 



[July 21, 1900. 





111 n 

ohaii 


• 1 
iln' 








1 1 *-«-in > I 


.tiiii 






III 






Tho 
)ioa|>iUl 


..f 


<; 


cm  





















• •II 

. xi !■. Ki'ii.in* Miniii'-'. \\ n ii ;i 
:lu> imrrativc to her Mujo.>ty'!« 



Tii-iiMM'h n<>s|>U:U and of tho Knynl 

j.\\, K.N., lias written 

Ashore," wliieli Mr. 

B«»*i<les deM'riliiuK 

lNH>k iiiolmU'H uuviil 

liin. Tlie same publisher has 

II t'mitinirent." written liy \V. 

!iifh (.'uiiada 

II' son of tlio 

111 .!> I KMi), and deals 

soldiers to the front, 

V is^.ii- in tho Held, and the 



effect of the war in Canada. 



Two important travel iKioks are also announced liy Mr. 

VnTrin. OtH' i^ nn account of two seasons passed •' In the Ice 

' ■."' by Fanny Bullock Workman and William 

. iwo adventurous travellers who are alre:uly 

y tiKir iHxiks on Algiers and Spain. Mrs. Bullock 

I. who is said to be the first woman to undertake a loiijf 

• '  'iiKh Asia, made tliro<> " pioneer 

varyin-; from 18.(KK) to I'l.tKHl 

'•>ok " Aiuonc the Bcrl>ers of 

. records and illustrates the 

ists anioiiR the Berlier tril)es of 

iid the Kabyles. The pni'ely 

•re to \te piililished elsewhere, 

I 1 lieir arts and crafts, are described 

t volume. A few words have been 

Algerian .lews and Anti-Semitism. 

•\ for Mr. Unwin a bfHik on " The 

•lew ill London. ' touching on recent immigrations 

(roni Kasteni Kn many, Poland, and Russia. Tho 

l>ook will contain .in iniroductioii by Canon Baniett and a 

pn«fat>e by Mr. .laiws Bryc<>. 



bat the life of ihi 
'iv Mr. Wilkin in 



The new editor of the Arf/ogy, Mr. Herlx>rt Morrah, is 
iinprovini- '•■■» mi'Ti/ine. The summer nnml)er has a short and 
soiiiewh:r i from the pj'n of the late Mr. Stephen 

t'rane, a ; , • •••Hirgo Gissing, an illustrated article on 

Siena by Mr. Augustus Hare, and other contributions of interest. 
In the future, pictures and drawings will l»e reprinluced in 
preference to photographs, and. I><>ing ]iublishe<l by Messrs, 
Allen, tho Argony should do well in the matter of illiLstration. 

Mown. Putnam have a book coming out shortly entitled 
•* T" '■ -■ V — po of Form ; An Essay in Ooiu- 

|i«r -'• Lansing Raymond, I'rofessor 

«i( i ;m I I .....,, I iilversity. l'rofosM>r Raymond 

is til' ' I- of •M>\er.il volumes on art snbjiH-ts, including " Art 

^n Til  . :o..l " r:iiiiiln/', Sciiliiture, and .\rchit<M;turo as 
!.'. 1 • -■ I  i' ^ • \;'-. iKWik is illiistratcHl with 

.,ii..i;i! i.n- ifi I ; ■•  I ;. .'"I ~ lo niasternii'ci-s in ;ill llie 

other aita. 



Fieri 
liy 0«ii' 
ntoriea 
(teoeral 

" A^ 

in America. 

luanrl fnr M 



nil is piililishin^ a xoltiinc «>i stori<'S 
. entitle<l " SjKirt in War." Tho 
in the lUnlmiiituii Magazine, The 
■r. 

il Cn. ^ri> piililisliine the new novel 

I Ml-. ' L.ul. . K'.Jijfs), «'ntitle«l 

, I' :ii:iiiis ic'ii'iii ly brought out 

' there is still a stc-Kly ile- 

II Case "—though hundreds 

liave l)e<'n l)nblish«'<l since it 

I the Piifnatns an? preparing a 

iiig the total nuinlier 

 other novels are now 

\%;iiM, I^H'k- " ,\ Prince of 

and " B«'tween Two Fires ; a 

 '  '■ '  ' ' in s<'rlal 

ill add 
' >• inil 



M. ; 

Warden «•' i 

\pron." nnr1 



iirUully auMHUit* 



I , .,,.(! 

., ), V. .1. Wills (•• The bean's 

 en (" Monica "). " Monica " 

«ii or iMilM V. nni ago by WanI and 

;<«, but It 1,.- 1/1 '11 cntirt-ly rt'vi»e<I and 

to a new novel in iUi protcnt form. 



Mr. Clement Scott is alMUit to )>ocomo anwlitor. It is 
announcctl that ho is pn-iuring a new weekly s<H'ieiy pagier, tlio 
tlrst niiiiilier of which is e\|)ect««l in SeptouilK>r. Messrs. 
(ireeniiig will be the publishers. 

Mr. Frank T. .4ddyiuan, of St. Givirge's Hospital, has in 
hand for publication a volume on " Practical X-Ray Work," to 
Ik- issue<l by Messrs. Soott, Urooiiwood, and Co. 



Books to look out ftop at onoe. 



By JuM'ph Walton, 
By tlie Uiv Lonl Ux-li. 



M.i*. .Sitiiipsi>u 

Elgin 'a Second 
Third Editiou. 

( ' ' Builders of 
■r rnwin. S<i. 



THE FAB EAVT- 
' Chiiui ukI tho Pn'M'iit t'riisi» 

Low. 
 A Pi-nmonl Nurmtivi! 

Eiiilmiwy to China in 1K60 

Murray, 2s. (kl. nrt. 
' Sir tStamfonI Kidflrii : Eiiglaml in thi' Fur Baiit. ' 

Ort'Kt«-r Britain " Serifs.) By Hugh Egrrtoii. FiHhe 

HISTORY — 
■Picturcsof theOlilPrrnchCourt." Byratherint'.\.B<'arm'. Unwin. 10ii.6d. 

* .V Review of Irish Hintory in Kelation to the Social Development of 

Irelaml." By J. P. Gannon. Fisher Unwin. 6s. 

FICTION — 
•Betw...n Two Fir<-><: A Story of the B4>er War." By H. Goldinc. 

Will-.!. I.mk. 3«. 6<1. 
' .\ Prince of Swinillers." By Guy Boothhy. Want, Lock. On. 
' Mv Aftenlreaiii : A Sequel to Mr. Bi-llaiiiy's ' Looking Baokwartl.' " 

By "Julian WeBt." Finher I'nwin. 4«. 

• A Gift from the Grave." By E.lilh Wlwrton. Murniy. 2s. 6.1. net. 
' Fitijames." By Lilian Street. Methuen. 3«. 6il. 

Ml- .rs— 

•K 

' O... i ud 

J. Utho Paget 



Enulanil." By Arrhilmlil Colquhoiin. Harpers. 6*. 
,1 WoiMlUnils." Bt Dr. John Niabet. "Hunting." By 
et. " HaihloD Hall Library." Dent. 7s. 6<l. net each. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



BIOGRAPHY. 

Elisabeth de Bavl^pe.Imp^pa- 

tplce d'Autnlche. Hvf 'onstantin 

Chr '  • ' iie<l by 

(i;, .,-^3 pp. 

Pa . Kr.3..W. 

Hlatoi'leni ChMl'ueLei'S. By Sir 
U. L. hitlu-tr. 71 • .'liTi.. :m pp. 

Marinillftn. ii. fid. 

Ess&l aup Laurent de M^dlols 
dlt le MagnlflQue. \W Amtrr 
l.iiiiy. 7 • Ijiii.. 1)17 ijp. I'ari^.. 

I'errin. Kr.3.50. 
DRAMA. 

Two Staare Plays. Drw-pilVs and 
Herbert's Atn iMiid- 

age. By l.ii in., 

'.21^ pp. Uriiii -. n. 

The pplnceos. .\. I'lay in Two 

.\ets for Ihe I'so of Schools. Kroni 

Ix>r<i 'r4-nnyMtii'p. I\ieni, HyL.Iiosgi. 

61x4iln.. .yj pp. Ilent. Is. n. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

La Boaga d'Or, ami other Stories. 
\ Kcnder for Middle and Upper 
Forms. Kd. by K. Wefkley. i J x 
.Mn.. llllpn. Blaekie. Ih. «d. 

The iEneld of Vlp^ll. Hook III. 
Kd. by 1'. Samiforit. 71 /Sin., 
ISilpp. H''   '- 'M. 

Johnson: Lives of " uid 

Addison. (The K. -i 

1->1. by ./. Uiiihl . '1.. 

Ixxiii. i JiBlpp. HI sf. 

Soott: The Lady < ke. 

(The Knuli-li i ' If. 

E. W. Collint- ,ip. 

Dpyden's Essay ul Ui-uiiihi1o 
Poesy. Kd. by t). .V. Hmi(h. 71 - 
.'.in.. US pp. Jlla.klu. is. 

The Oepman Emplp*. .\ii 
HIstorinil Header. By J. Lang- 
hain. Tix.iln.. IS\ pp. 

Sonnensrlit'in. 2s. (id. 

FICTION. 

Pop Britain's SoldiePS. Hy 

.S. M. Oockeh 

«'. J.Cutclitro 

Hy. pp. , 

Meiliuen. 

The Compleat Baohelop. 

inirrr IMiOn: Ti • .'.In,. I'»: p|.. 



«.. 



I>s. 

My 



Gup Cove. 

Ki-h. ; vr 
S 
Ix 
The I 
h.j: 



-h 



.\ri.«.».i'i. t 



I' 

The Crimson Ci 

gAjih.. iMpo. .1 

L» Flsup do Jole. 

/ rtumr. 'i  JJln.. . ; 

Lomcr.'u. lrJ.M. 



OEGORAPHY. 
Fopt St. OeoPKe, Madras, ly 

Mrt. F. J'rnnu. '■> '■ .''iin.. 'J»t pp. 

Sonneiivriiein. IiK. i;d. n. 

A School Oeog-paphy of the 

World. Hv /.. II'. l.!/ilr. 7 (Jin.. 

382 pp.  HiH<k. 's «a. n. 

LITERARY. 
Judgment In Lltepatupe. (Tho 
Tciiiplo I'l-iinen'.) Ily 11'. Bajiil 
H'omfoltl. tix4in.. »2 pp. Ifent.ls.n. 

MILITARY. 
Mechanical Traction In Wap. 

By Lieut. Cot. O. lAiyri-.. Tnins- 
lated by K. B. Maniton. 10 x Sin., 
102 pp. SaiupM>n, Low. 5«. n. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
People You Know. Ivl. by Ptrcy 
A. Jlitrd. 7i xain.. J17 pp. 

.\rrowKniitli. Ss. M. 

Economics of Modern 

Cookery. ><■■ " i' "■■"orA-. 

7xiin...'r nd. 

Some Ox "ir 

KriundM. i  ...-..; ,i..,i*r. 

8xS4in., laupp. uitorri. 

llliickwell. 3h. n. 

POETRY. 

The Soliloquy of a Shadow 

Shape on a Holiday ri>om 

Hades. Hy A. H. Scuift. 7iK 

.'■in. Kamlnko. Is. 6d. n 

POLITICAL. 
Open Letteps to Lord Curzon 
on Famines nn<i Land 
Assessment- ' ila. By 

R. V. Diitt.iW iW pp. 

I 7rt. (id. 

Britain and Boci< Independ- 
ence. 'I'riiii..lnie(l fr«ini tlie French 
of E. \nntlr. 7i  tliri.. t'A pp. 

Hli.kumHi. 8d. 

Chlna-The Long'-Llved Bm- 

plP«. Hy A'/i;(i l{. .Sriilmore. 81 X 

Jiin., leepp. .Miiciiiillan. 8«. tid. n. 

REPRINTS. 

Twelfth Nlffht and 
Richard II. (The Cblawlcli 
Sliake»piare.l Kd. by .A Drnnin, 
II. tin. Hell. iK. 6d. n. each. 

Henpy V. iSwan Kd.» Ed. by/, 
/•'rrt/iisun. 7i A.'iin.. IBl pp. 

l/4jni{nianH, Ik. 

The Natupal HIstopy of 8«l- 
bopne. Hy >;.;'...' 11 7, ^^. (Tlio 

l.ihrary of Ki . ' ^.1 9X 

i.in.. liKi pp. .^! •-. (kl. n. 

TOPOOHAPHY. 

r.o'.'.iiiv (•Hide to Swanajp* 
nnrt District. Hj 'Vu' Holland. 
71 » liln., 81 pp. i 'canton. Od 



KInar 

let 



Jitciiiturc 

Published by ZbC Zimce. 



No. 145. SATURDAY, JULY 2S. IWm. 



CONTENTS. 



PAMC 

N0TE8 OF THK Day - iV>, M. 57 

Pkrhonai. Views— "TIu» Mcnlem Novel." by Alice 

II.TlKTt - 58 

Walter Pater, by Liiurie Magnus 6K 

Thk Stoby ok the Clarendon Press 6(> 

TuAfKEHAY AND THE Staiie (From a Correspondent) ... 83 

FRENTH .\N(a.()lMI(>HIA AM) .\\(i L<>M ANl A Bl 

Reviews 

China, the l^)iig-liveil F.iiipiii- (U 

A Century of OiTiiian Literatuit- (Kl 

WilliHiii SImki'spcare : Pi-<is<>(ly ami Text <Kt 

An Italian on Kn^lisli Ixwal (iovcrnMii-nt 07 

Kiiropriui Si'llliMiivnlM in Ilio Kiir hjml -Sir Stjimford ItiiItU"* Thu 
Ex('rfi..c of JtulKiiifnl iti I.itfnitiiro --Th« Stiiitli Afrlriiii Con- 
Hnlnuv Hrii'ii' ,.i,,i Mimt IniU'pi'iirtcnco S'liliil ami tlu> BfM'i-" 
Itaiitlticink : i^t Afiira unit I'tciincla KatniiteH in Inilia 

lull St iilni" Indi'v Id <'li»rti'i-> niid RolU 

.MrcliiLuiciil 1 a War- UuKHipy (iiiidc lu .SwaiiaKC 08. (HI, TO 

KiiiKhU of the rn>»>. Iti'VriiKefiil KaiiK« Smutiiarv (liib Catced 
A Corner in Sleep and oilier InipoMilbillliun I'lie r><^iint of 
the Uuchew 70 



Adtuors and Publishers 

LlBT OF \kw Hooks ani> Kki'IIINI's 



n. 



NOTES OF THE DAY. 



Colonel Scliiel, the well-known (iorfiiiin olllcer of the Boit 
(krmy, now un exile with Cronje at St. Helena, has written a 
book giving his ox|>erienees lK>th as a Boer oflicer and a prisoner 
in British hands. Messrs. Melhnen ar«; his publishers. 
* • • • 

The announcement suggests all manner of interesting pos- 
sibilities. Cronje's remiiiiseenoes would make a fascinating 
volume, and there nnist be many other Boer prisoner-i who have 
thrilling stories to tell. Colonel Schiel, it will be rememlM-wd. 
was captured at Klandslaagtc in the llrst stage of the war. and 
has evidently written his liook in the leisure moments snatched 
fl-oiu his fruitU'ss attempts to devise some means of escaiw. Hi- 
was a lieutenant of Prussian hussars alxnit thirty years, and 
quitteil the service to seek employment in South Africa. The 
Transvaal Governiuent engaged his servi<'es shortly after the 
London Convention was signiKl, and subsecjuently sent him to 
Berlin to learn the latest gunnery improvements, buy artillery, 
and dr.aw plans for forts. The results of that mission have l)een 
severely felt by us in the present campaign. 

» » * • 

Visitors to the Lake District have now a fresh place of 
pilgrimage provide*! for them in the liuskin Exhibition at 
Coniston. B<-)th the artistic and the literary sides of the master's 
career arc well rcpreseute<l there, .\mong the lMH)ks an' his tirst 
published writing in Loiidoir.i .\/(ig(iri"ii<* 0/ Sobinil HiMorii, ISM ; 
his llrst publisluHl poem, 1835 ; his Newdlgate prize poem ; Brst 
editions of " The Seven Lamps of Architecture," " The Stones 
ot Venice," " Motlern Painters," " Time and Tide," and 
" Elements of Drawing " ; and there are also the manuscripts of 
some of his unpublished writings, a Greek Psaltor of 1300. which 

Vou VII. No. 4. 



Kukkin annotHted, the original MH. of Mir Walter HcvKt'* " TIm> 

Black Dwarf," and a ]■ '.n ropy • '  ''' ,t 

Rogers' " Italy." The will b«» li .i 

ttwful to students of Kiiskiiiianu, a* all the relir* an> tru«l- 

\v..iiiillv .( ii,.<l. 

Oiiii' aK-iin the cry of " Knu- for the Irish " ' 1 

new we»<kly review, to !>•• called the Letulrr, 1 m 

Dublin on Saturday, tut Sepicmlier, baring for ita aim " tlm 
de-Angllcizatlon of Ireland." K'  I ' md I» 

avowedly |Mililical, Iwing either ~ : hat 

the Lriidfi- is to pn^aeh the doctrine that out of politic« no 
go(Ml can come for Ireland. " It will face fact* a* they 
art>, however humiliating : and the actual Irotand. and not 
the Ireland of dreamers and romancers," 1 

vii'w. Though convince<l that no r«>al Iri il 

Irish is reinstated as the national language, thta reriow, being 

prac-tieal, will l)e almost wholly written hi I 

Miot<>rs ri'cognise the fact that Ireland li 

iM'come almost completely English, and must proce«l from 

what is to what ought to lie." The editor is to lie .Mr. D. P. 

Moran.a journalist who, during the |nst two yean, hai iMWUcon- 

triliiiting to the .Vrir Irrlniiil lirrifir a series of ^ 

on phases of the nationalist agitation, the Irish  

ment, the Irish theatre, and what is called " the Celtic note " 

in Irish literature, all of which he thinks are huge shaiiM. The 

price of the f.nnlrr will Im- one penny. 

ll is inlcrcsi iiig m I'mi n In.u .>i 1 . ii'<- |>r..|Hiv..^. iiK>- 
Salvini, to repr<'M>iit Othello not as a blackamoor, Imt »» u 
cop|K<r-ci>|oured MiMir. That this was not 8I1 

seems clear from the text. " I am black." >.-. .. 

and another jiersonage in the play speaks derisively of his "thick 

li|)s." .\gainst a " black man." how,^ 

as was nuide abundantly cl«>ar on the in. 

Lord Salisbury applie<l the wonis to a fellow-eltiien of Par»e«' 

origin. 

* • » 

The announcements ni.idc by Mr. Tret- . 
to his future plans at Her Majesty's Tii 
surprise. This was the fact that he had just purcha.se<l a poetic 
play by Mr. Stephen Phillips. It is called Thf King of th<- ■' 
and the King in (luestion is HerotI the CSreat. TIh? subject 
material for many tr.ige»lies. Which one of the dark epi~.«i.- 
ot the Idiimiean tyrant has Mr. Phillips chosen 7 In all pi 1.. 
bility that which ended in the death of the beantiful Mariamn.. 
Soon after he married Mariamnc, li 
his popularity. For this he was >■ 

of the young man's mother, allied by Cleopatra, to apitear beCon- 
Antony. Before he starte<l on his journey he committeit 
Mariainne to the charge of a tnistcd friend, onlering that, if 
any evil fate befel hini.self, she should al.so be put to death. He 
came back safely, but shortly afterwards he had to visit .\ntony 
once more, and made the same arrangement. This time MariamDe 
heard of his savage injunction, and on his return she t;i\f.I 
him with cruelty and de«-lared her hatre<l of him. Herod. Ix-' i 
himself with rage, ordered her to be killed. The shi>ck w.i 



56 



MTERATIRE. 



[.luly 28, 1900. 



Kivat that his uiind lont its ImUmma. Byron in oii« of his 
" Hebrew loelodies" made Hrmd lament for Marianne. 

Oh '. Mariamn« ! now for thee 

The heart for whii'h thou bteod'M is Meodiiix; 
ReveoKe is lost in at;«'>ny 

And wild ruuionto to mfce succeedinK. 
Hcrod'a relation* with K>Mm> mixht also (iiraish n dmiim of lUrriiiK 
p(waiMliti«a ; the orarty manner in which he played with the 
I g wwml»— Caaaar, Antony, AuKustun, were eaeh his good 
I eontrast between the out»-.«rd Miceess of his life und 
tb« inward remonte of his old :i^e. Mr. Phillips has cortainly 
^elected a ftne protaffoniat for his traffecly. The only wonder is 
that no grt*t play has ever lioen written ii|>on Herod's career. 
SaJomtf wika a remarkable effort of imagination, but hardly a great 
dnuaa. Let ns hope we shall not have to wait as long for Hit 
King of ffcc '■■"- ■- "" >eem likely to wait for Pnoln niid 

Frmneftnt. 

• - •  

It appears that the iMoksellers are memorialising the pnb- 
lidiera in the ho|)e of getting more liooks published at net prices. 
Their point is that, in the case of net iKmks, they can make a 
proflt by ordering a single copy at a time, whereas in the case 
of other Ixmks their proflt is only apprtH-iablo when they are 
able to pay for twelve and get lhlrte<>n. Whether this argument 
will appeal to the publishers remains to be seen. They may 
r«M- liold that, as the liookseller is under no statutory or 

oti.- ^tion to allow his customers Iwenty-flve per cent, 

fliscoant on his goods, his business is so to fix his prices that 
proflt will result : and we lH>lievo that this is how a good many 
pablishers do argue. On the face of it there certainly does not 
■eem to be any reason to expect that enduring advantage will 
result from tnterference with the competitive tendencies of 
human naturt; in the liook trade any more than in the trade in 
bicycles, or boots, or patent medicines, or any other commodities. 

• • » ■» 

An appreciation of Samnel Hicbardson written on the actual 
tlay of his death, ami evidently by a frien<l, possesses real 
interest. On the opening le-aves of a copy of the 0rst of the 
•even volumes which fonn the rd if io priiip«ps of " Clarissa," 
thf '    Mi«h1 not«' ap|M>urs. It is in the handwriting 

• il .. -. one is l«>und to confess, that KichanUon, 

«• b«.-re repn-M>nte«l, might well lie stufftnl and canonized bt-eause 
bU good i|ualities have no complementary shadows. It was 
Tainc who hi-ld (hat Hir I'harles (inindiwin, with his wearisome 
saiM-riorities, should Im* so lifted out of the human pale. 

July 4. I7»l. Till" morning liUtl in the 7l'nd vimi- of his 
a|p>, at hi* hornu- in Hnlisbury Court. Fleet 8tr(>et, Mr. Samuel 
'■ '  ■T, and the celcbral*-*! author of 

-sa.aiid Sir Cliarles (irauilisoii - 

itM's, which do honour to our 

•'>f of his original, extensive, and 

I MIS : so inuiiy of his friends and ac<|iialntances, 

;i -Il are some of the most reputable characters of the 

»■,!'.  >'• 'I iy regret his loss atul long n-ineinlN>r him for the 

a"  i-iiir- ■■•m<d qualities by which his private life 

• ie in business, his nnwearicMl appli. 

.. .... ..,.^ ... i.-ifonn in the literary way what might 

 l>Osed to lie the sole employraeul of his life ; and 

''.r a numerous famllv ' - mo 

I was constantly < , in 

and iincomin'Mi ^. . ...ity. 

H ■rvoiis diwinlfr. hi- . .i -, ..l.lijiod 

ly ; yet did 

; .IS commonly 

incapBcilatea the siillerer from going through tbc ordinary 



duUea of U* life, in the least abate the flow of his genius, the 
li\'elin<-»» of his fancy, or the ardour of his industry — a rare 
I'xample how much may bo perforuuxl by a single person when 
a large share of natural sagacity, joined to an active, well- 
ilisposeil mind, is e\crt«><l to the utmost. 

When allowance In- made for the formal phraseology of the 
day, the sincerity of the writer cannot lie (|uestioned. One of 
the quaintest touches is the assurance that the novelist had as 
friend or ac(|uaintanoo some of the most " reputable characters " 
of his day ; its very su|>erfluity is its charm. 

* * .* 

By the way, Richardson is commonly held to have died, not 
ill Salisbnry Court, but in Parson's Ureen, whithor he removed 
from North End in 1755. Can it be that his biopri\phers are in 
error, and that the slr<ike of apoplexy to which he succumbed 
found him in Salisbury Court, in tlie house of which years iK'fore 
Mrs. Richardson had disapproved ? A iiersou writing on the 
ilay of his death would not be likely to confuse the vicinity of 
Fleet Street with Parson's Green, then practically a country 
place. Those who visit on Sunday afternoons the late Sir Edward 
Burne-.1one3' studio at North End may lie reminded that in a 
little summer-house or grotto in the middle of the garden, 
Richardson wrote much of " Pamela," " Clarissa," and " Sir 
Charles Grandison." It was here " he lived in a kind of flower- 
garden of ladies," and after his death Mrs. Barbauld kissed the 

ink horn in which the novelist was wont to dip his pen. 

* • * « 

If it be true that we are to see further journals of Marie 
Basbk!rt8<*ff, lovers of the morbid may look forward to some 
interesting pages in the autumn. This neurotic young woman's 
diaries caused a sensation among all kinds of people when they 
ap|H>ared some ten years ago. Mr. (!ladstoiie was drawn into 
discussing them, and Marie BashkirtHcIf at once Im-cuuic a 
decadent classic. Her egoism had a certain fascination about 
it, hikI the pathos of her brilliant young life, cut short by con- 
sumption, added perhajis a sentimental int«'rest to her views of 
the world and art and her place in both. The new journals are 
said to be those of her last year, and to include a romantio 
correspondence which she kept up with Guy de Maupassant. 

* • * « 

A setting of Milton's " Blest Pair of Sirens " is one of the 
most popular composit Ions of the new Professor of Music at Oxford, 
and no one is more enamoured of thcst? two sirens, litcrsiturc and 
song, than the Professor himself. His " Evolution of the Art of 
.Music" ranks high in musical literal uro, and he was an assiduous 
contributor to Grove's Dictionary. Poets, loo, owe hiiu a debt of 
gratitude. He is a pioni'or in the movement for showing gnmter 
respect for metre than the song-writers of old. As line examples 
of his taut in tinding the musical e<|uivalents for verso rhythms 
we can recommend our more songful readers to attempt Sir 
Hnlierfs sc-ttiiig of Tennyson's " The Poet," Suckling's 
" Why HO iiale and wan, fond lover," or the .\nacreoiitic ode, 
" Fill me, Isiy, as deep a draught." It is natural that 
the Prof«?ssor, who lays so much stress on the artistic 
fltness of music to it« end, should have chosen " Style 
in Musical Art" for the subject of his inaugural lecture, 
which has reached us from the Clarendon Press. A musician, 
as hu says, must keep rigidly to the fonn and character of the 
particular style of composition ho has selected. The same holds 
good in literature. The writer who pens a lyric in the spirit of 
" Para«lise Lost " is as domcnte<l as the composer who writes 
op<'ratic music for the Church. Sir Hubert has an eye for style 
everywhere, even in nature— <•.(;., the stylo of an apple-tree, the 
style of an orange-tre«! -as dilTenMit as an opera from a sonata. 
The poets of the "orange-tree" and the "apple-tree"! — 
what an opportunity for a critic weary of the " ismguorous 
South," the " virile North," ami the ollii-r well-worn rlic.Mi 
of the historians of poetry ! 



July 28, 1900.] 



LITERATLRE. 



57 



It 1« not wholly to tlic frmllt of Fn-tich piihlUhorn ihnt 
Slonklpwlcz's " Quo Viuliii," »<> iHtpiiUr In :ill KniflKI ' ' < 

<'oiiiitri<>**, UN wi'll iiH in (•(■niiiiiiy iiixl Italy, lisi* unly jii <l 

in I'aHx. Bill fm- tin- Itfrne Ulniichi' and llii- Mi-rfiin- c/r I'liuu-e 
iiioit of tlio iH-tt lliat is tlimiKliI nnd ^ai(l oiiNiili' of Fntnro 
would have lilllo cliaiici- of ii|i|H>ariiiK in a Fntncli dn-ns. The 
French voi-xlon of " Qno Vadls," which wo owe to two Pole*. Is 
)iiilpIishod ))y the llffiif Uliiiii-hr, and fjimis a volume i>f mfi 
liagcM, n« iHilky a» fh<> liipjfcut of M. Xola'^ novcli. The 
lorni and manner aro not Nuch as to i-ecununend the book to the 
Krenoli. Unt it cmnVN out ho well advertlied with reports of the 
prodigious llRun-s ivpn-iwntinit th«> naU- in other laii(cua(;e!i — 
1.000,000 co|)les in the United Slates. 40.000 in Italy, 1.50,000 in 
<lennuny— that the lionlevard bookshops aiv noting a "run " on 
the iMVik. The n'MRlous reviews, nmii-over, are now takin;; 
Sienkiowiex up. The f^iiiiifnini' pulilishes a curious study irf 
American life by him, i-iititled " The Comedy of Krrors," 
vemarkinK that If this t«le has never before been translated into 
French it has appeared iu volapuk ! It may Ije state<l, by the 
way, that tin- (mpular subscription orpiuized in Poland to cele- 
brate the tweiity-Ofth anniversary of Sienkiewic/'s literary 
(/('()!(( lias been sosuccessful that he is to receive from his admirers 
the gift of an anccstml chftteau belonpnjf to his family, with an 
immense parkland surronndiiif( it. This Is the domain of 
Oblepirek at Kielce, where the novelist s|H<nt his childhoo<l, 
and which j)assed out of his family dnriiif; the reverws of 
fortune. The /c/c at Wai-saw in the autumn, when the chateau 
will formally Ik> offered to Kienkiewic/,, will be in every 
MMise of the word national. 

* * * * 

The sugf^estion that Oliver (ioUlsmith was a " iiinrrio<l 
citizen " and that some of his descendants arc living in the 
United States is so (lersistently made from time to time that it 
liecomes almost a matter of necessity to trace the origin of the 
leffond. That Goldsmith was never marrie<1 — at least not to the 
knowleilRO of his imist intimate friends— is evident, since the 
letter* of Administration, to be si>«>n at Somerset Hoiino, descrilie 
him as " Bachelor,'' and were granted to Maurice tioldsmith, ".the 
natural and lawful brother and next-of-kin of Uic saiil deceased." 
Xotwithstaiiiliii}; this word "Bachelor," it is statetl and I)elieve<l 
in many ijuarters even yet that one Mary f)livia (ioldsmith, 
whose name is found in the |>nrish liooks of Islington, was none 
other than the poofs daiigliter, and that she livisl with him in 
the turret of Canonbnry-honse when he went there to lo<lge 

in 17C7. 

 •   

This, however, is merely an iiu-idoiil atTecting the story and 
not the origin of if. In 1834 one Oliver Ooldsmith published at 
St. .Tohn. New Brunswick, a small volume of verse calle<l " The 
Kising Village, and other Poems," a copy of which was solil the 
other day in a " parcel '' by auction in London. This Oliver 
tioldsmith tised tos.iy that he was related tohis greater namesake, 
iind so it happ<Mis that whenever the book apix^ars in a dealer's 
catalogue the author is invariably descrilwvl as " (iohlsmith 
(Oliver, a ilescendnnt of the author of 'The I)<>serted Village')." 
It was the publication of this book, combined with its author's 
assertion at the time, that gave currency to an improlmble, if not 
impossible, story, and the b(»oks<>llers' " common fonn " of 
ticscription has perpetiiate«I it to onr own day. 

 » * « 

Messrs. Sotheby's sale last we<>k included some good copies 
<if notable Knglish books, the principal being a long Shakespeart; 
series, comprising the Second Folio, a very poor copy— t;il ; 
the Thiifl Folio, im|x>rfect— 120 lOs. ; the Fourth Folio, a line 
copy in excellent condition— i;W 10s.; and the rare iiuartos, 
Love'g lMltoiii\i Lout, 1631— i;41 ; I'ericlex, H'i35— 1;21 10s. ; 
liomeo ami Juliet, UVIT— .t:«) ; Heiirj; tin: Fourth, ItBO— 
tl'O 10s. ; Othello, 10,55— £20. .lohnson.— " The Vanity of 
Human Wishes," first e<1ition, in original paper covers — 
tic 58. ; •' Dictionary of the English Language," llrst 
edition, in exceptionally line condition — SIS. Spenser.—" The 



Ftu>r\e Queeno." flmt tfci>r«- • 

Turl>«T\'lllo— •• r  ;• 

«orih. — " Lyi-i' 

Prior.-- ■• Poemx on 

- •• The t'fitei," II. 

Irvyne," II 

the priva' 

" Alalanla in t'alydon," lln.! islitlnn K'2 Is- 

Original MS. of " The B<Mly Hualeher " tH 1" 

" Kuhnlyat of Omar Khayyam," the r«r«' i 

nnd a presentstion copy »l thv Kelinaeott "t nau.'.'r 



There Is something pathetically 
Inlely disingeiiiloiis, in the outcry rai- 

Ih«' iloUM' of C'oinmons and iDcn ul 

Till- Iriith ihe coIiuuiim of Tlw Timt-M tor ii'  ■■• 

/.iiiil/ii(i|/c. ing of the Rrao Janipiage iu I 

their rlamonr repn^nents aii> o.-. i;\ 
on Ihe part of tlio Irish peojde is incredible, for  
of them who know nior<' tliuii a few words ol Iri>h ;- 
small and is Mli>adily diminishing, and lli<> naiiipul <|<».. . 
the aver»g«> inuu- to say nothing ol the 
transform his educational curriculum in 
can tin- talk lie ln-Iiovi-d to express any • 
ill iIk- bi-easts of tli<> agitators. Otherw) 
and Mr. T. P. O'Connor, and thos*- who think witli tln-ni, 
have taken the trouble to learn the language lb<>m<x<|v(i« in-. . .. 
of -teeking a vieurioua satiirfaetioii by trying to conip>*l oIImth t.. 
do so. The sentiment, in short, which kei>|M .i' 
langua({0» as Flemish, Wallon, Welsh, and Breton dm - 
iu the case of Krso ; and the arguments for i   
cially by Act of Parliament art- the purely 
of literary m«'n who have nothing in comna'ii wi 
nate children who would have Ihe trouble of pa 
tions in a siibjtM^t which would \w of no pracii' 
in after life. " Our <k«»ir«'," says Mr. Moon-, " i» 
as a univerKal language and to save our own tut a iii. 
some future literature. " But. surely, Mr. Moore, wli 
have sometimes circulated by tens of tbuUHaiids. niu«l 
feel the advantage of l>clng abb> to express himself 
me<liuin as nearly universal us |iossiblc. and doe« i 

wish to Ih' in the |M>sition of n iniinicr e\ 

colour-bliiul, or a musician playing to t 

could conceivably lie done by i. 

would be to give the langiuig«- 

in-obably r.ither less than, that of W.i 

Welsh. And what is the literary |ni~ 

which these languages are spoken by the ••••iiimon j" 

known liy the educated, and conid !•« use<l as liter.n 

niv€>ssary ? The fact is that, with very frwe\. 

are not used as literary media at all ; but tiui. ^ > - 

letters pwfer to interpret the gouiuii of their n.i' 

ihnnigh the miHlinm of some lunguagt> that i'- 

sIoikI. The chief exception is furnished by  

the Proveuval I><»'t ; but the  

who, for no other r»>asoii thiiii 

far more than Mistral to inlerpi.-i 

world. In the chm- of Flemish, Fi. 

which the greatest writers— such wn 

theaiithor of " Bruges-la-Morte '■ have^ 

to the characteristic genius of Flanders. Tlie great Br«-t..iis, 

again, write In French, ami the gr»-:it Welshmen write 

in Knglish ; and an even m4>re strikiitg instance of th— 

tendency is found in the ease of the great I>t-- • 

^laurten Maartens, who. thoueh he writes ol ]< 

anil from the I' ■^nt of vi. — the I ■. 

Milton to the lai _ Vondcl. !■• that lar^ 

can address a wider amlicnce. Wli- 

Mr. Mix>re's idea of teaching the '■ 

Schools in onler that work<« of :■ 

even more chimerical than most •■ 

pro|>ounds from time to lirae. 



58 



LITERATLRE. 



[Julv 'J^, 1900. 



Ipcreonal Uicws. 

 — 

TilK M(H>KKX NUVKL. 

No o<lior »rti»tic or \\nnlrt-l>c artistic pmdnot gets »ucli 
kcaot courtesy of trpatuioiit a* tlN> novel. W© ^ to a pUy and 
give it oiir attention, without any further distraction than the 
interludes : and even thvite wo sp«-nd largely in discus-tion of 
the play. The author has not to contend with half-a-dozen 
COnSietiof; atnioRpheri-H when he triiw to iin|irc>ss n-.. He holds us 
to the end of biit effort, and then, and not till then, abides by 
our verdict. The aaaie with the musician. We hear the hour 
throoffh ; we sit oat the symphony to the end — the first in 
kllencp, for temr of offence, the itceood in coni|Kiralive silen04>, for 
fe«r of detection as a person of |Hx>r taste, one who will " roar 
bestial loud coniplaints aj^ainst tlic music of the spheres." But 
tlie DoTel, the work |)erha|>s of patient years, the pitiful " sus- 
tained effort " that has taken a man's lM*st energies out of him, 
and exhausted him as the l>ee is exbauKied by putting forth its 
Ming — how do w« treat it ? First of all. we read it with shame 
and ap<'' ' i aenae of waste of time. We talk over its head 

of war> iirs of wars, of gotisip and of plans for the day. 

We leave it for hours at a time, just when its atmosphere was 
beginning to make it.s<*lf felt. Some of us begin it at the end. 
which is like holding a picture n|>side down. Others break into 
it with a cour««' of half-a-do7^*n rival inioks, calculated l»etween 
them to kill its effect. Ot herb avowedly take it as a sleeping- 
draught, avoiding it with their clear brain and insulting it by 
th' -I OIK-. And all these will give yon their scathing 

Oi' : with all the grae«> in the world. Yet another class 

will read it attentively, devouringly, propping it against the 
milk-Jog at breakfast, and the soup-tureen at dinner, never 
looking up from it until the last |>age : and then putting it 
down with a heart-felt " Well '. Of all the dreary tw~addle I ever 
came across. . . . ! " 

Having put in a word for the most cruelly treated product of 
the age, I admit that it sometimes has uncommonly ludicrous 
feature*. First it was perhaps silly of onr great-aunt.s to make 
Angelina as l>eaulirul as the day, with golden hair down to her 
feet, tboogh for my own |Kirt I lik<-<t ii. It gave me a pleasing 
aenae of what young decadent writers, I believe, call " volu|>cy." 
It pmbably wa.s foolish. But why. in the name of all that is 
funny, do »v prefer .\ngc-linu nowadays m) p<irt<>ntonsly 
repulsive? Thus : — " The flun hair lay in wisps, each sidi- <if her 
haggard (ace. The slightly gross lips protruded, showing the 
Cbaracteriklic. uneven teeth. All her lieing suggested allure- 
moat. Oswald felt the strange. |>enel rating cliHrin that she 
evlialed. It was palpalile, like a vaiKiur. lie shiiddeifsl. ..." 
And we shudden-d with him -at Knit. Then we perceived the 
•ubtle Battery that lies in giving the reader a particularly 
|r •'. It implic*s that his imagination 

i* . thai il ne<-ds no coars*-, material 

aid*. He will listen and reflect and swallow bis loathing, anil 
aay. " I »«•  mean." 

WiM-n I' > ii-halred angel left I ho ordinary novel, the 

Ofleoaiveljr manly hero left it too, and took refogo in the his- 
torical one. Ah. Iht* historical one, what a visltatiim for sin it 
ean be ! Hnw wi.n «e know its dialogue '. This is the way il is 
dene. I -r writes, •• Do you know that .Mrs. Brown, 

the drji<t < brukeii her ana? " Now, this will not do 

at all. Bnt only pal it "Wot ye that Misiix^s Brown, the roere<>r's 
lady, hath fractured a limb?" Tliere yod have it -historical '. 



Then the strength of tho hero ! The ease with which he picks 
up the llve-foot-eight heroine " like an infant ! *' She re»iste«i 
a while, but then, methinks, it pleased her well to l>e thus hold 
against my heart." The suxirdsmanship of him, when he di-^arms, 
one after another, a riMimfnl of " the best blades in Eurojie ! " 
Kxcept in some half-a-tloM-n cas<>s which do not nee<l ((uoting. 
I give up the historical novel. It is only in its artless pages 
that the ferociously virile being is met with. In the casual 
novel of genuinely " uHKlern " tyiKS the hero has more often the 
j>cr«»»»iW of the average ("ity clerk. He is aniernic, s|H!Ctacle<l, 
round-shouUlei-eil. He ap|M-als to every subtle sense and disdains 
the eoalheaver's recommendation of brute force. Tho lady 
uiakes uj) for hini. She is a modest and muscular type of young 
gentlemanhoo«l. She is usually a little affronted at the notion of 
marriage with the hero, but i-egards hiai as a lield for delicate 
ex|>eriment, finally leaving him a sadder and a wiser man, after 
marrying sonielxKly t-lse and Ix-ating him in a cricket match and 
the I>indon Tri|K>s. All of which shows a sound grasp of the 
tendency of the age. 

There are sides to the modern novel which I have no room' 
to touch on here. But the ))articulur crimen allegetl against it 
by votei-.nis of l>oth sexes, who read no Action but |>opnlar bio- 
graphy and tho newspaiwrs, are all to be found to this day. Only 
you must l<x»k for them in the yearly output of certain men and 
women (more fre<|tienUy the latter) who once delighted the 
world with the mild love-affairs of some pre|)osterous but 
engaging young people, and go on, year after year, trading on 
an ancient " name," in pathetic oblivion of the facts that the 
marriage begins the misunderstandings now, instead of ending 
them ; that Angelina should be a lecturer on biology and a 
little repulsivc-l<K>king, if she is to attract ; that the feudal 
peasant, with his "the squire's little lad.v— bless her kind heart ! 
She never forgets old Giles," has given place to tho slightly 
indelicate humorous rustic as comic relief — and many other facts. 
In short, these writers can hardly be called " mo<lern " at all. 

To every age its own tolly and a little more accuracy — 

esiK-ciallv in criticism. 

ALKK HKRBKKT. 



WALTER PATER. 



At last we are lo have an cWi/ioti c/c /ii.vc ui Walter Pater. 
The six years which have passed since his too early death have 
not Ik-imi cai-eful of Ills memory. He stands outside the ordinary 
caU'gories ol classilicat ion. A critic, yes; but not in the 
deliljerate, ditUictic fasliiiin in which Matthew .Vriiold instructed 

thechildi of this woi-ld in tlie counsels of the children of 

light. He forlK>re .\rnold's privilege of Judgment. He was less 
judge than interpi-etcr. His was the faculty of disengaging the 
evidence till the witnes»o-s express<»d themselves in the logical 
order of their thought. He brought elusive facts to utterance, 
lalMtnring at them, detail by detail, jwint after point. One 
after another they emergi-d from the misis, shilling in their 
divers coloiii-s. bill hariiioniously iiiform<-<l with the common 
light that reveals them. 

It follows that Pater can never Im- a popular critic. The 
current jargon of criticism offendiHl his fastidious taste. Hi> 
vocabulary was full of curiously arresting words, ti-mis which 
stretch into the distance, and awake a f<s'ling of pers|ie<'tive. 
He mixed his palette with half-sha<le-., a purple at once nnl and 
blue, a gn'y in preference to black or white, a primrose neither 
green nor yellow. And in token of this susiieiidcil judgment 
and subtle extension of phrase. Paler esi>e<-ially chose for study 
 III- |>eri«Mls indicating transition. Thi' dawn of Christianity iik 
Pagan Koine. thc« birth of Cioi-ilaiin Biiino in miHlieval Kuro|w. 
the s|»ecnlations of Plato— so Attic, yet so Pauline — the linki 



July 28, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



59 



iK'twiMMi cIsiHticimn and romnnHclHiii, th<>>«< mark tli<» nfllnlli' ' 
Pater's miml. wliicli dwfU In Ii-hh nrdnouH hours on kindn-d i 
of intiTprctation — tli«> ixx-rnH of CoIorldKC or Hos-m-tti, th« in.ulis 
of Dionysus or Dt>uH't<'r. 

Pntor, <lii>ii. Is hard to road. Pap' afliT pafirii niiiy I)" 
turnod, nnd nothing fjaiiiod by tho f-xorclst'. Ho luis " ntino- 
siilioro" — that not dollnnhio (|nnntity whloh Macanlny, for 
iiistaiK'o, ollniinatod from his mmlcl lonomontx kiml of i»tylt«-- 
i-ach sontoni'i" a rompact rcooiitaolo for llio sonlimont It oon- 
laiiiod. Pator was not compact. Tho rich cadcnct> of his 
tncaiiiuK mwcIIs IhrouKli his pat'os like vals<>-music, till tho 
reader Is nia/i'd with melody, nnd loses the lltne in the tune. 
Yet this sensitive faculty for the shlfliuK hues ..f the thiiiR ««'ii. 
this power to expren-s- or, rather, to impress- the shallows of 
the f\eld and sea, as the sun and wind and eloiids pass over 
them, which Pater possessed so eminently, has dowered litera- 
ture with a treasuro-hons<> of i)lirases. Well ni(;h a new 
lanKuaRO was coini>il by Pater in his careful s«'Iection of 
epithets. The " discre<'t and scrupulous simplicity " of 
Aurellus; the "wistful lolenince" of Monlaipiio ; the "Rnicious 
unction " of medieval I^tiu pstiimody ; the " tnnndluous ricli- 
ness " of (ioelhe's eulluro ; the "jtreat meekness of the 
jiraceful, wil<l creature, tamod at last," of SliakOHpoare's 
Kli'haril II.; Ijamh's readiness "to teach the lllllo arts of 
ha))pInoss " ; t'oleridpre, wllli his " passion for the absolute, his 
raininess, his broken memory, his intellectual dls(|uiet " ; 
Honsard's poetry. In which thlnfis become at once " more deeply 
sensuous and more deeply ideal " ; Wordsworth's " sudden 
passaRo from lowly thouphts and places to tho majestic forms 
of philosophical imagination, tho play of these forms over a 
world so diHerent, eiilarRluK so stran|;ely the bounds of its 
humble churchyards, and breakinR such a wild litht on tlie 
praves of christened children "- -there is an individuality, an 
unconventionalKy, in (heso descriptive passages which stamps 
Pater's criticism as unii|ne. The critic's snprouic function— to 
help us to ivad well is rtilllllod. 

.\dd to this skilful luipi-esslonlsm Pater's ic--e nf iiniiL'inallvo 
lauKuapc. W'c road of Gaston do Latonr : — 

In the sudden ti'omor of an ajjctl voice, i 111- ii.iiiiiurjf; im ;i 
forgotten toy, a cliildish drawiii!;, in the tacit observance of a 
(hiy. lie l)ei'amo awais' suddenly of the great stream of human 
tears falling always through the shadows of the world. 
Wo ai-o told of Botticelli that his character was the 

result of a blending in liimofa sympathy for hiniinnityin Its 
uncertain condition, its attractiveness, its investiture at rarer 
moments In a character of loveliness and energy, with his 
consciousness of the shadow upon It of the great things from 
which it shrinks. 
Or, as a last ranilom Illustration, t.ike this siMitoiice from 
the essay on Sir Thomas Browne - 

The really stirring poetry ol -.< hh,  i-. mn m -m --s,-^ i.r 
facile divinations about it, but in its large ascertained truths 
the order of Intlnite space, the slow methwls and vast results 
of infinite time. 

Is there not in (heso phrases a trac<' of what Paler dcflneil 
as iho perfection of lyrical .style, depending, in part, on " a 
certain su|>pressIon or vagueness of mere sidjject, so that the 
meaning reaches us througli wiiys n"! ■Ii--ini.-ily traceable by 
the nndei-standing " ? 

Pater, the imaginatlv(- impre-.>i.iiii-.i , hi- many explicit 
precepts for lh(< guidance of iniinirers. A few of them may bo 
collected here : — 

To dis<'rimina(e schools of art, of llli>ralure, is, fif course, 
|mrt of (he obvious business of literary crillcism ; but . . . 
In Irulli, tho legitimate contention is, not of one ago or school 
of literary art against another, but of all successive schimls 

alike against the stupidity which is dead to il"' -nlwin , ni.l 

the vulgarity which is dead to tho form. 

The liasis of all artistic genius lies In the |>o«<i- i.f cmi- 
eoivlng linmanKy in a now and striking way, of p\itling:t 
happy world of its own creation in place of the nwaner world 



... M'lectin(;, tmnafnmiliiK, rroom- 
' tninwniitK. 
Ni.l to .1 'e every 

altitude in III' ii aw Is. 

sun, to ide«>p iM-forc evening. 

This review of PnU-r'x claim- k. ..•.,-, ... ...,.- 

eluded by n brief examination of hi* Mielho<l. IIU raiMy on 

Wor«l(iworlh, in the " A|>i" 'te*! 

to thlH puritow*. Pater ih's 

essential di i|ia- 

canling the ; the 

distinction " Im'Iw.smi higln-r ami limi-r nr v In 

the poet's |M>rceplIiin of his subject, and in hi ii i>f 

himself upon his work." A couple of )iagiit an» then tievotod 
to " the duality iH'lweon higher and lower moutbi, and the xntrk 
done In them," of which Wordsworth was so shininK "n oiamplo. 
Thns Pater sfnick on tho very thretthoM of hU tiMk the xprlDgt 
of Wordsworth's induenre. Thono who iindiTKo It. he leltii a*. 
" are like people who have passed tin .... ^^^ ^ 

ilLirlplInn (iri'diii. by submitting to which ully 

able to distinguish in ait. spe<»ch, fei'ling, lu.. 
is organic, animated, expr<>s.tlve from lli 
ilorlvatlve, conventional, inexpressive." ^ 
of Wordsworth's mind anil art. There w:i 

are told, in tho flawl«»>ts Pateros<|ue style, " a certain content- 
ment, a sort of inborn religious placidity." which, combined 
with the " simiewhat monotonous spaces " of hin life to nutniv a 
" quite unusual s<>nslhility, n>ally innate in hira, to tt ^ - ' • 
and sounds of tho natural world — the flower and its s! 
tho stone, the cuckoo and its m-Iio." Tin 
critic wont on, Wordsworth approache<l tho 
life: " by riising nature to tho level of huma' 
it [Kiwor anil expi-ession ; ho sulMlues man to i 
and gives him thon>by a certain bn-adth, ami anil 

solemnity." Tho last six words will again lie r. „ .| »». 
characteristically. Pater's. They are pictorial, allusive, 
scholarly, ivcalling to a full mind tho gracious pleaMincpii of 
llteratun> frora Virjtll's " latls otla fundis " to Tennyson'i 
" English homo ... a haunt of ancient p!»ace." Pater's 
methiMl is of no n.>)C for " cram." His students must brln^ to 

their tusk a sympathetic  ' ' " -s of 

Soi-rates they must be will iho 

longer road In the pur- .t"* 

guidance, we roach th not 

stood on thecritics'1'i-.gahcoulil liavi- ,-sennon: 

t'ontomplation - impassioneil i , ; i* with 

Wordsworth tho end-!n-itsclf, the jiorfoct end. Wo see the 
m.ajority of mankind going most often to definite ends, lower 
or higher ends, as their own Instincts may determine. . . . 
Meantimo . . . they move too often with -^ .if a 

.sad conntenanco ... it bi>ing possible for ib>> 

pursuit of even great ends, to l»ccoine ll- 
impoverlsluHl in spirit and temiM'r, thus d 
of |K>rfix'tIon in the world, at its vorj 
this protlominancc of machinery in our i- 

IHietry . . . is a continual protest. .Justify rather the 
end by tho means, it seems to say ; whatever may become of 
Iho fruit, make sure of tho flowers and the leaves. . . . 
That the end of life is not action but contemplation— bcini; as 
distinct from doini;,— a certain disposition of the mind, is, in 
some sha|M> or other, the principle of alt the higher morality. 
. . . To treat life in tlie spirit of art is to make life a 
thing in which means and • 
such treatUHMil, tho true moi 

KiTe-and-twvniy years or more have pa.vs<><l since tho first 
apiwamnce of thisessay. Wonisworth has been mlitod, noviewxHl, 
epitomized, pntnuiized, and taught. Studies as illuminating a.s 
M. liogouis' volume on tlio " Prelude." lalmnrs as tirelens as 
.Mr. Knight's, have lioen exiiended on tlu- poet. Yet, I vontupe 
to doubt, writing from no \  Min? 

of tlH> subject, if anything •, ■<jf\i 

published as (his holiday t;i.sli o( ili«,' Br.i.seuuM.' rcclu-M^. 

8 



60 



LITERATURE. 



[July 28, 1900. 



The *' Woittoworth " i* but on<» <«H<ny in a volun>o of eleven 
" Appraeiationa " : the "A: nt " but one of nvp 

Yolaaw of o<imIly rnlnriblo  and to tlioso are to bo 

•ddod ; '- 'I '!i'' ' 'I '■( Pater's 

life. S .... .'.lU'UUIl' tul.'H'" ''■• /"\.' 

ahoald be followed by a bandy volume of laelectioni. 

LAURIE MAiiM:>. 



THE STORY OF THE CLARENDON PRESS. 




SERVICE has lioon ronilorod to the Htuilrnt of t.V|)o- 
graphy, a« woll as to Oxfonl I'liivor^ity, by Mr. 
Horaoe Hart's ImlustriouH rr>!t(>arclios among tin' 
reconUt of the Clarpmlon Prpss, and tbo compilation 
of his ratalofruo of the ancient printinj: material 
iKmu. i-*cu I)olonf:iii£ to that institution. When, in 1883, Mr. 

«wJlL.V!!i!L . Hart was apitointed printer to the University 
— or archity|>o<:raphus, as ho would have iMH'n 

calletl in earlier days — he found the old ly|H?5t, niiitriooH, 

and punches resting from their I:i1>nnrs in a m(>hiiii<holy 

condition of nut and con- 

fOaiofl. He took them In 

band, arranged, classiflml, and 

cleanaed every part, and 

adopted means to presen-o 

them from further damage, the 

result being that the most 

interesting typographical col- 
lection «e iMMsesM is now kept 

in  worthy alike of the 

I'l. and the oldest 

foundry «■{ whi<-h the conntry 

ran Imnsf. To put the col- 
ic der much research 

w;i ry and some record 

desirable. " The record having 

been made," writes Mr. Hart, 

" it Deemed a pity to leave it 

In a rough state, partly 

manuscript and partly print "; 

and so, in the end, he 

prepared a volume of " Notes 

on a Century of Tyjw- 

graphy at the University 

Frew, Oxford, 1003-171M," 

which he has just pro- 
duced with annotations and 

appendixes. In many cases the 

old types themselves haveliocn 

used t" " H'o the Press " Sjx-ciim'iis i~»iii'(i (iiiiiiif; itic 

|«eriod icw, and a rare assortment of devices and orna- 

ni' 

tl< 

P. 

8,- 




Tb» ftlOTTe inilirtmtinn- T*pr<i<1no».f1 fr"i!i Mr Hnrt'" V 
he Oricin of ■' '"  ' '■ " ' 

in ITO 1 
t«n block* rem.' 

llHit.tL.. ,.f Wv, ,._, „; Ji,.,, 



yt f m Sbiiufmm 



W^anM 






I initial letters, is included among 
vhy the " Century of Oxford 
1704 is that no printed 
iK'fore the earlier, and 
none, apparently, after the later date. In those days, as in 

these (explains Mr. Hart in his pri>- 
fntory notcts), a printing house 
issued typo specimens in order 
that authors might bo able to 
c suitable characters In 
their works c<ndd lK>printe«l; 
uliilc a ly|K! fmindry issued im- 
|ir<"'-.!"n'< fnun typ'^s fi> k|iow what 
The Ox- 
I • irlytimes 

I ig house and tyjs! foun- 

ii; , ....; .;-i s|>eci mens were proba- 
bly printed for the first reason only. 
_^ •'14fi8.' 

Tbo Press began its work 
w SaSSM^'SS^Mir""" at Oxford, bowover, more than 



mttt^omumnA 









" S,«i^l . H • •»« • ' 



two centuries before the earliest date of Mr, Hart's record. The 

story Is extremely !■ il, with a press from 

Cologne, was Caxlon'- I rival in England, and, 

indeed, protlucotl a book bearing a date, which, on the face of if, 
was printed nine years licfore Caxton's " Dictes of the Philo- 
sophers." The battle which has been ^^'agod about the date of 
the " 1408 " volume (the treatise of Tyrannius Ruflnus on the 
Apostles' Creed, here ascribed to St. Jerome) is an oft-told 
talc, and has led to almost as many arguments us have been 
put forward in the older controversy as to whether printing was 
" invented " in Holland or (Jennany. The opinion of most 
authorities, including Uradshaw and blades, is tiiut 1408 is an 
error for 1178 (an X having ilropiietl oiil of" MCt'Ct'LXXVIII."). 
M. Madati, writing in 181(5, sums up the position as follows : — 

Caxton, who begun to print in England in 1477, nowhere 
claims to have introduced printing into England. Is it still 
conceivable that Oxford preceded Westminster by nine years ? 
The answer is that it is still con<-<!ivable, but not probable. 
The ground has been slowly and surely giving way beneath 
the defenders of the Oxfonl date, in proportion to the advance 
of our knowlcilge of early printing, and all that can be said is 

(hat it has not yet entirely 
slipped away. 

Caxton's Oxford rival did 
not trouble him long, for the 
Press in the University town 
suddenly ceased operations in 
1480, u1>out the same time that 
the printing by the mysterious 
sclioolmaster at St. Alban's 
came to an end. 

Lkickhtkh, Laud, ami Fk.i.i,. 

Twenty-one years ensued 
untl then, for a period of aliout 
fiiurteen months, printers fron> 
abroad weit' again at work at Ox- 
ford, though thefact is virtually 
ignored by the registers of the 
University. The suppression of 
the Oxford Press by Wolsey led 
to another long interval of in- 
activity ; it was not until ISS."! 
that the Press was |)ernianently 
i"itablisliod. " Lat<' in the reign 
of Elizal)eth," writ«>s Ingram in 
liis "Memorials of Oxfonl, ""the 
Earl of Leicester, being then 
Chancellor of tho University, 
hud the good sense and spirit 
to revive and reorganize its in pogr.iphy. Its sole expense, a new 
press, was erecftnl ; a lit person was siKi-ially appointed printer 
to tho University ; and in l.'>85 came forth [in Latin] the first 
fruits of the establishment, ' Moral Questions upon Aristotle's 
Ethics,' by .lohn Case, Fellow of St. .lohn's ; dedicated, with 
great propriety, to the Chancellor." From that date tho press 
was kept in constant work, and Ix-foro the close of the sixteenth 
century .Itm-ph Barnes, tho " fit person " referred to, had 
published between seventy and eighty books, " many of thein <if 
high character and most of them res|)ectabie in their style of 
execution." The charter of privileges in 1(5:12 gave the Uni- 
versity direct control of the printing, but as yet there are few 
signs of actual academical interest or interference, and the 
various printers were still left to exercise their trade in hired 
buildings. The groat patron of the Press at this jH'rIod was 
Archbishop Laud, who wtis virtually the tlrst to encourage the 
University to raise the estalilishiiient Into a great national 
Institution. With the downfall of Land came the RelH-llion, 
with its numbing inlluence upi>n learning ; and the Oxford Press 
bad some didlculfy In holding its ground. Then Bishop Fell, 
tho hero of the imuiortui epigruin.came to the rescue, and, taking 
up the work lM>gun by Laud, <'hecked every attempt which was 
made by its rivals to reduce its importance. In tho Civil Wars 



n" mn«!# f<»f Vol. I. of 
' ' * "■ *"" - ndon 



• fiily 



's^ innn 



UTKHATI^RK. 



fif 



Dr. Fill lion- iH-iiis I'nr the KiiiK in Mi<- ^ariisim of f)\ruril, 
rocfiviiif; (•(•(•loMliiMtiiMl proniotion aftor tlio |{r"ttiir;ition, Im c 
VloP-CIuim-cllor (if tli.« I'nivorslty ill Klfln. It whm in KKMllli;.! 
Iii> prcsoiili'd soiiif of till' sets of tyix-s wliicli, «IIIi (lie (;i-iii>riiiH 
KiTIh of Junius, Inid (lio roiiiitlntinn at tlx- Oxfonl I'liivt-rxity 
Koiiiidry iih it exists fivday. Fi'll workiil Imrd mid K'IVk larjin 
MiimM of inntiny for tho dovolopmoiif of I ho Press, lH>lh in iinprov- 
inK its moolmnicnl rosourcos niid providing it witli scholarly 
editions of nlnxsirnl nnd other works. Tho liiisinoss pros|wred, 
and nftor Ix^inp; enrri(>d on for sonio years in the old Mouse of 
t'onprepjation in St. Mary's C'hiireh was removed to the fl(s>r of 
the Kheldonian, where it had its home until 1713. 

Mr.IIaut'h Book. 
This brinits us to tho |x>riod dealt with liy Mr. Horiiee Hurt 
ill his " Century of Ty|x>Kiiiphy." It is well known that the 
earliest Oxford printing was exeeuted from ehar.ic-ters brought 
from Oolojine, and when Fell and Junius wer<> siM-kiiiK foi" tyjies 
in the seventeenth century tliey sent, accoiiliiiK to Fell's own 
slutement, to (Jeniiany, Fraiwe, nnd Holland for them. By a 
happy diseovi'ry Mr. Hart is able to dispose of all conjectures 
as to wliere most of the Fell types were purchased. Ho hat 
recently had his iittonliou directed to a number of letters 
and other documents in tho Ilawlins<in collection in the 
Bodleian Library l)carinK directly on the subject. For tlio 
most part tho correspondence consists of letters written 
by I)r, Marshall, then preach<>r to the Knp^lish merchants 
in Hollaiiil (afterwards Dean of Gloiicostor), whom Dr. Fell 
entru!ited with a special commission to buy punchcii — or 
" punctioiis," as Marshall calls them - matrices, and 
(yiK) for the University. The letters are written to his 
" worthily-honoured " master, and bound up with them 
ai'e certain dnifts which ap]>eiir to bo rough outlines 
of Dr. Fell's own letters in reply. Tho corresiwndenco 
tl<>scribes MurshaU's troubles with the Dutch punch- 
ciittei-s and typo-foun<lors, and the Dean's elTorls to 
induce a letter-founder and several conipositoi-s to come to 
Oxfortl. In ono letter he declan>s that if it would hasten 
matters he " would lake up with tho Dutch height." 
This, as Mr. Hart observers, nccoiinis for tho un-ICnKlish 
" height. " of the I'larendon Press type, which has been 
a source of I i-ouble ever since its introduction. Scvenil 
b'tters to Samuel Clarke, the llrsi Arcliityp<if;raphus to the 
I "niversity, are added to illustrate I he ditllculties which Fell •■ 
experienced rcKurdiiiK ly|M- bought in London. The |iunclies 
and matrices ivniainiiig in the Oxford Type Foundry are for the 
most part kept in the ori;;inal oak boxes, forty-six of which were 
"discreetly" repaired in 18i)l. Mr. Hart undertook n formid- 
able task when he decided to put the whole collection of the 
foundry in order. He tells us that in addition to tracing;, 

classifying, and arranging alpha- 
betically (so far as was pnictic- 
alile) more than 7,(HM) matrices, all 
the corresponding punches still in 
existence have l)een indeiitilled by 
llttingthem into the matrict's. Kvery- 
iMidy will echo Mr. Hurt's sentinienls 
in hoping that these relics of early 
Oxford benefactors, or survivals of 
rniversity purchases in past cen- 
turies, " will never again be degrade<I 
by neglect to the deplorable con- 
dition from which they have at 
length lM>en rescued." In all 
there are 7,('>;i2 mulrices and 
2,000 punches. What their ori- 
ginal cost was is not known with 
certainty, but Dr. Fell gives some 
idea of the amount when ho says 
that, between 1072 and 1079 the 
" imprimcry " had been " furnisht 
1 at the expenco of above tour thou- 

to pL^'teri'ii! -iior»>.V ik.ii. sand ijoiind." 



TiiK Ci.Aiit:»iJO<< Hi iijiiNMi. 



^;:i^,: *•. Kit HAPS 

' ■; '/A the (>\! 






»fTI 1 

(.so: 



r KISR 
N M A 1. 1. 



|H)av u( carryinjc on ilJi p 
the li«u«f< of the Clar.-'-i 
from the Sheldouian 
new printing hon 
of that year. '1 
was de  



Iba 



Broad-sf r«H't, 

with Ovford known i 

settled u|M>n th< 

was left to the :>■ 

Blackstone to pn; 

is little but pni.L 

business iiicn-asing l>ey<ind the < 

house, n 111..1.. " .^ I..,. I.. I., ii 

street . 



work. Ti 
y to ref<it' . 
:i|Niciti)"i of tii> 
'■■oMil line buildiii, 





DrsrdN ON t;K\KKsr: >ii»r or 

nKlOINAL WOdlH 1.-T KOU tiNK OF 
THK |-LOWKK'l» I.KlTVKs. 13 
LINES PH-\. I'SKI) AT LKAST AH 
lAKLV AS \kyd IS O-VroKP 
PRINTISll. 
"The etl^jmriiij; n-:i- jv^'ih'y fho 




a  I 



TIIK OLD CIJlRKNnoN i'HUw 

Oxroitii Binux ami Imiia P.vi-iai. 

The nunio of the Oxfortl PrcsM is, of coitT'x bly 

connected with the trade in BiblCM. Aa mo arc 

»wai"e, tho Reviwsl Version is tho joint i>rojnTi\ -m ihc 
Universities of Oxford aiid Cambridge, which voted £2n,W)0 
to the ex|ienses of publiA-ation, but the < ' ' ^ of thai 

Authoriir.e<l Ver-.ion and of tho Book of C"' ^vcr arc 

vested ill the Crown, authority to print ' 

licing granted by charter to <>\f<>r<l ami «' 
sities and by licence to 
of the trade in Oxford Bibi' 
now averages alx^ut a million complete co| 
large numliers of New Testaments, M-mrir.- 
Bibles. There is a shipment of Im'i 
week to the Unitetl Stutcii, where p. i....v^i 
their appreciation of the Oxford edition by > 
reproduced p;ige by page by i " 
agti, howe\er, the UniverNity *il> 
th.' 
Bi 

ing that th< - 
printer's err< 
Bible. The bill forth. 

ayear, though there ail 

altogether, and tho mistakes are rarely more ^ u * 

dropped letter. Tho archaisms, " Bewray " and ..-. t-d," 

have involvetl world-wide correspontluncc with applicants who 
seek in rain tor the guinea reward. Tho Oxford India paper kaa 

8-^ 



LITKKATURE. 



[July 28, 1900. 



ri'voliinoiiiznl tlio Btblo and Prmjrer-book (nulo, and ia Iho 

>.|" ' l.tn>nd«>n I'ri'ju*. Tlic story of iu dlst-tivory 

l» j..-> ...... .-. ;.-,... al in(orc»t, as on Au(ni'<t -♦ 'h"^ niyKtoriout 

|i«|icr will tic a qnart«r of a cvnlury old. Sixty od<l yisim ngo nii 

l>sford {;racl > " ' ! ' i with a xiimll fold of ))U|K<r, 

remarkably; - o|iai|u<< and lou^h. Ho pn-- 

M! ^, and a f«>\v BMiIoh, half 

II' .As miicli as £20 (•a<-li 

» " cojiii-a wvrc nold. One wa» pn-M-Mitod 

t.. , . !S 

«rn» made lot race I ho |ia|ior 
to its Bonroe. Kvon Mr. 
(tiadstonc «raa astkcd if ho 
could throw any light on tho 
matter, and ho iiuggo«to<l a 
aeareh in .la|Kin ; but thonph 
a l>at>or thin and toui;h 
enough W3'> 
xna too trai 

init of priming on lK>lh 
Nide«. Tho doan-h wtis gra- 
dnally abandoiioti and tho 
|wper limt sight of until a 
copy of the book roachod 
the handit of Mr. Frowdo. 
Thin ^T« in 1874 ; Mr. 
Krowde had only taken over 
the management of tho 
London bnsinem of tho 
Clarendon Press at the dose 
oC the preceding year ; and 
experiments wore at onoo 

xtarted at the Wolvercoto Mills, two miles away on 
tho rirer from Oxford, with the object of manufactur- 
ing a similar paper. After several failures came success, 
and on August 25th, 1875, an edition of the Bible was 
published himilar in every respect to tho two dozen cot)ies 
pr 1M2. A quarter of a million copies wcro sold within 

a I X" workman at the Wolvercoto Mills is allowed to 

u'i stage of the process of manufacture. 

Tl . • .,- 

ni- ii ■ry. Tho mills 

tht !;--•, 1\L -., it should bo 
added, have a history. Thry 
date back to the period of 
Dr. Fell, who encourapoil 
the Hit  
by Ml 




THE PlUMEIiT RUILDDla IN 1»ALTt)N BTBEET, OXFORD. 




Ol' of in 
til' -, and 
had a talent in maps, al- 
though done with his left 
hand." " Home of the best 
pa- -  - '• •  • 
ni. 
« .' 

i:. 

•taii4U liti(liL>r (hiiii ever (' 
day. 

.\ t{ia.r-CoNTAiMaj Inktitutiuk. 
~-iiig the University ProHH and mindful <'i ns nij^nii^ 
house is a vast biuiinosii concern which easily huc- 

. Il rivalHllio Iinjiriniorio 

l,<Tfi iif |{<.rlin, without 

4 its 

,|HT, 

_. electro- 

.md lusik- 

I the ntwiiiatciial ; 

. ..., .....Li-ent tongues — each 



i. '. ; 

as such, the 

ccvdsinkw: 

Nationale < 

b:. 

<r. 

tl ' 

binding." I 

^inil iT liriii' 



rN|nlring a ae|iarato kind of ty|ie — without reckoning tho count- 
less languages and dialects for which lioman ty|>e serves. In 
Ijtmdon the publishing lMisines.s is conducted by Mr. Kruwde, who 
also ctHilrols Iho bindery in Aldorsgat<>-street, whore the skins 
of upwiirdx of 1IK),IMK) atiinials «r«< us«h1 every ye.ir to cover 
Oxford Kililf^ alone. To lett<-r the liacks of the volumes tltO.INH) 
shct'ls of gold-leaf arc niN'tli'<l, and a iiiucli l:irg<'r i|ii:inlity is 
uwmI ill gilding the edges. Mr. Kmwdo was u|<|ioinled " Publisher 
to tho University" in 188(1, when the Delegates of i lie I'n-ss 

transferred their classical 
and learned publicatioiih — 
befoi-e lliat date issued by 
Messrs. Macmillan — to thoir 
own warehouse in London. 
The following olllcial nolo 
in the " Literary Year- 
Book " is worth quoting: — 
" The cMirious in biblio- 
graphical matters ai-e often 
striu-k by the lliii-c difTei-ent 
iiupriiils under wliicli the 
(liffiTenl works of lli<> Press 
ap|H-ar : 'Oxforil: Printed 
at the University Pi-css,' 
' London : Henry Ki-owde,' 
and ')..ondon: Henry 
Frnwde, Oxford University 
Press Warehouse,' and 
:igaiii, ' Oxford : At the 
t'larcnd'in Press Ware- 
house.' The lirst imprint is 
that found on I ho title pages 
of Bibles, Prayer-books, and other works issued and authorize<l by 
the delegates ; the second marks all such works (tho ' luiitatio ' 
for instance) issued by Mr. Krowde with the sanction but not 
necessarily with the authorization of the delegates ; and tho 
thin! comprises siH>cially erudite works, such as Skeat's 'Ety- 
mological Dictionary'; Skeat's •Chaucer'; the 'Oxford 
English Dictionary ' ; and the ' Sacred Books of the East," 
edited by Max Mflller, &c." At the last Paris Exhibition 

the Oxford Press received 
the t J rand Prix, and on the 
present occasion ithasthrct! 
sopamto cxhibit.s, liesidcs 
sharing in the collective dis- 
play made by tho British 
Publishers' Association. 

Some of the bindings exhi- 
bited have cost as much as 
.tCill each, and it has Ik-cii 
announced that ini|>ortant 
purchases have been made, 
by iH'|ii'es<'ntalives of a con- 
siderable riuml)er of science 
and art museums to add to 
their collections. 

'I'lIK DKI.K<iA'ri'>i .\M> IMl 
DUTIONAIIV. 

The present delegalos 
 if the Press with their 
(illlcial descriptions arc em 
lollows: Dr. 'I'liiMJi;!- KohIci-. I'n-sideiit of Oirpus (Vico-Chan- 
eelhir) ; Ingram By water, Student of Christ Church ; Kir 
William Markby, D.C.L., Fellow of All S<miIs and lialliol ; 
William Slubbs, D.D., Luil Bishop of Oxford ; David H. .Monro, 
ProV(«t of Oriel ; anil F. York Powell, Fellow of Oriel (|M'r|H'tiiHl 
ilelcgates) ; Henry P. (Jerrans, Fellow of Worci'st4?r ; William 
Sunday, D.D., ('anon of Christ Chiircli ; .lolin K. Magrath, D.D., 
Provost of Qiie^m's; Charles L, .Sliailwi'll, D.C.L., Hon. Fellow of 
Oriel (ap|K)int<Hl for seven years). The Sfi-relary is Mr. Charles 
Cannan, Trinity, It is to the lasting credit o( the delegates that 



.lulv "JH. I :)()(). I 



MrF.ijA'ri'i?!:. 



63 



I licy iiiiiiiisii, Ion I III' I II I II 11 1 III I lie |ailt;<la|;<' uiiil liiiiMniri' i>i i in' 
codiitry, niiiiiy I>imiI»?« which iMiiiiot (NmNilily iirovi' rcitiiiiK-rttivi- ; 
whcrt" priifllH (MTiir the stir|iliis in niiiti-ilniti'il In Iho I'liivi-rxity 
chc'sl f(ir tho KcliiT.il |iiif|iONi'N of the I'liivrrxily, Thi' " \i-iv 
KiiKli**!) Dii'tiiifiiiry," th<< IiihI vnltiiiic n( whii'h Dr. Mm 
to piililish ill IINDS, it iiiiiloiiliti'illy lhi> criMtrsI ciilfi'i' 
iiiiilri'tiikiMi liy llii> Cliirfiiihiii l'ri>MN ; jitiil, in i'iiiicIiinjimi, »<■ 
<-:iiiiii)t iln iM'ttcr llcin i|Uiili- tho fnllowiiiK |iii>i<t.a((i' rruiii th«> 
li-ailinc iii'lii-lc wliicli 7Vi<- 7'JiiirM ilt'voti'il lo Uw Dictloiiiiry Uiiiiii-r 
'v,.„ ;,( ()xf(.i-il ill 1W)7 : 

Such II uiirk cdiilil not, inilci-d, liavc Imtii well iiiHlci-liikcn 
liy .my jii-iviilc individual, liowcvcr lone liis |>iii-h(< or linwrvcr 
ardent hit zral. . . . But IhiHisjiot the mTvico whi<'h a 
Kii'iit riiivcr!.ity can and, wc think, oiikIiI to do for science 
and iearniiiK. I* has the rei|nisite pii-stiKe in the world of 
letters; it can coniinalid, as in tliis case it has coniinanded, the 
services of williii); and (|iialiH(Hl worki'i-s, who ask for little 
reward heyond the lioiioiir of tnkiiiK jiart in a K"'i'' work. 
And when if has also at coniinalid, iis the I'niversity of Oxford 
hiift In the ('larendon Pi^-ss, n lii(;lily-e<|iii|)ped and well- 
inanafred printing; and piililishiiiK estalilishineiit, it is master 
of the situation. The lilii'i-.il and enli;;lileiied inanaKenient, 
with an eye to the best intercvsts of leariiin^j as well an lo coin- 
inercial proltt, that has now for many yoiii-s marked the 
iidiniliislration of the < 'larendon Press, is si;;iially illustrated 
liy the encoiirap;emeiil Kiv<'ii and the facijitii-s provided for 
carrying; out the work of compiling this pri'at dictionary. 
. . . The apoloj^isls of I'niversities are entitled, we think, 
lo point to siieh a work as the "Oxford Knf;lish Dictionary" in 
answer to the r|ii(>stioii, What are yini doinj; to encoiiniK*' 
louriiinB and i-pseai-ch ? . . . Such pn<-onra^remrnt of suliil 
liibonr and genuine research as the Tniversity can fjive hy 
subsidizing the production of unreuiuiierative works of |)er- 
iiianeiit viiliie may after all Im\ not perhnps the only, but at 
pr(<scnt the more <>xcelleiiV way. 




irNIVEIWITY ARMS A8 TAU, PIKt'P. 1796 SixiiiKn. 
iKioni Mr. Iliul « B<K<k | 



THACKERAY AND THE STAGE. 



[KK(»M A COUHESI'ONDENT.I 
Mrs. Kiske, the .\nierican actress, has Im-cii playing Becky 
Sharp, and it is slateil thai there is some probability of Mis.s 
Mario Tempest followiiij; her example. Thackeray, so far, has 
not made the fortune of any llieatrical manajferx. Mr. .1. .M. 
liarrie's »ine-act settiiif; of " Vanity Kair " wiis priMliiced some 
years ago, but is now forfiotten. " Ksmond " has Imm-ii mmmi on 
the staf?e, and Mr. K. V. Biiriianil has put " ,Mr. .leaiiies de la 
IMuche " on tho boards and u version of " The Koso and the 
King" ran for about a month at the Prince of Wales' some 
years ap>. But tho works of Thackeray, unlike thost> of DickiMis, 
do not apparently lend themselves to this form of adaptation. 
Although the stng<>, with its environnuMit, is not uiifrtH|iiently 
iiitroiliiceil in his stories. Thackeray's dramatir instinct was not, 
stron;;ly dev«>loi)ed, tlioiij;li he hiinsolf iH'lieved that proof would 
Ih- found in his posthumous works that he coulil writ4> tra^''''.'*- 
Dickens has to his cii'dit some half-do/x-n plays (farcical in 
character), which mot with a certain degixH' of success, while 
Thack<'ray's attempts in this direction wei-o oven more limitofl. 
Tho littlo one-act burlesciue King (i{Hiiipii.s w-.»s r«'pr»KluitHl in 
facsimile in 18i)8 by Mr. W. T. S|)eiiccr. Mr. Melville, in his 
life of •Tliackci-ay, records tho discovery made by Mr. C P. 



.l..|lli^.il. ..| .1 llM 

ill the llritiiiitiii 

IHDI. Thacki-niy 'ft Ki 

mill llir I. "Kill. A «r 

tho int. 

ho aec. M 

liower .SuliMin mid oIlH-r lritnH|iniiliiM< llM*tttre«, h<« 

Tliackeray hin nurpriNo (hut ho had i><->." •■ '.' 

which tlM> Novellnt replieal thai Ur luiil wi 

n-r|uest of Weli<tt4>r, Hh<i, after rca<liiiK it. I'lu^-' 



ml 

in 



■> a Ixijr, 

to 
. to 

"lal 
ii;i\<' any- 
iiflertll tl 



tliiuK to do with it, and no oIlH-r miiiiuK<T to whimi Im 
would put it oil tlH- hIukc. TIh- writer (Mr. Ili-rl- 
iiluiKiiieil this pluy iiiust h:ivi> Ihv-ii the eoiiM>dy ••( I 
(he Ittimh, lo which Ih' ni- ' I.«>tt-I 

the Widower " ; IIm' lat< ie<l th.il 

7'/if H'o/irit <iiiW //«• Ijiimb w»«i " tlM- (ouii'i 

of the novel of" Lovel the Widower," in ^■ i !• . n.i.i. - 

DickiMis' unacted farce The l^miJiijItlrr, a/torwariU conri?rt«xl 
by him into •• Thi- i^inpli{(ht''r'» Story " for " Tb«' Pic Sir 
Pa|H'rH." Dutloii CtHik, who reCura to Tliarkpray'* litllo 
comedy as the Novelist's " only eoiilrihnt; • •■   ,. nf 

the Stage," states that it was written pn .'ar 

I8r>'l, anil iHMthumoiiHJy piililished ; it contaiin il alliiMiuis to the 
Crimean War and to Mrs. Cia^kell's novel of •• Ruth," then 
recently is.sue<l. Tlir WhIivh nnti thr l.iinih •■ il limi-w 

played by amateurs in I,oiidoii, It is |M'rhii|>« n y to add 

that " Lovel the Widowi-r " ap|>eared as a serial in the flr»t »is 
niimliers of the ('iirnliill Mntfiziiif, IHflO. 

While the adaptations of Thackeray's novels may Ik? coanted 
on the lingers of one hand, those of Dickriis' are .-^.-.-.-.tin^ly 
numerous, the late Mr. W. K. Hughes' c-ollwtion oi ma 

including no loss than Rfty-seven. That Th«<'V' - -in 

the Drama, if not so pronoiincnl as that of li ■■ni- 

porary, was at l«iist unmistakable is iiidicai. liy the 

numerous references to thiMtrical matters in li Hut alv> 

by the fact that many of his dr.iwiiigs anil "m 

the subject, whllf< a nuinlier of <lramalti- i liii> 

|ien. His llrst attempt at inde|>end< f a 

series of eight lithographic plate", i thf! 

title of " Kloi-e i>l Zephyr "- -a ; (our years 

later ho wrote a chapter on " Fi^ .. .. ! /. Nlclotlramas " 

for tho seconil volume of " The Paris -^ "k," and in 

I'liiich, March 3, \S4it, we discover a criii.,ii ...i i'- '— '-"i oo 
" Two or Three Theatres in Paris." Perhaps his i- -st- 

ing essay in this direction is the pa|H'r in Fmtr< -tf, 

March, 184*2, eiitit|t>d " Dickens in France." s< un- 

mercifully ridicules a French re v" 

as performed at the .\nilii;;ii Tli' liy 

lone adoptetl by Thackeray in his ail .ml 

his novel that undoiibt<'<lly iiispiretl P . i of 

the inscription writliMi by Dickens in the copy of " A Christnuu 
Carol " presentfsl by him to the author of " Vanity Fair," 
which re-.ids as follows :-" W. M. Thackeray, fn>ni CJiarK>s 
Dickens (whom he made very happy once a long way from home). 
Seventeenth Dis-emlM-r. 1H43." Dickens, it will ts>reiiieinlM're«l.»«» 
in theUnitiNlStates when Thackeray'- '  •• ..•,_ 

A re<'eiitly-dis<-overed |Kiinphlet '(p 

at the Thirti-f-iith .\niiivers:iry Foiiijj ul i-al 

Theatrical Fund," held at the Freemason-' I JU, 

IfCW, disclosi's the fact that Thackeniy i" 'nd 

made a long s|><s-ch on that iH-casion, thii- 'st 

in the theatrical profession. Until this |iamphlel w I'd 

it was not known that he ever ultiMul.-iI a fi--tival .it i is" 

Tavern in any public ca|iacity. 




TAIL piBCB. uxnrnwmr spbcimkn. 

Pnraa Mr. Hart'i Baok.| 



I7K 



64 



LITERATURE. 



[July '2H, 1900. 



IRcvicws. 



A BOOK FOR THE CRISIS. 



Whftt the writ«T iif a new Imv>V ii|>o>i Chin:! l)Oj;iii« liy 8nyiii{; 
ll\ V. Arthur Smith's " u-fori»tlr» " Is th<< 

kr. .ly of the Chin«>s<> hn ' iiiaclo, wo may 1h< 

fairly snrr that the ^(Titor'H own 1>oiik will lio a poo<l one. In 
Mim Soiiliiiorp's c»s<« (China, thk L«Nfi-Mvm> KMrinK, Now 
York: the Century Co.) this is i-ortainly no ; Bho has not, of 
coarse, the profound personal Vno\vle<tKe of China pos»es»o<l by 
Mr. Smith, but she has seen not a little of the Chinese, and she 
evidently has that nn- ' mt pift of a travellinp student — a 

jndioini nliility to \ icnoe and accept information from 

tli In tliih r«').|HM-t sh<- differs widely from one op 

Iw \ritersu|K>n China. .\nd she shows welcome 

wisdom, too, in i>tr«>ring us no careful and exact analysis of the 
Chinese character. We make no apology for a long quotation 
from the eoncludinj: chapter, for on the one hand it is a fair 
Mpccim(>n of Miss KcidnK>rt>'s frank and conrinciu); nietho<l, and 
on the other it contains opinions which cannot bo too often read 
by the British public to-<lay : — 

When I askisl one long in Government employ if his thirty 
years in tlw-ir midst led him to lielieve that the Chinese ciMild 
Im- pi'generate<l, awakentnl, or galvani7/><l to some seml)lance of 
mndern life, he exclaimoil : — " No, never 1 It is not possible 
t«i regenerate China as China. It cannot be effectoti from 
within by the Chinese. The motive iK)wer it not there. They 
dr> not want to Ik? regenerated. They do not see that there is 
anything the mutter. It would not disturb the Pekingese to 
have France wizc all Kwan);tung, nor excite the Cantonese to 
have liusxia seiz»> all north of the Yangtsze. They are 
indifferent to it all. They do not realize that China the 
nation was whipiMtl by .la])an. It was only Li Hung Chung 
and those Muuchus up north who ' lost face.' "... A 
taipaH, the head of u great fon>ign llrm, owned to weariness at 
bis colleagues' eternal eonvenlicmal laudations of the high 
standard of Chinc>M<- commercial honesty, the cut-and-dried 
'* ncvcr-knew-a-Chinaman-to-break-his-wor<l " panegyrics. . . . 
Cliinesc sense of res|>onsibility is strong, the saving virtue of 
tho race, all that holds the rotten old emjtire tog«>tber ; but 
all of connncrcial honour and morality is not centred here any 
more til ;iu ill Kiijriand or America it only avcnigi's up. .\» 
-ly, no standard there whatever, tho 
V contrast. The Chinese- are civdited 
with the grcatesi iiilellectiial capacity of any race, and what 
\\v do they uiako of it ? Kor two thousaiul years the Chinese 
have only learned by heart, committed to nn'mory, poetry and 
MietaphyMical ewtays, the mechanical education of a parrot. 
I^iok at their rulers in Peking (hrotighout the whole nineteenth 
centnry ! not a man among them. l.ook at (he present 
Krajieror ! Kvery ciMilie grins at the way his sl<'|>-mother liwks 
him up and liullies him. ..." Can China be re- 
^••iK-rit^-fl 7 " reiM-jitt'd another old i-esident. " Only by 
n for forty days forty fathoms dc«'p. The frf-sh slarl 
a clean start. Koup and carbolic will do more than 
diplomacy or guniMiwder. They an- the (Irsl necessary factoi-s 
in »»v ri'i-iiiTation of this country. If they bum the classics 
and >>■ literotl, they might make some start without 

Miap .AIM! V..li4'r." 

All replipH to such (lucslions were equally dis<-ouraging, 
cy|Uaily biaMod, vague, or flip|Kint. and the Chinese' in the 
present and the future remain problems iiiort- haffling and nn- 
■slisfartory each time one attempts them. 

This is the exact truth. There is nothing whatever to be 
hoped for from " China." But what China is, so far as there is 

•ach 3 •'■• ■• '■'•■■•■• ■• " "1 ■■■• the Chines*^ do aii'l -•• 

and 1 1 and cool Western ' 

may !»•• i<jrnc<i ii>.mi iii«<> .-^iioiiiiin ■• i>ook as well as anywiiii-' 
else wc know. Khe covers a wide flebl, touching upon most of 
the aspects of Chinctc life, and describing with a charming 



tonch her own trarel experiences. But at this moment ono 
cannot but pay chief att<<ntion to anything throwing light uiwn 
the circumstances In which so many of our fellow countrymen 
and women have. In all human probability, lost their lives. Here, 
then, is a picturo of the foreign diplomatists' iM>sit!on in 
Peking : — 

A little community of foii-ign diphmiats, shut like rats in 

a trap in a doubU>-walled city of an estimated million three 

hundred thousand fanatic, for«'ign-hating Chincst>, with a more 

hostile and lawless army of sixty thousand vicious Chinese 

soliliers without tho walls and scattered over tho country 

towards Tien-tsin. 

This was in 1808, but in 1900 it was worse. As for the official 

relations lietween the foreign Ministers and tho T»ung-li Yam6n, 

they are thus : — 

" I go to the Yamen )>y ap|x>intment at a certain hour," said 

one diplonmt, " suid while I am waiting my usual wait in thoso 

dirty, cold rooms the ash-shifter comes in and wants to know 

if I think there will be war l)etween this and that Euroix?an 

Power, iKH-aiise, mind you, some very |K'Culiar telegrams bavo 

just arrived for those L<>gations. Kvery Legation telegram is 

read and discussed at the Yamen, you 'know, before it is 

delivei-ed to us, and tlie cipher co<les give tliem rai-c ideas." 

We might till pages with extracts as interesting as those, 

but wo must scud readers to tlie lK)ok itself, promising them that 

they will not only bo entertained, but also told enough about 

China to enable them to form an intelligent opinion of the action 

of Kuroi)e in general, and their own country in particular, in 

that strange land now almost moiioiiolizing the attention ol 

civilized mankind. 



FRENCH ANGLOPHOBIA AND ANGLOMANIA* 



The seven Isxjks mentioned at the foot are of nne<|ual merit, 
but stand in amusing contrast. They show, now an intelligent 
»ympathy for, now a startling hostility towards, the Anglo- 
Saxon world. One may And in them a microcosm, as it were, of 
France at the present moment. 

With MM. Anolcl and do la Poulaine, we are as far from 
M. IV-molins' eulogistic, sometimes even naive, enlhusiasm as 
from M. liiizalgettc's appi-e-ciation of Saxon individualism. The 
llrat iKKik named is ushered into the world by M. do Mahy, 
whose dread of Kngland is well known. It is said that Kngene 
Sue, the author of the " Wandering .lew," used every night to 
search for the .lesuit assassin concealed in his house. M. do 
Mahy must imitate him for the English spy, who he fancies is 
diHgiiis<-d as a Methodist missionary. He is convinced that the 
North African missions smuggle into .\Igier» and Tunis small 
arms and shot, to further an insurrection among the Arab 
|Mi|iiilalioii. He has also the pr(M>fs of a conspiracy Ix-tween the 
said missionaries and the Ki-ench Pititestants, which conspiracy 
is hatched in the unices of the British and Foreign Bible 
SiK'iety, ami as often as lie offers to exisisc the culprits in the 
t'haml»erof Deputies, a feeble unit of which he is, he finds his 
colleagues disinclined lo listen to his astoiinrling revelations. 
Since irony, as KiMian said, is the consolation of tho just, tho 
French I'rot«!stant« <un rest assured that their enemy's closest 
kin are of the same rt-ligious pcrsUHsion as themselves. 

Nous venous d'etre encore pris en flagrant de'lit d'im- 
puissance [prefaces M. do Mahy] pour n'avoir pas voula nous 



T:>-on<iiniqaG dc U France 'f" By Baron 
KranvsiM i '' By Lion Bualgett)^. 



• " D'oii »ient U r 
Cbarlex Mnuini. I'lon 

" A quoi ticiit 11 
KinrhlMcber. Fr.3.50. 

" A quoi tient la Bupirioritt dvs Prsiitaio mir le* Anglo-Saxoni. 
By Anold. F>ysrd. Fr.S.CO. 

•• L« ColoMio »u» rie<l» iJ'Argile." By Jean de 1» FouUme . Plon. 
Fr.S.BO. ^. „ ,. 

 Lm An||laii> sax Indo rt en Kftypte." Hy Eugene Aubm. Colm. 

3.50. 

•■ I* Vir •■ -: -:-r " ■- -ifion ct U 8oci«tt)." By I'sul de 

Roiuim. F 

••La Fr > ue Moral." By M. FouUUe. Alcan. 

Pr.7.60.j 



July 28, 1900.] 



LITKRATIJRE. 



65 



avoiior h nou»-raAmo9 los mciK'cs dti p«rtl anglaU orKmuM 
chcz noiiH clopiiis plus loiiRlcnips I't plus forti'inont que U- parti 
prusHion. 

Nous Navons [ot-hocs M. AiioUl] quo, sous le inantouu tie U 
rt'ligioii, sous \o couvorl iri<l«^i>»i pliilosopliiques rt liumanl- 
Iniroit, It) protpstaiit l>ril:iiiiiiqu« a enviilil la Kraiioo. Kort do 
son alliance politico-ri'ligicnso avo<? !<• pr«lo»laTit do CiiTinanle, 
fort Uo son or et <le son uuilaoo, 11 tlirlKc. <lu sU-go social «lc 
la SooWt^ Blbllquo iv LonUros, Ioh noiuliroux agotitii qui vont 
porter h travors la Franco la bonne parole, ..." anglo- 
saxonuo." 

A conclusion in praise of the now obsolete " Ligue de la 
I'atrie Kranyaiso " shows in the interests of what political 
party the author of this IkmiIj is workin;;. The biHik is, however, 
HUflleiently entertaiuin;,'. There is a spiiitecl answer to M. 
DeniolinM' rather superllcial theories of social science, which in 
its vulvar aryot styli", in its calm ijrnorance of fads, and 
tlauntiiii; of paradoxes mistaken for (ruths, is aninsini;. .As an 
antidot<> for this sort of " literatim-" Krenclnnen nii(;lit well study 
M. Bazjilgotte'B and Haron Charles Mourre's philosophic pugi-s. 
These books form the most instructive analyses which we have met 
with of the agti-Uinn battle on French soil between the rii^htti of 
man and rnisoii d'tittit. ForeiRners forg»'t that Fi-ance has tended 
by the accidents of history to suppress individnalistn in the sup- 
posed interests of the community. The exigencies of the Fivnch 
monarchy inspiivd by religious fanaticism have twice crushed 
the I'lite of the nation. The liking for hierarchic sulKirdinatiou 
has engendeivd a spirit of distrust of the individualism which is 
wi'll known to be the hall mark of Protestantism, and the 
essential note, therefore, of civilization in England, America, 
and even in Uermany, in spite of the Kmpiro and the i'russiuu 
hegemony. Hence the Anglophobia of our time and tin- absurd 
antics of the nntionalists. M. Bazalgetto is not sanguine as to 
the capacity of his compatriots to secure a lil)erty worthy of the 
legends on the fanatics of their public Imildings. The Latin 
ideal of solidarity d(H's not concern itself with the cell but only 
with the organism. To know the nature of the trouble is, 
however, the beginning of wisdom and recovery. iM. Bazalgetto 
knows it, and ho should be read. Baron Mourre's discussion of 
the problem is mont optimistic and broad-minded. 

M. .Jean de la Poulaine's contribution to .social and ethnoliv 
gicul studies will better l>o understood by extracts, which may 
serve to deQno the state of mind of a contemporary French 
Anglopholic. As the author's name is not suniciently known to 
his fellow countrymen, he has taken care to lM<gin by a short 
account of himself. He " sjK-aks Knglish like his own tongue and 
with an iicc<>nt that has nc-ver made any one take him for a 
foreigner, although some have often thought him a Scotchman." 
Also " he has been writing for many years in the English press, 
which pays for his prose very generously ; an<l has lecturiMl in 
London on Knglish lit«»raturo." 

Hero are some appreciations on the English :- 

L'Anglais n'cst pas 1)olliqneux, loin do cela, sauf en temps 

de paix (p. 34). L'hoinieuret la lionto sent deux choses dont 11 

parlo assez volontiers, mais qu'il ne comprend gueri' (p. 1)5). 

L'hypocrisie y (lenrit niicux (en Angleterre) que dans n'im|H>rte 

quel autre pays, parce que plus que partout ailleurs on attache 

plus d'importanee !i I'apparence de la vertu elle-nicme (p. 72). 

L'hypocrisie forme line partie essentielle do I't^lucation 

anglaise. Ccfto hypo<-risie est nn vcrnis tr»>s utile qui cachi> 

la lepre allreuse d'immoi-ulite qui existe en Angleterre (p. 7;{). 

Further on there is a chapter on the " absurd customs of 

tlio English Parliament," and the "gonvernement qui est nn des 

pires do I'EuroiJe en ce qui concernc les tnivailleurs, |H>nr Ics- 

qiiels il ne fait absolument rien," and " la ))olitique " ; " .lainais 

le gonvernement anglais n'a hesito h commettre «les actions |M'u 

digues d'un grand penple Icuftiu'il a cru do son interi-t de 

s'ecarter des lois de la droiture et de riionneur." Th»'n follow 

similar appreciations on Education, Trade, the Army, &c. This 

is the conclusion: — 

Malgr6 ces qualites rt'elles, I'Angleterre n'a jamais iSt«5 
aiineo, et cllo ne le sera •jamais, parce quo dans sa marche !i 



M. 

i.il. 

U. 

liCO 

Il a 



' il- 



itil jiMllaia \ u 1 ' 

\ prcMif of til' , ity iif llii ! 

Anold, is their literary iiierlt. Thi* w<< an 

but our critical faculty, how -  -' 

cannot help deploring iu thoM< A 

of all that niaki>tt the style <>l iim 

writ«'rs incomparable. .M. di- .M;il 

niii 

til.. 

sentence u.i (he I.illimiiig : 

Notre habitat, noire pa.\  (.."i 

vices origincU MluctablemenI iudiUbit, 
is |M<rha|M very effective at a meoling of a j. 
(leneral ; it is scarcely worthy of a L<<a(cui' wh 
roll of memlH-rship l.<>inAitrr>, Bourget, aii' 
writes like his iiatron. plus a llavimr ■•( » 
the sallies of Fort i'lmbrol, (iuerin and I . Iietorv 

the High Court. .\s to .M. di> la 1'. m m far 

succeeded in mastering the English languagi' lliat AngliviiiaiN 
abound uniler his iiatriotic (x-n : "Us elaienl auxieux tU' fairt' 
cesser nn etat de choses" is a |M>rilnusly literal Iranitlation fraa 

the hat«.Hl language of an hereditary enemy. On tl ' ' the 

prose-style of these thre«> Anglophobcs, k> sure of ir>' 

su|)eriority, would bo |M*rlia|M aeeeptable to the onlmrirs n-ader 
of the I'ftit Juiiriiiil. 

.M. Eugene Aubin writes in a difT' ilic 

least desire of displaying n?iy si.. i|)«> 

little colony of Frencluiieii i^mi 

of the English in that c . of 

French influence, and cimcludes with some glmimy .' ..iw 

for the future. Thes*- olmervations arc in a %•.. . ..tiflc 
manner prefaced by a survey of the eonditiim of India in 1807, 
when the author visited Bomlray. The liouk is written throagti- 
out in an impartial spirit and without any exeeaaive MHriroina- 
tion for iiast mistake's. An an opinion of a Fn-nchraan rt>«!ding 
abriMtl the following statement is worth quoting:-- 

La iH'rte d. me 

consj'-fiuenco in<i u*- 

qncnce dinx-te du n'-gimo flottant sons 1«|U<-I la Fmnce a T^cu 

depuis lors. . . . Un rapprochement avec I'Allein' - -vait 

sauver la position do la France en Kgypto; la ••• lit«< 

nationale no I'a |>oint |>ennis. 

The idea of a rfiyinrhe s«"«'ms nn-re sentiment to a Colonial 
Fwnchman ; and it i», |)erhaps, to  at 

home that FraniM- owes lu-r lack of <\. iiin 

then nieutions the Oriental fatalism of the Egyptian French- 
man. The lack of energy in the colonist unsup|H>rt«'d by the 
mother-country and left to himself is another caUM< of weakiioaa. 
The book |)ur|)orts to Ih" a guide to prevei" •■■ ' ''s similar to 
those of the Third liepublie in the I uestion, and. 

although criticizing with the uti; 'nee 

of the Indian (Joveniment at tli> .w 

leilg«'s the il' t. 

L'ne II. I :on 

colonialc aussi sure que r.\ngleterre, ne pouvar ^ur 

I'Egypte s:ins y laisser do traces bienfaisantea. K.: .. ^ lait 
plus maladroit <(no do nier lo tact et le aoin avec lequel ont 

ete iwursuivis, depuis !'• •■•ton, Je n'-tablisaerocnt des 

linanccss, l'organis,ition lo plan d'irrigation, cnn- 

formement an pi «'•. 

The first part f>f 

couiiwre with the art i 

df» /Jcii.v .Wi)ii</cs on K'' i <li». 

M. Paul de Konsiers, whose connexion with the iil 

is wvll known, pursues bis studies on the New .., um 

temp«>r of sympathetic apprei-iation. After a snrvey of the out- 
w:ird activity of the Americans he studies the American in hiB»- 



iii interesting to 
liy .\1. Filon in the Ktim* 



C6 



LITERATURE. 



[July 28, 1900. 



teit : In h\» homo. hU lifp, hU drews ; in hi* ncwOiuddlnf; 
• rlolnrrnry, hU poHtlrianM, hU authors, hin r«>lt|;!ouM i;ui(Ii-K. 
Thoro i» a chapter on tho Roiitan Churt-h in Aincrioa, which. 
althonfrb written by an avowx-d K<>iii.-iii Cntholif. U innnlti-lv 
bottor-informod and niort' M^ii-iitiOr than tho rhoforic of «'itli«>r 
M. Brum«lii'n> or M. Ruinri-t. Tho ooiifliidiiii; i>afr<'« nrx' n 
pmknto trill 'iid <>iii'r{;r. It l!<»|)ity, 

howvver. t! Ill lini'H nr«« not quotcHl 

inntt'^d of l,<.ii^ffllii« -. I'mhn of l.ifr. Tho latter is after all 
only an Old World jxx-t arcidontally born in the New. 

IxH iw Anally note the extremely slneere and sii^jjrestive 
liook which M. FouilhV (ulrtNidy well known for his " Psycholojrie 
du PeU|ile Kraii<,-ais ") has written uinler the title I.A 
Kkano; at Point I>F. Vik Moiiai.. Then- are here I.V) |)a;,'es 
on the r«>li|;ious crisis in France, the rulm of ralholicisin 
and Pnitestantisiii, and on lhi> |>ower as well as the licence of 
the modern French Press. M. KouilUV lM'lit>ves with the 
forei^ier that Franc«>, nfti-r all. re|ires»'nts the jji-eal i>i'iiici|iles 
of the lievolntion- the principles of the rif;his of man and of 
hnman <iolidnritr. He in^iHts that the triumph of miium dVfiil 
would lie to €le«<troy the miaoN dVfrc of Frinee. To our mind, 
•s wo have |M>intod out «i propox of M. Bizalpette and Baron 
Monrre, the real France is this double Fniiice, and the keynote 
to its history is n HOnsc of the afje-loiif; slriifft;le lietween these 
two ir for«'es. From this point of view M. Hanotanx, 

in his , ,. his history of Kichelieu, has a profoniider sense 

of the drift ot French social development than Michelct or M. 
Fonillt'i-. 



A CENTURY OF GERMAN LITERATURE. 



A little over a year a^rovv dixcuitaetl at )«ome lenffth the first 
of a 8<>rl4"s of ton volumes which are in course of publication by 
Bond i, of Berlin, on Cieriiiau in the ninetoenlli century. That 
Tolumo dealt with Intellecliinl nii<l social tendencies. Another 
volume now before us takes lit<>ratiire for its province and is 
called DiK Dwthchk Littfwatiii dkh Nki-vzehntkn .Iaiiiiiii'n- 
UKKTO. by K. M. Meyer (lOin.). It has lieen out some months, 
but the ap|M>:irance of a aecond edition iiMiiinds ns that the liook 
has at least won the favour of the German readinc public, and 
(fives, therefore, un opixirtunity of briiifciuR it to the notice of 
Rnfrlish readers of German. In the course of the last few y«Kirs, 
however, there have appeared so many eph<>meral lK>oks on 
modern German literature that one is naturally a little wary of 
recouiraeiidiiiK off-hand to a foreign public a new work on this 
subjiH't. It must bo confessed too, that Dr. K. .\l. .Meyer's iKiok 
awnkens suspicion. He has laid hiins«-lf open to the accusation 
<■' " dcr Mitwi'll Spass zu machen," for he has placed 

II' ■•iglit of his iKiok on the discussion of the liti'rature of 

the last few decades, in other words, of those contempor.iry 
urltt-rs alMul whom the public of the moment has naturally most 
iiy. The last twenty years of the iiinetiH'nth c-entury 
,.-..ne more pages allotted to them than the flrst thirty. 
Theodor Fontane gets more space than the whole Romantic 
School, and Hauptmann is discussed at more length than 
(:rill|Mr7<-r. Dr. Meyer, it is true, defends (his unfair 
<l on the ground thai the older perio<ls have 

■■< U written alKiiit that Ihey do not make the 

»-i:  ''h\ i-rilicisiii. Hut none the li>ss, this lack 

«•< I'T. , iiiiental to the work as a lasting conlribn- 

lliwi to literary history. 

Since the first appearance of Pr. .Meyer's book, liowov»'r, we 
hare not only re-read it. but have conipnre<l It with a number of 
other works of more or Ions similar scope, and we are bound to 
confeaa that it is much the best history of imNlern (ierman 
litrraiuiw at present in th<> field. Not that it is in any resp<>ct 
a final book ; I»r, M'-yer re<-ogni»-s himmdf that it is not the 
bttsineaa of a c< - • y to write final literary criticism : it 

is ituMigh if !>' helpful criticism. We caiinol always 

a um a with I>r. Meyer's views, but their originality and snggi-s- 

1 ivr.ritf.SH :in* cw.I trt Im- ilimitit^'il. Tlic ImmiL' mi/TiTs rmtii :iii rirtilit-itl 



division Into doeadeti, oneh chapter covering ten years. Such 
artificial dlsso<-t!ons of literature suggest Linnieus' classification 
of the vegetable world. Neither in literiture nor science can 
such a method Im> carri<>«l out without straining, if not actually 
running counter to, the laws of natural developiiieiit. The plan 
has the disa<lvaiitagf> of iliviiling up pei-iisls and movements 
which <'an only be pi-o|M'rly stndl<><l as wholes. In the examina- 
tion of the first Koinantic ScIhhiI, of the sing<>rs of thi» war of 
LilM>ratioii, of the lievoliilinnary lyric, lhen> may lie little n-ason 
for cavilling at the arrangement. Bnl if we wish to get an idea 
of the part played, s;iy, by Young Germany in the lit<>rature of 
till' century, or of the activity of the Munich group of writers at 
a later |M>ri<M], we ar<> oblig<>d to plee<> it together out of several 
chapters. 

The grt'at merit of the b(s>k, however, and the r<>asou which 
induces us to rt>cOMimeiid it warmly lo the Kiiglish public, is the 
fact that it is the first bi^ik on iiiiHleni lieriiiaii lileralur(> whivh 
is eosmopolitan in its judgment. Mncli has Ix'en said and written 
re<s>iitly agiiitisl " Das Ii<'rliiierl iiin in (h'r Litleraliir," but 
" Berlinerlnni," or, in otlu-r words, metro|H>Iitaii standards, 
whatever effect they may have on pis-lic proiliu'tion, an- helpful 
to literary criticism ; and herc» lies the ho|)<> of (i<>rman criticism 
losing that provincial, narrowly " (ierman " |>oint of view which 
is often dis!Vgre<'ably in eviiU'iice. Not that Dr. .Meyer, his 
B'riin standiwint notwithstanding, can iK^entii'cly acquitted of 
expressing opinions which are obviously not for us non-Germans, 
but on the whole he has written a cosmopolitan book. 
The writers to whum he devotes most attention, such as 
(irillparzer, Helibel, .\nzengrnl)or, Hauptmann in drama, 
Heine, Di-oste-Hulshoff, Leiiaii in the lyi-ie, Keller, Storm, 
Kontane in the novel — are all wrllei's whom a critic, 
placing himself at a general Kuro|ieaii standpoint, would 
also regard as the leading literary men of motlern Germany. 
Our chief regret is that at least half of the very minor 
ileities of the moment had not been dropiM-d out of the liook to 
make room for a fuller, more ini-isive criticism of the great 
innovators of the beginning of the century, those men who with 
their aphorisms and fragmentary novels, their exaggerated lyric 
fit'ling and their ho|iclossly undramatic dramas, succeeded 
nevertheless in revolutionizing the literature of their own land 
and of Kurope. Such criticism none of the younger Gcnnan 
critics is better able to write than Dr. Meyer. Perhaps in n 
future edition he will, even at the risk of making two voltunes 
out of one, give his work that proportion the want of which 
seems to us at present its most serious flaw. 



SHAKESPEARE REVISED. 



We have never risen fi-om any work on Shakespeare, even 
the most fantastic commentary on the Sonnets or I lu> wildest 
" Baconian " iiiMjltMjia, with such a sense of nightmaru 
u|)on us as from the |M>rusal of Wilmam Siiakksckaiik : 
Pkohoiiv ami Tkxt, by B. \. P. Van Dam, .M.l)., with fho 
assistance- of ('. Stoffel (Williams and .Norgate). Dr. 
Van Dam anil Mr. Stoffel are new names to ns among Shake- 
spearian students, bnl with a serene s<'lf-<'onlidence tliey batter 
down the whole edifice of metrical and textual criticism built 
up by the lalKtiirs of generiitions of sclmlars and snbstitnle a 
brand-new erection of their own. .\iid they choose the very 
worst way to gain sympathy in their vent nn ■some undertaking. 
For to a " e-m-ksurc " belief in their own infalliliilily they unite 
the loftiest contempt for all who have prucedeil them. The 
t'ambridge <slitors siro their favourite objects of ridicule, but 
Dr. Guest, Dr. Fnrnlvall, and others come in turn under their 
lash. They would have, therefore, no right to coniplaiu if 
similar measiin? were dealt out lo them and their wImiIc lalKinred 
system of textual reeonst rnci ion brushed indignantly asiile. 
Bill it Is only fair lo recogni%<> that, absurd as ar(> their main 
llnsiries, the authors have gone tlirongli nincli palleiil investiga- 
tion f<f Hie Shakespearian Folios and Quartos and of other 
Kli/jilH>tli:in texts. Hence the earlier cliapti-rs of the work, 



July 28, 1900.J 



LITERATURE. 



G7 



taken by tliniii<<clvOH, liuvi> u curtniii vulii<>. Tlicy deul wllli 
tlio proiiiiiiciittion of ^^'or(|M in Elixnlictliuii vurM>, ami tlit> 
(M>nN<>qu<>iit luNM or uilclitinii of Hyllnblco, as f<(intrast(>d with ttu* 
normal Victorian Kliindiird. A it"*"^ doal of tliin uTtion Iiuh Imm-ii 
antici|iutiMl by \vrit<>rM liico Ki)ni({. but it is more fully woiki-il 
out. Iicn^, and tin- illnH(ralionK from conloiiiiMiniry amlimi aci- 
often inturenl iiiK. MatI, tlM'i'<'roii<, Dr. Van Duin and liis 
c"ollon;;no contented tliciiisclvcs willi dcvolopinK lliin poinl, 
ttu>y niifjiit Inivc iM't'ii credited Willi a nsefnl piece of iiive<itiKution. 
But on tlui basis of llieM> ilifTcrences Ix-twtH-n Kli/jilM>tlian and 
Victorian proniineiiitioii tliey found the tlieory, which is the key 
to their whole system, that " the rhythm of the heroic line con- 
sists in u roKular se<ineneo of nniitrONsod and stroHiuHl ftyllublen, 
which rhythm ... is interfered with . . . by every 
omission and by every interp<dation of a syllable." Thus, sny 
they, when we glorify Marlowe anti Shakespeaii- for bavins 
transfiirmi-d the monotonous l>lank verse of ^!or^>o<IUl• by (intrr 
alia) varyinfj the nunilier of syllables in the liui-. we aix> merely 
tlio victims of a delusion due to the print in); of words without 
the abbreviations or expansinns <'iist(>iuary in Kli'/.:ilK>than 
apt^celi . 

We contend that the praise lavished on this so-eallisl 
blank verso of Marlowe and ShakeN|>earo Ih nothini; more or 
less than the Kloi'illcntion of prose at the expense of the claims 
ol" poetry. Wlmt certain critics of otn- time are pleased to 
style blank verse and to laud to the skies as such is 
merely the prose into which the numerous form-alterations 
introduced by the printers and editors have converted 
the orifjcinal blank verso intendo<l by the poets. 

This revolutionary thesis is devclo|HMl in the chapters that 
follow, which load up to the statement (for afrsiin we must quote 
the ijMinMiim ivrlxi) that " the old texts of Shakespeai-e's plays 
may with complete justice be described as the veriest Augean 
stables of printed literature." h'rom these stables " a certain 
nuiulier of skilful critical scaveti);ers have here and there carted 
away small heaps of accumulated dirt," but it has been left to 
the present writers to tlioii-iUKhly cleanse them. The only 
adefjuate wa.v of illustrating!: this prm-ess is to show these suc- 
cessors of Hercules at work. Thus in Hirhnnl II., Act V., 2, the 
Quarto rcails :— 

Viii-. Bring lue my bof)tes, I will unto the King. 

(His hkih enters irith lii.i Imnln.) 
Jill. Strike liiiM Ainnerle, |KH>re boy lliou art amazd. 

Hence vilaine never more come in my sijtht. 
Viir. (Jive ine my l>ootes I say. 
I)ii. Why Vorkt^ what wilt thou doe ? 

On this our authors comment, " We nuisi say that we can 
llnd no earthly reason why Ainnerle should by his mother Im- 
called u|H>n to ' strike ' the servant. We might, when hard 
pressed, atlmit the |)ossibilily of the Uuchess"s tellinjr Aumcrle 
to sna(<-h the boots from him, but the text as it stands is 
unmitigated nonsense. To set it right we pro[K>se to read the 
])assage as follows : — 

York Bring me my lH>ot.s. I will 

Unto the KiuK. (His nuiii enters with hi» boots.) 

J>iirli. (Stroking .4iim<'r/r). Poor l)oy, thou art nniaz'd. 

VoWi- Hence villain ! ne'r more <"omc in my sight, to" m' 
My l)OOts, I say. 

Duvli. Why, York, what wilt thou do ? " 

" The humoiu- of this capital scene," they add, " has not 
alwiiys been duly apprecialeil." We can assurt> them that in its 
revised form they i\ec<l have no fear of its failing to provoke 
mirth. 

But even the most cons»>crat«d of ShakesiM3arian passages 
is not safe from violation. In Hamlcfs exclamation, " O my 
prophetic soul ! My nnclo'l " the last two words form a short 
line, which, on Dr. Van Dam's theory, is inadmissible. Hence 
they are expunge<l as being merely an " elucidatory addition " 
by the " editor " of the Quarto. And the same fate In'falls the 
last Ave words of Lady Macljcth's reproach to her husband. " A 
foolish thought, to say a sorry sight." And if after such 



lni)tttnc<>!i of the working of the " new mH hui " (b toslwl 

eritlcinm any reader U >nxlon« t.-i •" t oa s I 

■calo we would refer him to the 
n( ructions of the I M ' 
Mceneof Act 5 ol 

to have r«M-«>urw in .-uinu  iln. -ir u«<t. 

Thus in (he VViii/wa/ tliey i-i ,\ng tlw 

expletive °,S'Minm(. whii-h they Jii- ^m, 

I. Xy that the * Boson ' is a ' l< i>en« 

eiin Im> no harm In pulling •mhih-wIi.iI stronger l:iii;,'ii.-iga |b kU 
li|>s than tin- rather lanii- phr.iM> .1 filnyuf '••• i lii ... 
The logic of the context re<|uir(>i> nt b-nst one .th fma 

the iKmtswain's mouth, unti there Im exactly r<-<>i • m m 1.10." 

Did »paco |>emiil. we cfiuld <|Ih>(«< otlii>r <f|iinlly rtMiiurknble im«w 
readings from this " Kssuy in (."riliciHrn." It is deplorable thai 
so much lalMiiir and learning, of u kiiifl, should have revullail in 
this monumental piece of folly. 



AN ITALIAN ON ENGLISH LOCAL 
GOVERNMENT 



It is not often that the Continental politicians and writers who 
talk of Knglish liM-al g. . t. or, as it isenri' : in- 

exactly styled. "Sell iit," show true iicul. .of 

the subject. A wxjrk roiiiarkable liotb !■ it* 

lucidity, has, however, Ikh-h written by s .ui. 

formerly Italian I'nder-.SjH-n'tury of Stale lor Kinance and until 
recently Indei-Swretary of State for the Interior. Il.(iov>:KM>> 

LlK-AI.>:lNril.»iKKI.K M'KKKlJ«ZIOM<t>N I,A VlTA N.«ZIO> ALK (? vol*.. 

Rome, Bocca, 12 lire) is a pro<luct of three years' p-i"-"i -"wly. 
and is um|uestionably the eompletest account of tiic cnt 

of local government in Kngland, frfiin the Saxon |»ri"ti i<> lh»- 
Ixx-al Government Act in IWM. which exist* in any foreign 
language, if not, ind<><<<l, in the Kngli ' 

We iie<'«l not follow the writer tin  ''riptioit 

of the feinlal system, thi' evolution <>i 'he 

growth of rates, the ilevelopment of the i - of 

the Peace, and of the manifold organs ii( • pil. 

For Knglish students the chief interest • !i»^ 

in the incitleiital criticisms and in the cantmn- 'i*- 

tions scattered tbronghoiit hiH |iag«>s. Si""'"- I- no 

thi>orist, no lover of the brilliant half-trii it** 

for research. His metlio<{ is severely li > r». 

for instance, he incidentally not<>s the i jiopuUr 

constitution of .\iiglo-S:ixon Courts of .In- Ih«« 

guarantees of lilM'rIy coiilaiiusl in Kii.. or 

where ho ct the vain. in 

pn'veuting i • ■! institui »?» 

on the Continent, after the coila|>s<- ol 

where he |Mints out the influence of proi. ' <. 

liberal ideas. One of the chief wt>akneH.Hes of the foin'HM >> .»lth 
was, in Signor Bertolini's opinion, its lack of firm Ij.im^ hi locm\ 
governraeut ; while that mime local governuieni, after IIh- 
Kcstoration, acttil as a check upon the dtnnonilixiuR iDlliioao« of 
the Stuart rt'gime. 

Special att<>ntion is paid by the author to the Poor Law. 
He is anxious in |>articnlar alKMit the e(Ie»'t of the P«ri»h 
Councils .\cl of 18SM, and fears U>»t nid 

work accomplishetl by the Voot I«iw I. nd 

.igain he insists ui>ou the ni^-essily i.( iu the 

adminslration of the Pisir I^w. Such r\^ '~^. h»». 

on the whole, Ikhmi shown since the ai '■ iw 

Commissioners in ISU : b"' I"' 'I'" 'C* 

councillors, acting as guanl <■•• 

electors— who in times of dl-i ,,--.>... II... ,11...... i  i»l> 

distribution of charity. He fears, in fact, lest the paii|>eri7atiaa 
of the lower class««s Ihvouh- a.s disastrously rapid as during th" 
closing years of the eighteenth century. 

Signor Bertoliniwrite>.' 'by 

years of Parliamentary e\. - oi 

a democratic r^ime. Like uU u»o»lei»le Italijtu |K.>lii<viju» he 



68 



LITERATURE. 



[July 



1900. 



ao««pl<irankl.TtlM>il«nioo ratio irf<\>, hut •*pk« rii. ' ^' 

iu wil*. " Much limy bo Mii<l in favour o( a >'■ " 

«l JWirif wwnf." b» writes, " l>ut not that it i> flH-<i|> " ; iiiKl 
k* eritMSM thOM lawii in Kn;rlii«h l«>Kiilutimi in n-u-.inl 
to loeal KDTeniiaeat which M-cni to loavo n lixt^iholo fur ninkinK 
•iMMOcniUo KOTcmmont ittill cl<-ar<>r. " Thouifh tli» total iii- 
dclltwbMMi (tf any one local Itntly must be liiuito«t to n cortuiii 
ratio ot the rateable valor of the iliHtrict, thrre in no Act," he 
•4iy», "flxinK a limit to the total in€U>l>t«>«ln«>Rs which may be 
<-otitraete(i by all the lo<>al authorities of that district taken 
t<^{ether." He sharply criiicines, morvover, the looseness of 
r^mtrol which kM aoAblt-' <'iit by s|>ecial Acim to sanction 

local loans, aoOMtiflMa fer - amounts, without the approval 

«>ftl)«Loe*l Oorerwaeirt Boant ami without HtrinK<>nt oIiIIk-i- 
lions tor tba extinctioil of the debt within a certain (iine. 
Other perils which Sijrnor Bertolini points out are the 
K-ili-ncy towards i'xc<>8sive municipalization of public services — 
'•ngh he commeJitU municipalization of services which ar«> 
practically industrial nK)no|K>lies - such as water and (tas supply, 
sevrers, electric liKhtiiifc, and in some cases trams ; and tlie 
poasibllity that the upper cliisses may Rnidually withdraw fmni 
The hnsiness of lot-al administration. Possibly, he suRtri'sls, 
vit and past experience of the value of cxercisin;; a 
lilt inllmiice over local affairs will ])r(>vent the Kn^lish 
upper classes from ever withdrawiiijj entirely from the litMicii 
.nil from the local councils, where their continued presence 
..t fail to be lM>neHcial. Their jiresenco and their ftratuitous 
• ..'rmance of public s«'rvices an* necessary to prevent local 
,■ M-rnment in Kn((land from degenerating, as on the Continent, 
into lui arid bureaucratic nutchine. 

Some i«lea of the care l>estowed upon the material sitlc of 
' !'•• work may !» gather«'<l fnnn the circumstance that in the 
• .lu-vo of 1,(100 pages, on some of which occur as many as 
i.rty Kti-I;^Ii nam<>s and words, only live misprints occur, and 

rh.i I niv.r more tJian one letter. The bibliogra|)liy of the 

\o.ikv .'.Msiiltixl comprises every iiii|>oHant Knglish, Krench, ami 
iitriiuiii authority, besides all tlic Parliamentary rcjsirts and 
return* Inuring upon the subject from 1834 to l&W. The in<lex 
of Laws and Acts of Parliament (|UOt<sd covers twelve closely- 
printed pages. 

OTHER NEW BOOKS. 



Th* Par Bast. 

Ki Roi'KAN SBTTi.KMKSTfi IS THK Pab Eakt (Sampson Low, 
7«. Bel.) is something like a guide-lxtok, something like a 
gazetteer, and something like a s<>ri<-s of extracts from Consular 
rV|>ortH. SupiKising, for instance, iliat we turn up Tien-tsin, we 
hrgin with the latitude and loiigiturle, and pro<'«H>d to a suni- 
marixed account of Tien-tsin's place in history, with spci-ial 
references to the massacn^ of the Sisters of Mer<'y, and the 
long satrapy of Li Hung Chang. Then comk.-s descriptive 
matter : — 

Very extensive building o|)erations are gi>ing on through- 
out the concewiions, which have excellent roads, with police, 
oil, gaH-lam|w, &c. The British Municipality has a handsome 
town hall, coniplet^l in IHJflt ; adjoining there is a well-kept 
public ganb-n o|>en<'<l in the yi»ar <if Jubilee, and styled 
Victoria Park. An exc«>llent recreation ground of li-n 
aer«-s .... 

And lo forth. Similar information is given al>out all the 
other Kii > >,. not only in China, but also iu 

Japan,)'' le Straits Settlements, the .Malay 

- >ui, tli« I 'li<>s, Borneo, and the Philippines. 

tvill Ik> ill newspaiM'r offlces, and iiN4*ful to 

iM^ inniains some very good photographs. 

>j(.»f M ihe .,,.■« in (he " Builders of (• renter Britain 

Ker!<>B " (I'nwinI h;.\. i«. ■; more remsrkahle for diligent n-senrch 

ind Mr. ' ' Iward Kg«'Hon's Siii 

■.» is no • . lo iIm- rule. The 

aattwr kaa worried through an imn>r-n««s number of papers in the 



India Ofllce l.iOr.iry, and has hud accivss lo otlH-r Important 
iiiaiiiiscript material, and the i-esiilt is a book which is not less 
tedious than instructive. Soiih< iiU'a of Mr. Kg«Tlon's pi>>se 
style may Is' gatlH'red from the fact that he ix'jiularly sis'iil.s of 
Sir Stamford as " onr hero "the clirhi- of the early Victorian 
novelists. The book may satisfy a thirst for informution, but it 
certainly will not create one. 
Tha Book and Ita Readap. 

Tlie •• Temple Primers,' " which we have noticed from time 
lo time as they iip|)eared. liiive provid<Ml for the general reader 
a numlH'r of woiiilerfully eomimct and judicious liaiidbo<iks on 
iiiiinerous l)ranelu>s of knowledge'. In I lie latest published of 
lliem the niillior, Mr. Basil Worsfold, has be<>n assigned a theme 
much more absiraet and controversial than those dealt with by 
his colleagues. Thk KxfatcisK OK .It iHiMKNT IN LrrKUArriiK is a 
promising title, for it is in this imrticulnr kind of jiulgment that 
the gtMiernl render needs s|M'ciiil eulightenmont. .Mr. Worsfold 
has, \w an', nfmid. lost an opisirtunity. The general reader will 
not be attracted by his style, which is rather professorial ; and 
if he siirmoiiiils litis dini<Miliy he will not lliiil that the instruc- 
tion he gains is, as a riiii-, worth the trouble. .After a somewhafc 
lal>orious analysis of the different arts. Mi-. Worsfold skeU-lies 
the history of critic-ism and eiiileavoiirs lo establish certain rules 
lor the guidance of lileniiy jiidnmenl. .Art ho defltu-s as " the 
presentation of the reiil in its menial as|H>ct," a <h'llnitioli which 
rcHiuires eonsidei-able qualitlcation and leads to such misleading 
expr»»ssioiis as " all creative literature and all litei-ature that is 
not merely science— that is, all literature in which the writer 
adds the work of his own mind to the facts which he prestmts," 
as if the scieiitiflc man did not apply to facts the work of his own 
mind. Thedoininaiil asiwels of creative liteiratuis- aiv discovewd 
to lie, by A not very logical analysis, matter, manner, and — a 
third asp«H-t which is i-eally inheivnt in the other two — tlie 
ca|K»city to prcxiuco pleasure. Thes»> corivs|>oiid to the essential 
tests of goo<l liteiMtuiHi— truth, symmeiry, and idealization, or 
the jpiM'al to I lie imagination. Of the conditions of legitimate 
idealization we have the vaguest account, and Mr. Worsfold, lop 
S4juie rea.son or other, assumes that " i-ealisra " must ulwiiys be 
i-epugnant to the moral sense. This i-eveals a very liiade<|uate 
eoiiceplion of modern literary developmenta, and it is curious 
that the word " impwwsionisiu " does not, we think, occur in 
the liook ; wrtainly Iheif is no explanation of the kind of litera- 
tui-e which the word denotes. Nor |H>rliaps is it quite consistent 
with the very questionable statement that the dranui in modern 
times " has adviineed by virtue of an enliglifened ii-alism which 
is manifested in the assimilation of its literary medium to the 
language of everyday life." by iK-tter acting, and " by virtue of 
a higher regard for historic accuracy and a more complete 
command of me<'hanical contrivances." .Alas for Mr. Sidney 
Lee and for the chiimpioiw of a " literary dmma "! The history 
iif <-rificisin is tra<-ed with no mention of .lohnson, and Mr. 
Worsfold would seem never to have heard of the controversies 
whi.h have raged as to the meaning of criticism, of the method 
of history and analysis as opposed to the inethotl of personal 
appri'cialion, of Sainle Beuve on the one hand, and of Anatole 
Kranen on the other. Inder the heading Hisl<iiy and Biography 
the writer has nothing but the barest platitudes to say as to 
biographical methotls or of the <'lainiK of the " seiontillc " 
historian, both of them topics of immediate intert^st at the 
present day. .And we have seldom read a more snperflcial 
explaualioii than he gives us of those words whh-h aro such a 
pii/.zle to uuiny a literary student" classic " and " romantic." 
.Mr. Worsfold's space wis, of course, very limited ; but for tha 
sake of pulling before his reailers soiik" more dellnitc instruction 
in literary matters and soim^ elear<!r ideas as to the conditions 
f.f criticism as they exist at the pn-sent day he might well have 
iMten salislled with a leis<r account of the ideas of Plato and 
of Aristotle, and have sacrillced much of his rather elomeiHury 
exfiosltion of first jirlnciples. 

Afrtoa. 

TiiK Son II .Ai nirA!« Consimbaiy, by Fred W. Bell (Hcine- 
mann, 5s. n.), is one of the South African Ijooks that matter, IU 



July 28, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



6t 



pur]K>i« i§ to iniliitor tiM- r<viiU-iio«< tliul AlriUmitla'nloiu hjioIIh 
• lislnyulty, iiiul to liriiiK Ihu cliurKc oi dixloyully Iioiim' iml only 
to iMow wlio i>|iciily Klory in it, Imt also Co Mr. S«'hr«'iin'r. Tim 
<>|iiiiii>ii K<'ii<'nilly Im'I<I of Mr. Sflii'<'iii<>r ill lln> |)M'««'iii lime in 
lliikl hu Nto<<it3<l iiri lulroit fOurM>, un<l avoitlctl too loud r\|ir«-H- 
j>ioiiB of loyalty for four of provoking the diitloyalty of otbvrN. 
Air, BuU'h view in rliitt ho M»t very adroitly on a narrow fcnco, 
;in(l tliut the Hitlti of Uui fonoe on wliirli ho iiltinmtcly di-HOonik-d 
in not that on \vhi<-li,\vhcn tli<< TruUHVual lroiil>lf Ix-Kun, lio IiojmmI 
and ox|io<'t«Hl to ilcNccnd. He iK>iM(.s out lliat " Mr. Schri-int-r 
^illowcil larK<' (|iiantitii<8 of ariiiN and animiinition t<i iHt dcliv<>rod 
to tho Orann'" Krc«' State," at a tinio when thr> olijeet of their 
iniimrlatinii wan ho clear that the Portn|{iie!M< (•overnnienl 
stopped war storeM at Delajjoa Flay ; that, owing to Mr. 
Si-hreiner'ti inaelion, " in the early Nla)(eH of the war, the 
eoloiiial forcen, as regardx e<|nipiiieiit, were ntterly unlit to take 
the Held " ; and that he iiistrueted the Civil itervants at Kiiu- 
lK>rloy " to hold aloof from warlike propamtlonM an it wnii the 
<leii!ro of the Cape Oovernment to remain neutral in any .Htruggle 
that might take place." And when ho re<-oi-cU Mr. Srlireiner"M 
siib>ie(|iient eo-o|M'ration with the High CommiHiiioner in the 
punishment of I'elH'ls, he muuim up thus : — 

The nuiulK>r of British troops under arms in South Africa ex- 
ceeds the total of male civilian inhnhilnnts.and Mr. Schreiiier'K 
is not the only apparent conversion. I think it can lie fairly 
xaid that when the issue waa dark and uncertain no acts of Mr. 
Schreiner's could have justly prevented the .\frikander party, 
hati it achieved ils aims, from still claiming him as itsown.just 
in the sanu> way as now it may be urged his acts entitle him to 
the sup|M)rt of the side which nndonbteilly must U- pre- 
dominant. 

The liook, in slmrt, is as vigorous an attack on Mr. 
Sohreiiier as any one need wish to read ; and Mr. S<-hreiner's 
reply will be looked for with interest. 

M. Edouard Naville, of Geneva, like M. Yves (iuyot, of 
Paris, stands up for us on the Continent against brother Boer. 
His pamphlet entitled Biiit.mn .\Mi BoKii lNni-U'EM)K,N<K (Black- 
wo«xI, (Sd.) is pleasant rt>a<ling, and should do giKxI. To our 
tiprmau censors, in partimlai-, the fulliiwiug historical parallel 
may Ije rcconimen<le<I : 

TIh! flrst act which raised Prussia from the istsilion of 
inferiority in which the Peace of Olmut/. had left her was the 
crushing of Deiunark. On this little country J'russia trietl 
her army, i-enrguuiwd by Von .Moltke and Kikui, yet this trial 
blow was made in concert with .\n.-tria. Two years later 
Hanover, Hesse, Na.ssau, and other States lost their Inde- 
l>endence, and were annexfsd to Prussia. And yet the historical 
traditions of these countries, the rights acquired by a past 
illimiinated with glorious episodes, were quite diffen'nt to 
those of the B<x>rs. To take part with the Boers would have 
bi>en to follow a policy directly opposed to that which 
contributed to make Prussia llrst and then Oermauy the 
Power she is to-day. 

It docs, indee<l, look like a case of the mole and the lieam. 

Those who desire to read lh<^ early history of Natal, and 
lu'efer short histories to long ones, may as well read it in Natai. 
AND THE BoKHs, by T. Kowell (I>'nt, "is. (kl. n.). The author 
has drawn on the usual sources of informal ion. and trailed them 
down in a I'onscieutioiis anil painstaking manner. The facts are 
duly set forth, though the style is without distinction. Tlie 
story is only carried down to the year 1847. 

Mr. John B. Purvis' Handhook to Bkitish K.\st Afkica 
ANI> fuANDA (Swan Siiiuienschein, "i. tkl.) is the work of a man 
who, a.s director of Technical Instruction in L'giuida, had the 
opportiniity of getting to know all that was worth knowing about 
the country. He sets forth his facts in a concise and business- 
like manner, and his iMok should be useful to travellers, settlers, 
iuid missionaries. 



IndU. 

Kaminmin- |nim4 ^Kegatj pjinl. 7». «H.» l« a ««-rfc^ »if ll«« 

op<-ii Uillers to L<<' '4 

tlie Indian Civil S. . : 4t 

I'niveniity C'cllege, l^indon. Tlie ll>. Mr. Ilult via 
out to prove is llias lucidly «lale<l at : . .. i ; 

Th(*r«< i* no doubt thai th«<<v fBinlnm aiw dliwrtly niaM<«l 

by the failure of the .n Hk over whirh nwn ha« no 

control ; but It Is <><|ii;>. n Ihni fhoir ln*<Hi»ity aiMl 

their ilioaslroiis effe<-tH can !■• lo .i ;_ • iiy 

MKMb-rating the land lax. Iiy the il 

works, anil by tlH> reduction of the puldie <li>b( and lh«i 
ex|>enditun- of India. 

Thetie pointa, c«|MH!ially thoae relnting to llie land tax. arv cany 

fully argiiisl, with a generous provision of sf V  ' •»• 

who do not si-e their way to accept all .M "• 

will llnil his iHMik a useful manual on the sulij<H't ij I nd 

tennri'. His view that it is iiie<|uitable to mnkc I i^T 

the niaiiiti>naiic<> of a large army to )•< i| 

pur|>oM>s of the Kmpire has llw support of i- _ <•• 

who are by no incaiiH to be deserilK-d as little Knglnnilers. But 
his contention that one of the roniedit-H called for is tlie empl«»y- 
ment of more Indians in high appointinentii introduces a fivak 
order of iih'as, ami he ihies wis<?ly in not insisting upon i" •• •'• 
undue emphasis. 

In KoiiT St. IIhiki.k, Maiikah, by Mr«. Kr.iFii- r. ,,uy 
(Sonnensehein, 10s. IJd. n.), we have a history of our tii-i [..-m*. 
sion in India. As the book is big and the suliject not so hiic, 
there is rooui in it for many interesting, if trivial details, a* to 
the |X!CCBdilloe)i of the si-rvants of the Kast India Company, and 

their methods of maintaining discipline among th'-' ' '••■m. 

There an- also anei-dotes. some of which are more I in 

others, alioiit such ilivers i-elebrilies as ( '" '"" d 

Captain Kidd. The history is only carried . '< 

of the century, and the Isiok ends «lth '4 

inonnnH-nts in cemel«>ri«>s. The iKxik o«< "* 

siibji-ct rather than to the Irealment. It c 
)N-n and ink sketeheK by tlie author, ." 

oUicure iM>int« of history by Mr. .1. Kelsall, formerly erf the 
Madras Civil S««rvic»'. 

" Mat^ptaux poup ••rvlp." 

Many a student will Im" gr the l«<i  'i« 

Chai«t»j«m asi) Roiu* in the I' -r <<r M «. 

BitlTlsH .MtsKi M Ipnblished at the .\|i 
which has Ikh-u iilited by .Mr. Henry i ' !'• 

Bickley, the Senior .Assistants in the |)i>|iartJnent. This \' • 

is an Judex Ivorum, per^ional iiaim-s, suhjeeta, and n'lii..'Mis 
houses, together with foreign docuiuenta, being rewrveil for 
future oiiiti. Di'spite these limitations the unweariinl rompileri 
have flileil nearly a thousand double-e-olumm-il |>ageii with thia 

splendid list of dei-ils. It is. of conrs«', u- •»* 

licationof the kind. Th ilenchir of the St, iv 

lH"en printed : so has tin " 

Conqui-st. The value  '* 

the D«"|>»rtnient of Manuscripts is *-' 

elcvejith century to the inirly pjirt of i . '"* 

every document of that description which hail Im', -'I 

down to 1882. The limitation of date is not cm 
Index can hardly have lieen under way for 

To the toi)Ographer and the local historian th< 

the utiiM)st value, since it will infonn him at a i.;iii'' •' every 
bit of manuscript material in the British Museum, outside the 
Stowe collci'tion, n-lating to his subject. When the Index 
iiomiiium is adde<i. ' '"*"<'•■ 

distance and lack ' ■• ^" 

mere list of docuni, '" 

ing in itself ; but h^ "^ 

of historical or social interest, or wh *• 

upon details of local history. Thus, »■ •• 

a deed of manumission of a naficws of Battersea by \''  

AblH'v, while many villages, now of sm ■''  "■' ■"■• ' 



( 



70 



LITERATURE. 



[July i!b, 1900. 



or f- — -»-« allotted to their rr<>o«ls. Of sm-h. for Instanoo. 

•r<' -t ill Koiit, and rK'iihaui in Bucks, to nuuie only 

|w»> m-.|«iii-4«>. ToaMM>n<l fniui finiull thincii to (tniit, wo fliul tlio 
cItJm of London and M'o>tiiiiiisi<>r <M'i-ii|iviiit; Hvi'-aiul-twoiity 
paKP«. It it, of jMiir.c, :ilinoM iin|M>'>sil>l<- lo t«~»l tlio eoniplote- 
neas and «c<-uracy of ,i i-iKupilntion of (lii» kind : but wo rhanro 
to havt* lM>forv us a i-o|iy of ;i diK-unifiit which should ;i|>|>aroiitly 
have b(«ii inelndml, but diM-s not u|>|MMir to \n> iiidc\*Hl. It con- 
sist* ot extracts fruio the IVurt Holls of the Miinor of Broad- 
hurst, in Sunex— it wai* in the luunorlal houxo there thiit 
Arcbbi&hop Leighton died. The referenee In Adol. MKS. 5701, 
fol. 108. One or tvro ooiivtions iu ho extensive nnd laborious a 
pieoe of work wxinld neither Im' surprising nor inexcusable. 
and tin.. .if omission it Im-- may jiossibly lie ex- 

plained .>ns of the scheme. However this may b*-. 

there can !»■ no iiuesiion of the value of the iiook to students, oi- 
of the minute cure, <>s|M><-iii I ly in the truciiif; of the relations 
betmen old and new forms of place-names, which has l)eeii 
bestowe«l U|>on it. 

Tha Art of Wsp. 

Mr. K. B. Marston's translation of Mwhamcai. Tiiaction 
IN Wak, by Lieutenant-Colonel Layri/. of the Oerman nnny 
(Sampson Low, 5k. n.). ap|ie«rs opiKirtunely. It deals with the 
pa.»t, the present, and the future of the traction enpnc, disciisHcs 
Ute tnerit-i of different motors, and gives an account of the 
T«riotts ex|M>riments coiiducttnl with them in France, Kussla, 
Italy. Swit7x>rland, Kn(;l»nd, and elsewlier(>. The steam road" 
looomotive was siictH-ssfMlly used in wT»r as far liack ns the 
CrimMn eam|MiKii. and afterwards by the Germans in 1870. and 
the Russians in 1S78, and oven then it was deiii<inNti-ate<l that 
atoep ascents, Imd roads, and narrow streets pres«'iit«Hl no insur- 
mountable diflicnlti<>s. What has b«>en the result oft he recent 
experiments with them in .South .\frica the author does not tell 
ns for the excellent reason tliat he does not know ; but lie 
quotes an expression of opinion favourable to them from the 
war-corres|iondent of the UaHij Teteyrapli. His InKik will Ik- 
Taluable to students o( the subject. 

Mr. Clive Holland may l>e congratulated on his OrwKiPY 
GciUE TO SwANACiJ. AMI DisTUlcT (Pearson, (kl.), the district 
including t'orfe Castle, Warehaiii, Wimlmrnc, and Poole. 
Swsnaf^ is KnollM>a in Mr. Thomas Hardy"s Wessex, and a 
good many other Wessex sites ar«' duly identilU>d in the guide, 
«Meh is written in iietter Knglish than most ImmAs of the sort. 
Putionlar praise is due to tin- phologr.iphs. Th<-re is hardly a 
■inuilny picture among tiM-m, and the liest of them, such as that 
of the old oii 1, arc <|iiite works of art. 



FICTION. 



■Isnklswloc 

Tb«- Orst thin;; tliiil strikes the r<>ad<'r about Henryfc 
Sienkiewicz and his KsKiHTs i>f the Ckiiss (Dent, '2 vols., 4s. tVI. 
per vol.) is his industry and the tcrrillc length of the book. It 
looks like a task of wveks, the reading of these two great 
▼olttiiies, with their small print and their 757 pages. The 
" period " <jf the tale, too, looks formidable. Few novel-readers 
know much aliout Poles and Lilliuanians in the early llftcentli 
century. But the iKMik onci- lM>gun will !>«• read through to the 
«0d. The M.irri>ini are living men, breathing, lighting, and 
•»' 'Jt gives ns time to iHs.onie intimate 

*' • kn i" the U-st ol them, with his 

ba' the young tref-s and his 

he^' and Ix-at fast at tin- sight 

of many anotlMT. They are truly human, those Poles of old, 
mlicfcly men with soft hearts, and a royal contempt for death. 
Zbyshko's nnel... a glorious old wolf, untaroeable, and of 
prodiffiou* stn-ngib, loves his nephew like a woman. But when 
Zbyshko, Ibrouich a loiyish imprudence. Is conik-raned to death, 
this is b«« the two laki- it : 



Matsko could not sleep, and soino tliuc after they had 
lain down he called to his nephew - 
" Zl.yshko !" 
" But what ?■' 

*' Well, taking everything Into noeount. I think that they 
will cut off thy head." 

" Do yon think «<» ?" asked /bysliko, with a drowsy 
voice. And turning to the u ill h,. i<.|l :isli.<-i, svvi.,.ilv, f.n. in- 
was wearied by the road. 

This is liefore the s^'iiteiicc i.- ci'icini. (.:iIit uiu'ti jt 

has lK»en pasM>d, Matsko consoles the Iwy : 

" B«' not troubled. Thy Isines will not be si>eking one 

another at the day of resurr^-ciion. 1 will have an oaken 

collin made for thee of such kind that the canoiM-sscs ot the 

Church ol the Virgin Mary have not a iK'ltcr. Thou wilt not 

die like a ]ieas!int, or like a nobleman created by patent. 

Nay ! I will not even ]H'rinit that thou Ix' beheadiHl on the 

same cloth on which they lx>head citizens. I have agreed 

already with .\niyley for cntii-ely new stuff, from which a 

king's coat might Im> made. And I shall not span- masses on 

thee- never fear !" 

This reminds one of " snug lying in the Abbey," but 

Zbyshko is "' delighted " and repeats " (Jod rewaril y<m !" 

His two love affairs are delicate and iH'autiful. His little bride 

and her tragic end evoke all the tenderness of his n:iture ; but 

the splendid young Yapeiika, whom he marries after Danusia's 

death, is the true mate for him. Brutality is not so rampant In 

" The Knights of the Cimss " as in " Quo Vadis," though then* 

are hard blows struck, and the tiescription of Matsko"s tight in 

the hall is as thrilling as the picture of his torture is horrible. 

.Mr. Jeremiah Curlin's work as translator is conscientiously and 

symiKithelically done: though the F^nglish n-ader is a little 

start led at an occasional rampant .\mericanisiu at a serious moment. 

Senaatlonal. 

i{KVKN(iKH I. Fani.s, by F. W. Bainford (Klliot Stock, Os.), 
is full to the brim of horrors and snakes- literal snakes, with 
liter.il tangs. It is the tale of a fend and an Indian temple, and 
an interprising Kuglishuiaii. The rea<ler sympathizes with one 
of the characters when he says " I shall not bo the least 
surprised it I dream about snakes, cxtra-llngerwl men, and fakers 
to-night." 

.Mrs. Meade's SA.NC-riARY Ci.in (Ward, Lock. 5s.) were 
Iietter descrilied as an asylum tor criminal lunali<-s. For the 
inmates (it was a residential club at Hainpstead) were all 
criminals of the most des|KTate kind, an»l the two fe<'ble-tiiinded 
medical men who ran the show were certainly lunatics, since only 
lunatics could have exhibited tiie blindness of DiK-tors Cato and 
Chetwynd to the nefarious doings of the patients under their care. 

For those who revel in stark mel<Mlrama Mr. Hcadon 
Hill provi<U's lavishly in CA(iKii ! (Ward, L<Mk, (Vs.) a romance 
of a lunatic asylum and many otlK-r straiip- things. It is a 
somewhat careless piece ot work, but few readers who are under 
the 8|»ell of the wild excitement with which each chapter is 
packed will care to consider questions of style. Mr. Hill 
knows his elicnt.s, and criticism must stand aside, and merel.v 
wi.sh so energetic a writer gotKl fortune. 

Lovers ot uncanny, gruesome stories may find some satisfac- 
tion ill ri-ading Mr. K. K. Kellctfs A C»>iiNKn IN Si.kkp ANI> 
uTiiKit Imi'<«vsibii.itii.> (.larrold, ;is. (Id.). But the author has 
nothing new to tell us. Many of his stories avc. rather ob.scure, 
and even the Ix-'-i •■' ''■•■mi. " TIh- New Kriiiikcnst4.iii " In not 
very w«'ll done, 
Mr. Morley Robsrts, 

III Till l)ix«KNi UK -niE Dfciifxs (Hands, 3s, M.) Mr. Morley 
Rolierts essays farcicalextravagiinZH. The Duchess was travelling 
by rail In Western Anxfrica. She tell off the car as the train was 
crossing the Mississippi, but lia|i|iencd to Iw caught in the 
canvas awning of a flat-bottoim-d lioat that was passing under 
the biidpe at the time. The crew ot the l)oat— typical 
Westciiiei-s — took her to their homes and took cai-eof her till 



July 28, 1900.] 



literati: KE. 



Iior (ricnilN coiiUl como to fetch her. Ono of thu IniU fell In Invo 
uith b«r. but uhurixhcd no illuKionit. Thiit in all llMt iitory, and 
ilio MM-'Ht lies iilniONt oiitiii'ly in the tr<>iiliiK'nt, which in 
:i(lin!nil)l<<, \Vhctli<>r tlio liiiiiKiiir will U|)|M>nl to widt; an(licno<>«, 
as dot'H the huiiioiir of Mr. .Icniiiio, wo do not fwl (|iiil<' Hiirc. 
There urti soiik" jokos in it of whirh irnltocili-n .ind inK-diicalod 
)ioo|)lo nii};lit fall to nixt tlio (Miint. Hut we, at any nttc, 
found it vory .'iiiinsini;, and wclrouK! it as <>vidcni'<; that 
.Mr. Morloy KoIm'I'Ih |iosh«-sh<<.s literiiry gifts with which thoMo 
who only know him liy his |)syoholo(;i<Ml Ntiidics and his Krilish 
Kiuplro lMH>ks do noi ci-ctiit him. 



AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 



Till* |ii-o)!r.uinno for tho autumn suason is K>"-i<lually taking 
slmp4<, vs|)CM'ially in thu doimrimont of llction. A few of the 
novels wo havu alit'ady annoiinucil, Imt it is now possible to 
K'VO a list of sonip of tho nioro ini|)Ortaiit books which will 
probably be ready within the ne.xt few months. 
(Sortnulo Athorton ... " Senator North." 
Amelia K. Bjirr ... " Trinity iJ<'lls : .V Talo of OKI 

Now York." 
William Biirry ... ... " Tho Wizanl's Knot." 

r..ouis Bccko ... ... •' Kdward Barry : South Sea Pearler." 

Sir Walter Bosant .. " The Fourth (lencration." 

Mario Corelli  Tlie Ma^ter Christian." 

Stephen Cnino . . • Wouiuls in the Kain : War Stories," 

and a novel. 
V. Marion Crawford ... " In tho Palace of the King." 
Paul Loii-i>ster Kord ... " Wanted, a Watehmaker." 
Maurice Hewlett ... " Kicharil Yea and Nay." 

R. S. Hii-hciis " Tongues of Conscience." 

.\ntliony Ho|>c " Quisante." 

Henry .lames " The Soft Side." 

Lucas Malet " The (Jateless Barrier." 

Leonard Merrick ... " The WorldlinRs." 
Oeorge Moore ... ... " Sister TlH-rcsa." 

.Vrthur Morrison ... " Cuiniinjj; Murroll." 

Max l'cmln"i-lon . . " The Footsteps of a Thi-one." 

Kdcn Pliillpotts .. " Sons uf the MorninR." 

Tna L. .Sillx-rnid . . " The Lady of Dreams." 
.Mary K. Wilkins ... " The Heart's Highway." 

Charlotte M. Yonjje ... " Modern Broods." 

.lohn Bii<-li»n " The Half-Hearted." 

Anna K. (iroi'n '• The Circular Study." 

Charles Lee " Cynthia of the West." 

Kichard Pryce . •.Iczebel." 

There will also be new novels- the titles of which have not 
been anneunced— -by f^erton Castle and Winston Churchill ; % 
volume of short stories by Bret Harte, and " Tho Wis<lom of 
tho Wise," John Oliver Hobl)es' comedy in three acts, which we 
understand will wait for tho stage pnMluction till tho autumn. 
Next week, too, theis- will l)e a new novel by Mr. Baring tjould, 
entitled " Winifi-ed." The Ix-ginning of next year brings the 
lli-st numlH'r of Mr. JIall Caine's novel " Tho Kternal City," 
which is to appear serially in Messrs. Pearson's new lady's 
magazine. .Mr. Kichard Whiteing's next novel may l)e ready 
before then, but the author is still ft>eling the effects of his long 
illness, and it is impossible to s|)eak with certainty on the 
subject of his book, .\nothcr volume of storic-- I'v Mr, Tl..,iiias 
Hardy has been talked of for some time. 



Publishers, at all events, are not forgetting tho Indian 
fiMutier and its neighbourhood iri the worry of South African and 
Chinese affairs. Besides Mr. Briice's book on " The Forward 
Policy and its Kesults," announced by Messrs. Longmans last 
week, and the .\fghanistan volumes to come from Mr. .Murray, 
Messrs. Methucn promise a, personal record, by Sir Thomas 
Holdich, of twenty years' service on " The Indian Bortlerland." 
The work is desi'rilied as a personal history of trans-frontier 
surveys and boundary demarcations, begiunins; wiih Pcnjdeh 



and endlnic with th< i' > >•• 

an aceount of >ionHt nf tliw inn 

taken iin into bii)^ ' 

toimgraphical and ' 

frontier f' 

tions Sij- 

well as llic llli.H.i.tii 

fre<|nenlly mentiomwl ii. 



■I fk|MHll||I|<|l>>, 



71 



ll> 
■i* 

waa 



CoMiimtiting more than a immlh ngn on fh«> fitatrmunt tiiat 
the of an " irf Rnaktn wm 

occi/i 'attention —, WW mnarlmtf 

<m the ditticully the biographer would havo to furf In •■■■ni|M-lin( 
with " Pnelerila," and ulmi nienlioiDsl Mr. CollingwiMMl'a Life. 
It is now Hlate<l by " .\ Man of Kent " in the HritiMk Werkly, 
on the authority of Profeiwor Norton hiniaelf, that no biofrrapby 
of KuAkin will In; prepared with th« consent or aid of tho 
literary ex<>cutoni on the very ground that " Pmttcrita " and 
.Mr. CollingwiHMl'H biography sunicicntly cover the Held. ThU, 
however, we imagine, dm-- .< 

Kuskin's diaries, notes, and i ^ 

s(>lectioii of the correspondence under pro|ier cxiilurtal kU|>er> 
vision. 

Messrs. H(Mlder an<l ' pablUbinK " Tb« Origin 

of the .\nglo-Boer War l(.\c. , a work which Tindic«t«« 

British {mlicy, although it is written by a Transraal borghor. 
The author is Mr. C. II. Thomas, fori' ''iiricher 

of the Orange Fn-e State and one <.f i rmn •< 

B<'lfast in the Transvaal. Mr. '1 . <| 

with all the leading Transvaal .o 

iH'lieves that the Boers have l)een betrayed an<l m 
liullander clique, and the object of his l>ook is in " 
conspiracy of the nineteenth century." 

.\ccording to the Daily Chronirli", Messrs. Chapman and 
Hall announce yet another eilition of Dickens, the f.Miim.nf 
which (it is state<l) will be " the inclusion of all the - us 

which were in.tde for the Dickens writings as tl.. .. ...^ .jp- 

|K?ared," printe<l from tho original plates. Surely there i« 
nothing distinctive about this. The nH'«>nil' ' ■<-d (tadnbill 

e<lition, with Mr. .\ndrew l>itng's iiiti' and ni>t<>« 

IpublishiHl by the siiine linn), was < ' le 

feutun-, and »''.is thus announ<tsl in t! k. 

original etchings and wimhIciiIs !■ ^ .., 

and Cruiksliank, whii-li ;ipi>e:ir<sl >" 

works, and which an> h 

n>ading public with the ' i .v.- 

iise<l in the tiadshill iHlilion." The pn>s|ieetiut also states that 
" the publishers have in their |)w.s«'ssion unu"-"' ■' ■■i^-- ■'■•' in 
line condition of many of the steel plates of the ' i- 

tions, and the impn-ssions will be taken from tln-«- |.i.i'<'^. In 
what respect, therefore, the forthcoming ixiit ion will differ fniiii 
the Gadshill e<lition it is diniciilt to imagine, and wti can only 
surmise that the new issue will prove to be a cheaper reprint 
i>f tho latter, printml from stcrcox, with iiossibiy litbograpbie 
transfers of the etehe<l plates. 



Miss Cholmondclcy's readerM b«T« been pnrsnlng their 
inquiries into the origin and ion of tho title of '* Re«l 

Pottage," and have driven 1 i 'r* to hnre re/v>nrjc to 

the author liers»'lf for aui' origin 

and the signillcance of this i , , >scd to 

Ik> sufficiently obvious, though many )>ersons better raid In 
tiction than in the Bible set'in to have fiTLoiK'n tli.ii th.. me^s <4 
|M>ttage for which Esau sold bis l> " red 

pottage " in the Scripture. " .\nd K-.", ...... ..i.. Feed 

me, I pray thee, with that same red |)ott*gc." Nor is the motto 
very obscure either — ".After the red !>.•" ' • ''5 

bitter cry." Esau's la)tsc lc«I to Jacob's ir is 

when Esau heanl the «•■  ■-. t i <1 

been already given to I' i . ii 

a great and exceeding biiier cry." v. 

however, cannot remember where she go: J 



72 



UTERATIRE. 



[July 28, 1900 



snsvf^tii • Man*!) tdruoirh thr wrmono nf the 'Rt'v. John 
1 Tln>n> : 0«i«- w-niiUI v)ir<-fly liiiv«> tlioiiKlit «•>>' 

a;... . :■ \wr«> inH'Cwwiry for «> siniplt- n Hyii thesis. .S<» much 
for the oriicin- Thi> KijfniflcMii«-o Mich as It i» is equally ohvious. 
The vounfT innii wll- '■•' '''-ihriKhl of love an<) "v ■i.'iniiv :inil 
forftMts his Mo»»inj; 



TIk" fourth volume of poetry in I lie new e«iit ion of Byron 
will probably be rendy in (>r«o»»er. It inclnile> " The Piisoner 
of Chillon," " MiinfnMl." " Bop|>o." " Mn>:e|i|ia," " \'i>iion of 
.'■•'—■■•  ■• Miirino Kaliero." &r.. nnU will Im- f.ii. ■>.... I i.v tl... 



the letter*-- IKJO to 1822. 



A volumv of 
Willisoi Cowper," 
to Mr. Finher I" 
poenui, fntgtuents, 
never l>e«'n puMi 
•ome ar»> paisaRe* 
Omvper, and Koint 



;i.i.. 



i-. 



" I'npuliliHhetl and I'ncolhvKMl I'mMnn of 

e<lit<Hl by Mr. Tlioiu*-* Wright, is to Ik" addi^l 

nwin'n Cuinco Scries. Of the twenty-<MKhl 

or couplet-* includ«Hl in the volume some have 

shol, some have been pnl>lish(>d only in pan. 

ihirli for various n-iisons were ciMu'elletl liy 

have appe:ire«l only in |>eri<^lii-als not now 

'I'l... ne\l volume In Mr. I'nwin's Library of 

"A Liteniry History of .\nieiii-a," by 

-M>r of KiiKliHil at Harvard C'ollej;e. 



lu the list of MHKC of Dr. Koliertm>ti NiooH'R liteniry nliasrs 

given in th<' last nnuilier of the lierifw nf thr llV^-fr (now to Im- 

Mnmlieroil ainoiif; the sixpenny w««ekly reviews! there is a mis- 

punetuation which will Im- anuisinf; to all who are familiar with 

t he si Jtnn ' "  ■• " ''lindius Cletir." " Dr. Hol>i>rtson Nicoll." if 

wrote, •■ t'landins, (.'lear Man of Kent, anil other pic- 

iiM..^.ii. The amusing jmrt of it is that Dr. 

: by any means a " clear man of Kent." 

I 'kI that, so far from IxMnj; a native of one 

o( I! ' and most Kn>;lish of counties. Dr. Nicoll is 

mie '■ I*' and industrious (i/f<^r(itr!iii» who have come 

to Us li -^ till' Northern border. Amon;; the other 

litenry i mII<-«I by him he was, wv olwerve, the Friar of 

the Whitefri.ir- t'lnb chosen to s|>ealv in Mr. (i«>or;^' Meredilli's 

iKtnour lit the club nie<-tin); n-iMtitly iield in Mr. tJeorj^ 

*." \. Me fouiKl occasion to i-emind his audience 

sas in her tiin<' l4io, like liiinM'lf, a " pluralist 

.^.,. i-eviewiMl " The Shavinj; of Shaf;|>;ir " both in 

r and the HV.sf riiiHufrr KcciVir. (;eorf;e Kliot, in her 

.,iuii;ire«l tlK- liook to its atlvantajire with Beckford's 

lid said it might be called " The Tliousaiul and 

\ ..iM Night." 

Vnblisher*, apparently, remain unmoved by Mr. Miller's 

"is as certainly doomed to speedy ex- 

nery-yallery, frrosvenor fiallery ' cult 

.»; a few years ajro." Xotwithslandinfc the 

s of the Kubaiyut already in the market. 



M<>ssrs. Methuen — (fratefnl, i>erhaps, tor the mild sensation 
caiisfHl by Mr. Miller's arti<-le and the corrf>s|¥Midene(> which it 
ereate<l aiinimnce another e<lition of the liook. with a coui- 
nu-ntary by H. M. B:itcon and a bioirraphy of Omar by Professor 
Koss. KitztJenild's \:\-~l text is jfiven- by |H'iuiis>.ion of Messrs. 
Mai-nillliin — unil there will lie a full commentary. The liio||(raphy 
by Professor Ross contains, it is said, many new and valuable 
facts. '_ 

It would lie inter<>sting to know how many eopios of 
I'hirwjn's " Origin of Species" havolieen print«Ml since the Iniok 
was first published, almut forty years ago. Mr. Murray 
informs us that sonu> hundriHls of thousands of copies at least 
Ikivc be<>n sold. The work will be out of eopyrifrlit in a couple 
of years or so, and the piililisliei-, takinj; (inie by the fori>lock, 
h:is decidtsi to issue duriu); the coining antunui an edition in 
larp> type, well bound iind well printed, al a price which will 
brin;j it within the ii-acli of all — half-a-ci-own. 

Mr. Rilwnnl •■Vrnold writes: — "In your interestins: blblio- 
irraphy of bixiks on China you do not mention Mr. .\rnot lieid's 
lyork, "From Peking to PotersburR " (7s. (kl.), pnblisheil in 
IWm. which ouftht not, I Ihink, to lie <miitto<l." 

Another series of brief bio({raphies is announced, this tiuif 
by Messi-s. Methuen. The first two volumes of the " Little 
Biojiiiiphies." as the new series is called, will be " The Life of 
Savonarola," by K. L. Horsbur^h, and "The Life of Dante 
.XliRliu-ri," by Pajjel Toynl)0»'. 

The .liidf/iKiri/ for .^ukhsI will devote :in article (o " Kins 
.\lfrtHt as a Man of I^etters," b.v Warwii'k H. Di-aper. 

The demand for the revise<l edition of .\lexis Krntisse's 
" China in Decay." which was only pul)lislied a forlnljcht a<p>, 
has JHvn so gri-al that the whole of the iin|)rossion is already 
I'xhansted. ^lessrs. Chapman and Hall have a third edition in 
the press, which will lie available in the eoin-se of a few days. 



Kinhcr 



BooKa to look out fop at oaoo. 

CHINA — 
' China in Dpcsy." (Thinl and reviscil islitioti). By AIpxis Krauivu-. 

Chupman find Hall. Si. 
'China." (N'rw and enluri^d tHlitiun.) By Prufcii«i>r Douglat. 
Cnwiu. 5». 
FICTIOS — 
' Monica ({rpy." By L:iitv HpIv Hutchiimon. 
• Till- (JimMi-sc '■ Ky Rich«r<l .Marsb. White. 
' Hie Kliok of Fortune." By Thomas I'arkes. 
 Wniifreil  By S. Baring OouM. Mi-thuon. 
I'atli ami (ioal. ' 



Mui-rav. 
«s. 

White. 
6!.. 

fin. 



6.1. o. 



By Ada Camliridirr. Mftlmen 
n. By t'. J. Wills and 

By Hina Doyle. John Long. 3a. 6d 



The Dean's Apron. ' By V. J. Wills and Godfrey Buirlu-tt. 
■A». M. 



Ward. 



Lock. 
" On I'arole. 
CRICKET— 
" 'I'he Walkers of 8onth«at« : Beiag the riironicles of a Cricketing 
Family." By W. A. Bettesworth. Methuen. 15». 
ItKPRINTS— 
" 'I'hc (Queen's Maries." Bv Whyte Melville. Wanl. Lock. .'U. 6d. 
Mrs. (iaakell's " Cranford " ("Little Library.') Edited by K V. 
Lucas. Methuen. Is. ttd. n. and '2rt. lid. n. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



ART. 

LpandacapePalntinsIn Wat«P 

Colour. Iiv ./. Mu' iri,,rt'-r.l'...K. 

:j ' lOlD.. ro i.p. ( a^*ell. J-. 

BIOORAPHY. 

Mr Main i XidUter^ 

of Ore. //. K. 

F^rr'r. 

I r,«in. *•. 
San icallL BjA.Strtclrr. 






AL. 



Ij"!. II. 



.. I. 

, ..I 

■d. 
na. 



FICTION. 
The Deaoent of the Duchess. 

U\Morlei; li<,l,irl.~. '.t jilll..l!«i 111). 

.-^nnd-. 3s. 6d. 
A Pplnoe of Swrlndlaps. Br Ony 

H'lOthUu. 7i -. .'iHli.. J'.iJ I.;., 
W 
The Pomp of the «<s. 

nv '. ' • /• '. i. 

\. A. 

The i-ri. 

B. 

The Bat: 






Aft. 



ii-._ :,-. 



DRAMA. 
ran Park, a PUr ii> Fni.- 
. Acte. By B. TtrntUtman. 11 - 
Tjia^npp. Snrrej. HI«cnke,>.Sd.i.. 

ECONOMICS. 
The Theory of International 

TPMla.   /.■.'"'.; I.I..U. 

MKd:  i I 



A«atha Wei> 
<.rf, (1. Ti-S, 

Vansaai- 

:* ijii 

Eupopaan Si - 

Far East. 



Baap. 

. 3olp|). 
Co. ««. 
Julian 
win. 6»-. 
' 'I »a K. 

1- fW. 



* In tha 

;i. 



LITERARY. 

..•a Pormcfi t.lttcrnlroa de la 

Pc I '" 



I'HWtDll^ 1 

Rrnard. 7J 



la 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

A Day In the Clolster.H> /'"//im 

Hrilr < (linilL ll.-^.B. :j ,.'>)lll., 
■JM iin, .--.ilKi". (>-. 

The Way to be Wall. By i»fr«. 
)'. Si'i'lh. Jix:ijiii.. It! pp. 

W ,11- liarilmr. 3d. 

The Ppinclplea of Cheaa. B.v 

J. Md'-on. ;ir>l Kd. ?• x jin.. .Ul pp. 

( o\. J-. Od. n. 

PHILOSOPHY. 

La Tplatease et la Jole. By 

lirofjr l/umas, llx.'iiin., (-.T pp. 

I'ari-. .Vlcrtii. Kr.7..>i. 

Eaqulasa d'une Psycholoirle 

Pond^ aur r ^ i<r 

in-. Ilnritlil II I 

into 1- rinih fi h 

K<1. by 1^'on J'tnLuvii,. ^Auiin., 

IM pp. I'Mitf. Alenn. Fr.7.40. 

POETRY, 

Passing Thouirhta, B.v Maria 

E. «.i»-. 7 I Ml ...3 pp. Stock. 

POLITICAL. 

Natal and the Boara. Bj T. 

/{oir'-ll, "i \.)in.. JiS ptt. 

(,... . ..1 ,,^ 

ThaSouthAfploan' :::y 

Bv /■: II'. jirii. ^ 

JW pp. H'ln. , .,•. II. 

REPRINTS. 
My Danlah Sweet hoart. By 
-iixpenny 

> ICO. 8d. 



Old Mortality. 

M. Iiy ./. A. 
.Vi2 pri, ( '.iTTi, I 
TheOoldi 
k IV. 
('aj-titii. 

:«ititi.'7«|.p. 1' 11 



icli \ol. 



ft'. Clark II' 
Ubrarjr.l » ^ << 



THEOLOGY. 
The Atonement In Modapn 
RellglousThougrht. By Various 

AuIImii-. ',i  .')iin.. .Tli lip. 

Christianity and Mythology. 

Bv J. M. ItolHrlHon. (tx.iPn.. 
tttl pp. Willi-. Ss. 6d. II. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 
A Book of Dartmoor. By .S. 

Uamm (liiiittl. ;^x,'>|iii.. 'JKI pp. 
Mitliiien. Us. 
Pulham, Old and New. By ('. 
J. /•v>v^ 3 vols, in -Sjlii.. .laS I 
348+.tll pp. 

Tlic Leiideiih.dl l"roS'<. C3 3-.. 

TRAVEL. 
South Africa. Personal Ex- 

i.( liiMii-ei, 4;i-. \\y J. tUrkir. 7/ 

.ill)., 107 pp. AIlfiiMin. Ih. II. 

Handbook to Britlah Bast 

Afploa and Uaranda. By /. H. 

I'urcin. 7« • Ain.. W pp. 

^ODiiensrliein. 2n. (ki. 
Wani n . In China. By C. 

/•'. 'ining. (iicup Ed. 

»> BliicWwoou. tt<. 



Jitcfiitufc 

Published by ZTbC CimC0. 



No. 14a. SATUKDAY. AUGUST 4, 1900. 

CONTENTS. 

PAOB 

Notes or thf Day 73,71,75 

Pkrsonal Views— "PleAitures of Mpmory," by Stophpti 

Owyiiii 78 

Thr Stohy ok Rumko and Jitlikt, by VV. O. Waters... 77 

VicTOK llt'oo 78 

Sara Coi.kkiihie, by M. R. lloste 78 

Bkvikwh - 

China jiiid the Present Crisis 79 

IJyion'.s Works 80 

nictioiiiirit'fi 81 

fxivc'.s Coinecly 82 

Api.s MHliiiii. 82 

Cllt'SH- 

Mr. BIa('kbiirnc'.i nnmea «t Chew— Social CliCKX-Princlploa of 
lher4< in Tlicory and IVnoticc 88, 84 

Sport ill V\"iir Thii fiiknowii— A Bool( of Dnrlmoor HnmpHliirf- 
Ouidc to .«oiilh \Vi<lr« Tlie Laxl of the CliinbinK Boy« I'coplo 
\oii Know- HoIktI HaiiccK— Map to IlliiHlmto tho Chlnwo 
QuvHtion- -Chiim of Today 84, 85 

Tho Ir -r . - .. .. .> -  ,, ||i,tor.-For thn yiicon In 

So'i .Inn OxImt- The Married 

Mi" .a vV'inimn'H Part !.otiiK ftnd 

Lamii .11. r.i i.iMci.r. 1 rir Norlliurn Bolle-Hllx -Tho 

Nalced Truth H«ttina- The (Jiioon Wa^p-Daiightcrx of I'lonsnro 

— StiKlic.H in Love. &c 8.'>, fW, 87 

LiHRARY NoTi:,-: 87 

fOKKKsfoMiKNc !■: Th« Irish UinidinKo Tho Date of IVnj-s' Mnrriimo 

— Judtfiiunt in Literal ur« (Mr. W. Basil Womf old)— " Mr. Boyton" S"?, 80 

Authors AM) Pi-blisiikks 89, 0<) 

List of Nkw Hooks ami Ueprints 0() 



NOTES OF THE DAY. 



Tho orders for " Vie Times History of tho War in South 
Atriciv " .-iro oomiiis; in .so nipldly that then" is somii possibility 
thiit tho list at the ri>tluci>€l prico may bo very Hiiddoiily elosed. 
It is at present being kept open to allow of tho replies from South 
Africa and tho other eolonies. It must bo b«)rno in mind that 
the continuation of the war may render a sixth volinne ncn-ossary, 
and this may induce the publishers to niiso the prieo to meet 
tho extra expense. Mr. Chamberlain, Sir Alfred Milncr, and 
Lord Wolseley have given sittings for speeial portraits. Among 
tho contributors aiv Miss Flora Shaw, Mr. W. K. Monypeny, 
Mr. Arnold Forstor, M.P., Mr. Lionel .lames, Mr. Pereival 
Luindon, Mr. Bron Horlwrt, Major A. W. Pollock, Major Hunter 
Weston, Captain Nathan, R.E., and General Sir W. Nicholson. 
The whole is edited by Mr. L. S. .\niery, who has himself writK-n 
the greater portion of tho first volume. Mr. Amcry is cxpcHitcd 
in London on August 17. 

» • *  

Lot Us congratnlato Mr. K. F. Knight on the complimentary 
dinner given to him by his col leagues of tho Press at the Hotel 
Cecil. Not every war correspondent oversteps the boundary 
lino which separates tho reporter from the man of letters : but 
the tendency is in that direction, as tlioso know who have 
followed the work not only of G. W. Steovens, but also of Mr. 
Winston Churchill, Mr. Julian Ralph, tho ebullient Mr. Ifales 
of tho Dallij Sewx, and Mr. Knight him.«clf. Mr. Knight, in 
fact.'.was already a well known writer before ho became a war 
correspondent. His accounts of his cruises in the Fiitron and 
the Alerte belong to literature, and ho combines, like the great 
B.-P., the talents, seldom found together, of the man of action 
and the man of lottei-s. 

Vol. VII. No. 5. 



Tl... .rU 

Exhibition, and wo can only expmwi onr hope 
JournaliHtx of tho difforent countrii<« hare mataally i 
oaoh other, and that the int4>rrhangn of atiirKMrtioiM BHy hsw 
done Homcthing towards the ovolni lde*l nmnpapar. 

At any rat4<, it is certain that tho y ....:, of erery nation 

have something to learn from tho Joumaliiits of other nation*. It 
France could learn fn>iu Knglaiid ' ntagi* of knowioK 

something of tho Muhjet't you are » iit, wc abould not 

find tho French military expcrta adviaing tho Bopm to dmtroy 
linos of railway which do not cxiat ; and if Kngland could learn 
litcnir>' polish fn>m France, aomo of our cheajx-r daily paper* 
would bo better written, (ierraany, again, might very well t«k« 
lessons in sub-oditing from Amoriea ; while America might well 
take les.<ions in aclf-n'spect from Germany. Bat tho probability 
is that nobody will learn anything from '■:«t 

every country has tho sort of Press, as it  •», 

that it do»er\-os. 

« • • • 

When wo wrote a few weeks ago of tho fortbcoming 
bicentenary celebration of .lames Thomson, the poot of " Tb* 
Seasons," the weather scarcely befitted the summer of which tte 
poet sang. Happily the Hoaaon mended in time, and tho cele- 
bration took place at Fxlnam, Thomson's '■ ••. ne«r 
Kelso, on Friday of last we«>k, under a »»;> of any 
summer poet's pen. It was, within its modest limits, completely 
successful. Visitors, under the guidance of the Edinborgh 
Border Counties As.s(K'iution, wero driven to tho places o( 
intei-est in tho nelghlH>nrhood, atut ~, none of itndlM 
length, in prais<> of the po«?t were d. m a " haagh " or 
riverside nioadow by Sir George Douglas, of 8priogwood-park, 
Kol.so, whose cultivated interest in Imrder lor«; a* well as io 
literature generally is well known ; by Dr. Morel, of Paris, » 
biographer of tho poet ; and by Judge Willi*. There was after- 
wards a dinner at the local hotel, where, if there was lc»s Sooteb 
whiskey and Scotch enthusiasm than at a typical " nicht wi' 
Burns," there was nevertheless whiskey and enthnslasm. 
•   • 

William Morris was a great democrat, though ho did not 
writ«> the sort of bisiks that th.- 'its in ; and it 

is a graceful act on the part of i i  Mr. Edward 

Lloyd to hand over to the public " for ever " tho honae la 
which tho idle singer of an empty day was bom. Their action 
secures to the public not only a house but also an " opea 
space " — a faint reminder of the " • ;land " in which 

Morris rejoiced bcyoml 'hi- m lioritv 
 

We endorse Mr. AuJrcw Lang b  m » 

Muqazine against thos<^ who "pursue 1 y" 

by inviting him to inform them what wore his e -of 

collal)oration, and whether ho of-- '■■■I rov.^ ...... hU 

collalwrator. But wo may also c<.i Mr. Lang on the 

fact that his exiK-riencc of this sort ol been mild la 

comparison with that of some other mcT. ^. He might 

havo been one of the men of letters invited by the editor o( » 
popular magazine to plunge their feet into pudding basina full 
of gelatinous miitter in order that the public might gauge their 



74 



LITERATURE. 



[August 4, 1900. 



'i.TM *^. 'r v.ije*. VfB oipouM this consplrarv -< 

i r oaino to nnylhiiif; — probably in conso- 

quciu-v •! •' phonis of clorisive comment 

which it v«>ry r»>al poii^piraoy ; mid wo 

know, tbotijili u^> tU> iu>( iiK-iilioii, tlio iiaim* of < 
cauon of tho Chun'b of KiiKl'ti"! who iictu.illy yi< 
editorial blaiidi»hnioutM amf Ktani|MHl in the offcusive raixluro. 

• • • • 

There t« critioimn fof all tastos nowulayK, and also for no 
tMte at all. Mr. Hcnloy and Mrs. Moynrll, for oxampio, have 
botli hern hariiiK their Kjty altout Uu.«kin's oritioiHm ; and 
BcitlMr il' " ' Ii to the tastfi of Mr. Lang, who 

write* al - Mogazinf in his usual U|;re<>»lilo 

rein of r»ilUf%. -Mi^. MfViii-ll thinks that Uuskiu'M work 
may be Ulc<>nf<l t" n si(l<T<':il -Wy U-lioUl fmm nii earth ui)on the 
wing. M ' hand, liolds that Huskin tip- 

lifted hi^  . is(>— nonsense all the time for 

many year* and through intermin.ilile volumes. Mr. Henley, 
by the way. has li<>on jrivinf; vent to some e<|ually downrJKht 
view* in lJ>e Ui.t few numlierx of the Pnll Mall Magiizinf. 
Shelley. Wortltworth, Tennyson, Browning, Uuskin, llossetti, 
and Mr. SwlnUume lie now for Mr. Henley in a enimpletl heap, 
with Byron si i-t at the hegiiniing of the eentury and 

Mr. K. A. M. 1 at the end. It is quite a eomfort to 

'■- ear is closed in death ; these 

« f * • 

What wonM Sir TIenry Irvinfc or any theatrical manager 

say to 3/' 'initlfHl as the work of a writer of 

to-day ? I . , It it w-ts tinaotable, and tliey would 

l)e quite right. What can liave made Sir HiMiry Irving say that 

he had th"" •' '- "f pnxlucing Lord Byron's gUxmiy and verliose 

drama ? ' it has Imhmi acted. Phelps appeartid in it in 

ISKJ, and t .■ cris Dillon playetl Manfred so lately as 1873. But 

there i* no dramatic |K>wer or interest in the play. The 

Uos of which Manfred «lelivers hiuis<-lf 

ion are nut easy to read for long. On 

 ilu-y would very soon heconio tedious. Of course 

•iild l>e plenty of sco|)c for eluliorato scenery and 

! 'icv- 1 .. il device. Alpine castles and singing spirits and 

<li;iiiioi- hunters wonid give the costumier and the seeiio painter 

and the chorus master a good opportunity. 

• »  » 

Mr. .St.'pben Phillipo and Mr. Tree soejn to have realized 

that The /." ' '/'• Jrwm would I>e an unsuitable name for the 

p<ietic |i the former has written and the latter 

I. Il i» now stated that the piece will Ik; calli?d Jicrod 

•    

Miss Lncy Snowi>'« " Two Stage Plays " (Brimley .Tolinson) 

• 'iij)ts at writing for the theatre of 

,.rs' cuplMKirds are full. They are 

 to say, they would have very little 

I liey are not very interesting from the 

.f of view. Of the two Homliiqi^ is the better. 

,.>■ I, ... i.ii Ilmen lin<<M, and it also suggo«it8 

'hercd from this that humour is not 

I :..r,^ 1(1. MM ^ . Her t^ilent is for scenos of glixim, 

In the other play there are scenes nieiint to be 

is of the ' l.ind. The neat little 

st tn is^i ! r. Brimley •liilinwm'H 

.,/ 



Wa: 

LiMvll. hfan i« a i 

introdaetino to ' 
eifbt year« a^o. 
••On >'t- • 

BMrt «•>" 111 I IX' 



• n of " Aylwin " Mr. 

fijvvy lKT»iine, Sinfl 

I in the 

SMiiie 

 'HI, i ^;i \ <■ .1 -^i i;:iiL 

 Chi ' that liail ever 
I Aiij^lia known to Borrow 



.....1 i.i.Naelf -Sinfl Ix>vcll. I described her Y>'«ylnff on the 
crwth ; I iliscussed her exploits as a Iwxer, and I contrasted 
her in many ways with the glorious Anglo-Saxon road-girl, 
Imipel B<>rni>rs." 

'its have written to Mr. Watts-Diinton 
[lie two gi|>sy girls are identicjil ; mid now 

their curioHity in gratilled. 

• • • * 

In the Peoplr'* Fr'fntl Mr. A. H. Millar, famous for his d.tr- 
ing views iilM>ut Omar Khayyam, maintains the thesis that " The 
Fudge Family in E«linburgh," usually attributed to Thomas 
Moore, was really written by John tJibson Lockhart. The first 
part of the case, at any nite, seems to bo pretty clearly made 
out. Moore was living in Paris when il was publisliod ; he had 
never been to Scotland ; it was exccetliugly unlikely tliat he 
would ha\' - with an K<linbui>;li publisher, or i lio 

intimate 1 .■ which the iiociii displays of " i :? 

soricty |vopl« and the notable [daces in Kdinburgh and Gla-.i^ow 
in 1820." Moreover, Moore's regular ps<Midonym for poems of 
the '" Fudge " class was " Thomas Biiiwn the Voniiger," and 
one failstounderstand why he should have adoptetl the pseudonym 
of " Nohomiah Nettlebottom " for this single jVk d'eitprtt. 

*  •  

On the other hand the presumption of Lockhart's authorship 
is only arrived at by a proi-css of exhaustion in socking an 
nnsvwr to the question," Who was the literary man of the period 
must likely to write such a series ? " Ix)ckhart, :r ", 

had the local knowledge, the talent, and tlie satir. ; 

but there is no direct evidence of his authorship. Mr. Millar 
sums up the probabilities as follows : — 

Lockhart travelled on the C<mtincnt in 181C-17, and may 

have thought of imitating Moore's Paris book (The " Fudge 

Family in Paris"), Ixildly apinrndlng Moore's ps«nidonym ; but 

atter\v:irds ho probably altered his plan and transferred the 

Fud;;es to more familiar ground. While there is no definite 

pi-oot that Ijockh.irt wrote this VDlnme of jKHjUcal epistles, 

the cumulative evidence is very striking. 

This would not Ix; an al)»olutely unique instance of the .tp- 

jiropriation by an author of another author's characters. We 

remember a ps?ndo-Pickwick who distinguished himself by 

Continental travel. 
» 
Though naturally disniiiioluifil ihai i In- >f.<iiid reading 
of the (\>pyright Bill has lieen |«>stponed, the promoters of the 
measure are fairly sanguine that in another Session it will 
become law. A general election would not bo likely to affect 
its prosiK'cts, as all the Parlianientitry sup|K>rtcrs of the Bill 
would in all probal)iruy be nwelccted. Meantime, the Bill has 
reached the hands of the members, and there are those who 
expe<'t that it will bo ono of I he Hist matters sottlexl when the 

next Session begins. 

 •  • 

The new edition of Mr. Herl»ert Silencer's " First Prin- 
ciples" contains the announcement tliat Mr. Herliert Spencer is 
no less sure that he is right in his view of the universe now than 
hewa-swhen he Ix'gan to formulate his philosophy, forty years .tgo. 
Neither the objections made by olh<'rs [he says] norfurthcr 
considerations of nty own have caus<>d me to recede from the 
gfmeral principles set forth. Contrariwise. 
And that, of course, is as it slionld Ix'. It would, indeed, 
Im! a tragic occurrence if a philosopher, who had embarked upon 
the ex|K)sition of a »yHt<mi on the scale of Mr. Herbert 8|>encer'H, 
and was having the plates ster«"Otyped, were to 1k> convert-ed to 
>■<•" Kantianism (like the man in the story that Mr. W. L. 
I wrote for the OxfonI Miig'izinr) when his task was 

 -d. Rut thix il n c-iliT-iity liy which philosophers, 

I;, are not very 
:i matter of tem- 
iient than of research ; and we have K<M>d autlwirity (or the 
^.....'iiient that every man is born either a Platonist or an Aris- 
totelian. Read Kvoluflonist for .\ristolelian, and Neo Kantian 
for Platonist, and the slatcuient is still true to-day. 



f- Xufrwsi 4. 1000."! 



LITEHATUHE. 



73 



An illt.r.-.iin^ ••-. ...I •'=■■■ '- •' 1..,-.!— -. ..« 

tho nuaib«T'< wild of Mr. H<tI 

uorks. "Kirst J'riiiiM|>l<>»" is ill ii pi'i 

"I iJiolofi^y " in itv xiM li tliouHnml, *' i " in 

its lll'tli tli<iii-<:inil, aiut " Priiioiplos  i<ul^' in 

tliousand. lOx iili'iitly of tli<> in;iliy •■• readers v 

Mr. Herbert S|M'iicer's HV-iteni, only HO |K-r rent. Ii 
'taying jmwer to master it. Tlie otiiert drop out ■■! 
the uport-smeii in the llrnt eanto of " Tho I^uly of the Laiio " : — 
And when tlio Bri^'R of Turk was won, 
Tho ln>adnioHt horsoinaii rodo nionc. 
<> - further that, Mr. Herlc 

\. . II tliey do not form nn i 

system. " Kduoiktion " is in it.s iOtU thoiisAud, " Tlio Nituly ot 
SoeioloRy " in its Slut thousnnd, nnd " Tho M«n niid tho 
State " in its Mlh thousand. These, at any rate, arc fltcunM 
which many moro frivoUms writers will cuvy. 

« * * • 

The Bishop of London has boon advising a Innly of scliool- 

jifirls to n'ad throo iMKtks writion beforo IStK) (or each one 

written after that date. This is Koing further tiian tho 

familiar counsel of perfection that, wlionevor a new Ixiok is 

))rofIered, you should read an old one. As a pMieral r< 

tion of the classics in preforence to tho ephemeral lii^ 
the day, especially dnrliip; the years (if <'(lueition, when laslo is 
lieing formed, tho Bishop's adviee may pass as not only true, but 
trite. Taken for anything iin>i-<' than dial il will not do at all, 
unless the counwllor will condescend to particulars. Ho would 
hostitate, we are sure, to rt^commend to the young ladies in place 
of " Pickwick " the perusal of " Roderick Random," " Pere- 
grine Pickle," and " Humphrey Clinker." Perhaps after all it 
was his Lordship's little ruse. Guessing that tho girls w<Mild not 
:ilt<igethor, oven on liis advice, abandon their modern romances, 
)ie calculated that by this simple rule of three they would in 
time consume the whole course of the classics, 

* • * * 

Last year a delegation of Bretons paid a visit to Wales in 
recognition of tho common ancestry of tho Welsh and Breton 
race. More than sixty thousand Welsh were pri>sent at theCardill 
K'tes, when many of tho old Celtic rites and ceremonies were 
revived. Amongst, the Bretons were the Manjuis do I'Estonr- 
beillon. Count Le Gonidec doTrossan, Charles Le Oolllc, Anntolo 
le Bra/,, the wi>ll-known author whose lKK)ks have bt-en tnuislate<l 
into Kiiglisli, Joan le Fustec, the Breton novelist, and the fKiet 
Durocher. A i-eturn visit to France has just been made by the 
Welsh, and a concert was given at the Paris Kxhibition by two 
hundred menil)<>rs of the Welsh united choirs, conducted by Mrs. 
Clara Novello Davies, Mr. Su-phens, and Mr. Farr. The Welsh 
songs were given in that language,the audience applauding enthusi- 
astically, and the Marseillaise was sung at the cud of the concert. 
« « • • 

Prices generally ruled very low at Messrs. Sotheby's sale 
last week, but the most marked falling off was in the value o( 
the Kiplings. The following were an)ong the more imp»irfant 
l)Ooks sold : — " Chronicon Nuremborgense," tine copy, 14'.K1, 
KH ISs. ; " Rudinientum Novitiorum," Lnl>eck, 1475, the first 
))Ook printed at that town, line copy, .C45 ; Manning and Bniy, 
*' History of Surrey," 1804-14, tlti ; Boydell. " Sh 
<Jallery," 180;!, £15 ; Richardson, " Clarissa," llrsi 
1748, 1C5 ; White, " Natural History of Sellwrne," lino copy ot 
the first edition, 178'.l, £'J ; Ruskin, '• Stones of Venice," first 
edition, £11 10s. ; Stevenson, " Tho PentlanJ Rising," tho 
rare little print of 186fi, £3 5s. ; Thackeray, " Vanity Fair." 
first edition, an excellent copy, £2 ; Swinburne, " Grace 
Darling," tho privately printed etlition ot 1893, £1 ; Kipling, 
" Tho United Services College Chronicle," Nos. 1 to 5S, 
£5 7s. Cd. ; " Departmental Ditties," first edition, a perfect 
copy, £1 Is. ; " School Boy Lyrics," first e<lition, a soiled copy, 
£3 5s. ; Kolmscott Books, " KeaU," £27 lOs. ; *' Gothic 
Architecture," a copy on vellum, £8. Shakespeare, *' First 
Folio," much cut down, and repaired in places, but othei-wise 
in very good condition, £252. 



An intcnwtlnff r" ' ' " -  " ' " 

Iwalader Jonen, •■ 

in Ann ita 

TruiWliiifl main iu _ , ihat 

id Ufailing. Amorioan tr.ivelluni will vhh, iMrfoiw •t«rtiac, 
to '* rtNid up " t 

they propoae to viNit. This is 

which to a«t out upon a imintry ; and Lhora U p '.irn 

of that aplrlt in the I'lii- • ^- • " i 

country. Tho general I 

tourist is of a man in a hurry, «) . rw. 

place, whether it bo the Gonivr t. i. _ . not 

wait to lulmira the Know peaks or the picturun, bat morolr nti*- 

fles himself that i % 

guide iMMik iu i 

Items in an invoioe of goods delivered. Thoro U, I 

another, nnd a very large, cIs-m of ^ - 

touring seriously and eX|MH>t other 

have Im Ii an Ann i an i. 

iM-huvii ily in tli, iiin. "V. 

nie, sir, " ! 

" but ymi il 

a I 'ry.' 1 1 

in ill f'le 

eighteenth century ; i ,-ht 

U|>-tx>-date, the [Kiini 'iir. 

Not all tho travullent of tlioao <l i of 

cultuni and refiin'   '■ ' i.-a- 

tion to which a k ry. 

Til • till' ni 

in who ha<1 r 

to ViilUiire t'xei3|il tliat lie ' 

earviMl a pheas;inl, and by I 

Royal stal)l(^s the only thin 

whose account of his tra . 

he records the dis<'ov<'ry of a Swiss inn u ■•d. 

As a rule, however, the 1 r.iN.'lI.i., ,.f ili. . . ;»iar 

did got up their sn travel*. 

One 8008 from the wn. !■._-■■ Arch- 

deacon Coxe, and others, hov olr 

travels for li ' ' 

pre:*crving i 

following .M 

lay his hnn.i 

l"' es, ils llio |i 

til •• aluiut to tr.' 

and sindy it Ix-fori' . no 

doubt, the habit is i .m. 

Kuroiiean travel is such a much bigger e> tan 

for us that they nnnriiiv t a., ii - (^ 

accumulate in th' res 

that will last tlien i'm 'he 

practice is a Kood one for 
pi. 
pv. 



tiiem, and wo i 

wo are not sur.' 

wanted. What wo «• 

liist«,>rical interest t" 

historians or learned :i 

the gift o( style, and i 

and wo arc inclined t" 

historical noveli--; 

At all event.s. re 

bri 

d.1 

try 

oil.' . > 



. of 
loll 

in ; 
ily 

e uipm. 

done by 

TaIO- 

lae 
for Uui oM 

9—2 J 



LITERATURE. 



[August 4, 1900. 



A DIRGE. 

I. 

Wind and nin at the brrak of day. 
^ind and nin from the i>ca ; 
Mist on the mountains (ar away. 
And a broken heart for mo : 

Blow wind, blow up from tlio wi>o])iM5 Wom, 

Blow wind and rain from tho hoa ; 

Kor thi> soul I love in the wido world best 

Can never return to me. 

II. 

Foun and spray for evermoro. 
Foam and spray from the 4ba ; 
Wreck-wood strcTrn on the wind-swept shore, 
Wreek-wood strewn for me : 

Sweep on O clouds, from the stormy West, 

Swjt'p onward over the soa ; 

For the soul I love in tins wide world best 

Can never return to me. 

IIL 

Wail of waves on (he moaning strand. 
Wail of waves from the sea ; 
And a lifeless form on tho cruel sand. 
And a loveless life for me : 

Cry ont O bird to tho troubled West, 

Cry out to the anprry soa ; 

For tho soul I lov<> in tho wide world best 

Can never return to me. 

^- 

Silent RTave and lonely Cross 
Lonely Cross by the soa. 
Emblem alike of gain and loss. 
Anchor of hopf^ to mo : 

Blow, wind, blow up from the weeping West, 

Blow wind and rain from the sea ; 

Till tho soul I love in tho wido world best, 

Is given again to mc. 

H. J. S. 



personal Dicws. 

PLEASURES OF MEMORY. 

In spito of Sheridan's remark abont easy reading and hard 
writing, it is probably troe that we read with most ple.isure 
what gave roost pleasure in writing. I am using tho word 
pleavnro in a somewhat restricted sense. Nobody who piekc<l 
his phrases wxiuld say that he read with pleasure, for example, 
tho Hcene of Lear's madness, any more than he would call tho 
AgnmemnoH a plf>asant play. The emotion of tho andience most 
hare some kinship to the emotion of tho artist, and what is 
rompo«od under a violent stress of feeling. or painfuIIyelalmrattHl 
In tboagbt, cannot play lightly and agreeably on the chords of 
onr nature. And the things in literature that we value most 
—or siaco this is a personal view let mo say, that I value most 
— hare ■cparatcd themselves not witliout bitter travail from tho 
lahooring brain of their creator. Tlicso were never tho pleasant 
writing that make* picaaant reading. And yet there are certain 
•cencM, among the most lieauiiful in all litorature, which come by 
s ipecial grace eaiily Into life, all the nature of things working 
with the artist rather than impeding him. Who would care to 
decide which is the finer of the two groat passages In " Kichard 
FcTcrel "—the idyll ol the lovers' first meeting, or tho drama of 



Richard's return and Laoy's lorgiToness ? And yet tho one 

comes evidently like iron from the anvil, shaped through flro ; 
the other grows like a flower, if a flower could be iinpcrisliablo. 
The reason of the difference is plain enough. In the later 
BCeno tho artist works single-handed ; characters, sotting, 
action, words aro all born out of bis own brain ; but whern 
Kichard meets Lucy, nature makes her lavish contribution. 
Tfiero the background, tho surrounding circumstaWo of summci- 
beauty, with its ripeness of wild fruit, coolness of shade and 
water, heat of earth and air, is really more im]K)rtant than thu 
human action. In such a landscape Kiehaitl and Lucy are merely 
figures inevitably drawn together ; and in painting the lands- 
cape Mr. Meredith is evidently enough concoriiod only to revive 
and reconstitute nature's achievemont. Memory rather tluiii 
imagination is at work in him and his appeal is to our memory. 
Down those pleasant loitering bywaj-s he easily leads us, for 
our memories too are willing helpers in there-construction of tho 
scene. If that passage, however retouched and embellished, was 
not written at first in a rapture of enjoyment, my tlioory must 
go by the board ; but, for tho moment, my personal view is that 
it was so written and for that cause is perfectly enjoyable, 
entirely pleasurable. 

And there are many things in literature, more particularly 
in prose fiction, which affect one, not Indeed so powerfully but iu 
tho same way — passages wherfs the writer gives tho rein not 
to imagination but to memory. They arc written in tho spirit 
of a man who talks on his favourite sport — and, perhaps, tho 
best of them are about sjiort. Trollope in his Autobiography 
owns that it was a grief to him it a story could not be so 
managed as to include a hunting chapter ; ho even ingenuously 
confesses that perhaps he indulged himst^lf too much in thi» 
particular shajK? of reminiscent imagination. But the apology 
was little needed, for these chapters arc always among the 
best in his books, and the pleasure of tho stout gentleman who 
lX)unds laboriously but not ingloriously after tho hounds in 
memory (as he did in the flesh) never fails to communicate itself. 
Charles Kingsley, too, was a wise man when ho began " Yeast " 
with a meet of hounds and a hard run across country, for that 
stirring piece of narrative appeals alike to the literary and tho 
nnliterary by tho writer's contagious enthusiasm. Yet far more 
attractive to me were tho fishing episo<les in that same book — 
contributions to one of tho most fruitful among secondary 
literatures. You will find that the chalk stream runs all through 
" Yeast," and when Kingsley is tii-ed of his SiH-ialism, his game- 
laws, his theology, and all the other thorny subjects, he flies for 
rest in memory to the l>elovod banks of his river ; and it is 
those passages, breathing the revived delight in the varying 
yet constant face of running water, tho happy exercise of skill, 
and the excitoment of a struggle in which man has very short 
odcU against his game— it is those passages, I fear, that ono 
remembers Ixjst in that stirring example of tlie novel with a 
purpose. Certainly in a kindred Ixxik (though <>f an infinitely 
inferior order), "Tom Brown at Oxford," there is nothing I n^ad 
with pleasure except tho tale of an evening's tr(nit fishing and tho 
swirling rise of a great fish that sucked down a bee. There, ab 
all ov<-nts, Tom ITnghes was writing about an emotion which he 
could communicate to whoever has loved trout and trout streams 
with the curioiLs affection that allies itself to tho desire to kill. 

Fishing must have some s|H>cial ciuality apart from other 
sports that makes its delight |HH'uliarly communicable on paper. 
One does not readily recall any Hi>ecial page that roTivos 
(he charm of snipe shooting ; cricket has often l>een treateef 
in fiction, and by those who loved it, yet never, I think, with 



August 4, 1900.] 



T.TTKT? ATURE. 



inuoli i<ii<"<*p«s ; wlirmis tln' ' 
be rolled on lo nwiikiMi tlic I 

laf* Mr. Wlllisim BliioV, who wuh |><<rhn|)s not a vi<ry NtmnnnuH 
artist, n<»viirtlii<li'HH (iiiiU'uriHl lilm«Mr to ii lar;;i' soofion o( nmii- 
kintl ill tliiM way ; nno U:\n killotl niiiny :i nnr n.iImioii, innny a 
klinrliii;; grilso in his |mK<'.M, witli a pli-asiiro not. unliko tho 
reality. Anil t.hn trnth is that tlin charm ol Mr. Blnok'fi work — 
which I ninintaiii is a vi-ry ri-nl churm— lay Just In tim Htrciiglh 
of his continual »|i|)i'nl to iiiomory. Tho faculty was ohvionsly 
vory stmng in liini, anil cloiul offocts, llio spring of a Ik^jiI on 
the wavos, the onclnintlng Hhriok of a running rool, tho colour of 
hoathor anil lirackon, llii> Hlia|ii< of win»l-war|i<>«l |>inr> tns>s, all 
hauiiliil his fancy por|iotiially as if thoy won- pri's<>iit, and this 
IKirM'ption of things in thonwlvos ilcliglitfiil was oiisily traus- 
niittod. What with TrollojKi or Kingsloy worn acciiloutnl 
cpisoilos made with lllack tho main stuff of Uio narrative ; it was 
all pliMsaiit writing and at least for one who had tho ifamo fnnd 
of memory to di-nw on, who lovod sea and hoathor, it was vfsry 
ploAHant reading. Ho had tho art to mako his personages pic- 
tiiroM|iic- in some of tli(> earlier novels, notably tho " Daughd-r 
of Holli " thoy were quite extraordinarily effective— Ijtit thoy 
never became dramatic and predominant; tho s.iiling or tho 
Ashing or the diiviiig was always the essential thing. It is n 
lazy way to work, no doiiht ; but still if a man has tho gift to 
call up to my mind pleasant things that ho has swii or done, and 
set me thinking of pleasant things that I have done or sot>n, I do 
not grudge to write him down among my benefactors ; and for 
the |)li'aHnres of memory as rellectod in lletion I am moot indubtod 
to Mr. William Black oi'xt nfl'-r diaries Kingsley. 

STKI'HKN aWYNN. 



THE STORY OP ROMEO AND JULIET. 



It is no wonder that Shakespeare shonid have iliosen (lie 
.-tdi-y of Komeo ami .liiliet as the subject of ono of his earliivt 
plays, for no variant of the legend of hapless ' "irc 

widely dilfnsed. Kolklorists an^ often disposed i ito 

the range of a ))artii'ular falde ; Ihusllerr SiiniMi-ik in his 
remarks on Kliakespeare's plots maintains that liomfo and Juliet 
is one of a series which includes Hero and Letmder, I'yramils 
and Tliislie, and Tristniiu and Iseult, although thusu have 
nothing in common but tho misery of the lovers. There is, 
indeed, a potion in Tristram, but it is nut tho narcotic tiraught 
which may lie designated the distinctive sign of tho liomro iind 
Jiilii-t group. This wide sweep of the drag-net is apt to lend to 
confusion rather than contlrmation, and a clearer notion of tho 
inter-relation of the sj-parato versions will lie ivached by 
dealing only with those which share the sign afori>said. 

Its earliest rei'orded ap|K<anince is the ono in tho romance 
by Xenoplion Kplicsius, " The Loves of .\ntliia and .M)nicoiiias." 
When Xenoplion lived, and how his story passed over into 
Italy, is uncertain ; possibly it was first fold by some fugitive 
fJreek scholar, and thus came to tho ears of the It.alian novolist. 
The lovers ar«) wotlded and depart en a journey during which 
they are separ.itod and snITer unspeakalile woes. Anthia is 
rescued from roblK'rs by tho (Jovernor of t'idicia, and drinks 
the diH)Wsy |M>tion to escape dist;>steful nuptials with her 
deliverer. Boccaccio ]>robably t<«>k fisim this romance the 
iilea of Decameron II., 7, but in his story the Princess «>f 
Babylon, in the course of her many trials, is displayed a.s a 
cunning amorous min\', as fur r<"moved as possilde from the 
marble purity of Anthia, and Boccaccio, unlike Xenoplion, lets t lie 
story end happily. The complete legiMidllrst a|)pears in iiimlern 
form in " Mariotto and tiiannoZ7.a," the f hirly-thirti novel of 
Masiiccio's " Xovellino " — first printed in HTH, Like 
Xenoidion's lovers these unhappy ones go wandering about th^J 
Kii-il and Kgypt, but unlike them they meet no more and jieri-'h 



No 

liv 



olh«'P 

I. .,;..! 



yi-i 

.1. 



hi 



I 



dr. 

of S 

" I. ;!»,• 

which llrst lives 
round the fan-'- 

III ir>'.M I 
which til 
which h 

iKirrowed fruiii 1 li>; 
on the olhiT -\i\f. 
earlier i 
Hiinply !•• 

the lovers were laid, .\iiother witness iit 
liook of travels publishol in 1721), rtdat^-s h..^^ 
an old U^imb in which went twti eofflnH " 
tion yot legible apiMsiroU to contain llio B" 
that had come by their Death in a very 'I 
thrvo »•! 

.\t > niiiH to 1578 wan written rt fi 

Ifadriana," liy Lnigi da (iroto, which I 
the lines of " La Ciuliotta," tho iln^.. 1.. 
tho ago of King Latinus. Tho a. 
founded on an episode In lo<'al Im^k-. >, .in,, 
g.krrulous nurso apiieam, I>a Porto having > 
attendant a young girl and her T ' 
" Xovelle," printed in ITikil, \ 
publishing a reii<l 
paraph rise of |> 
pb 
the I 

Peivgrino, Da Porto's account li- 
captain, had told it as they joun: 
personality of the nnrM<> is further de\ 
apiiears as a good old woman and !•<.< .i^.. ^.n. 
passed into Kr.inco by at Imst three dilTerent 
np|)«>ars in tin- prefaci- " 

" Kilico|Ki " (l.'>t2). I 
collection of " llistoinv-. i 
for.">t (I.VVt) : and In " !,.>•< 
(I51):>). ' 
l'"rom I; 

.lulietta," in wliich the iinr 
scene in tho t<mib is ess 
Masuccio, ijart.s tho lo^-em for . 
is no mutual r<- 
lKff<>r«< Julici 



to 



l<> 
It 



tl., 



controversy has I'li.; i 
piins or losi<s from the 
is one of 



of the 

moi 

" i; 

Br. 

thou 

liaiidM, 



Iv 



's. ft lit itn 

her the tr 
of an in< 
 in the 
II th«t S 

> U|MIII ^ 

than ui 
"s ni>te  
I lid of M 



II as P. 
no is noi 
Tho love I'pLsode is as uiiim|inrtsnt 

Hptv»r»», and Mewrntio io .iiii.' . .-.■ ;- ii... 

man and nothing of thi' 

though iKitll Bniokc ;iiiM 1 .iiiii'i-, ^111 1 Ml 

ileolaro him to l)e " a courtier that eachwlien' 
ill price," and *' a v. 
rt<|j«>at<wl similarity of i 



iin. 

pro 

salacious je^ts and 

BriKike makes her 

genlliMnan " of the 

jioiut in <luubt, bir 



78 



LITERATURE. 



[August 4, 1900. 



TTio .iL-»> (if Juliet has Al«-ays pnivod a tirotonio cnix to all 
the: ' haro i>«sayod tliu part on the st.i);(>. It is well 

•■■-' ''■■• taalt for a inaturo wouiau, however cora|)otcnt 

. to mock the humours of a frirl who had not 
Mfii I of fourtoon years." In thus oxafrReratinK 

her yout) :irt> hau outdmie Brooke, who makes lier two 

I ill s|>oak of her as 

itists have used the 

> in t'ti-  MuiilCM'n, and 

! / ^ lUiHtloii a ■. and lK>lh hriiifj 

/py ending. The last named is niiieli the 

I , . : ...u ..iry work. Many of the scenes are pr^sentod 

in boautifnl and stately jtoetry, but in places — notably in tho 
epiijode of the narcotic drauRbt — the action is hopelessly eon- 
fused. It is, however, the only renderinR which fully elucidates 

i|. In Ixith jilays the father, wheji he Ixtholds his 

lighter, takes her foraplmst, the i}6nouenieut in 
1 • very inpenicmsly ntanagtxl. Tho lovers fly 

tomb, and set.-k shelter in an nnt<'iiant<'d 
■■'■^ to .luliefs father. Bnt the father 
I ". ife, and goes to spend tho honesnnixin 

itK'M'. \vl)<-i-<-ii|>on tho plot flnds happy solution in forgiveness 
• '■■■ i:"--"- -SV. a. W.\TKRS. 



VICTOR HUGO. 



There is still a public for Victor Hufto in Kngland, if not in 

Fnuicc. One may safely infer as much as that when one ftncLs Mr. 

I'  '" ' 'i:: a new illnsfrated translation, in ever so many 

!. net each), of his novels. It would nut. have 

:•. Dent, or to any other publisher for that matter, 

!r<l in a similar reissue of tho works of Paul do 

KiM-k, or I land, though their i>opularity was hardly less 

tliin \"tr- I s while it lastetl. But the author of " I.*a 

•i " remains in favour, in spite of the shirting winds of 

shion ; and wo aro tempted to s|)end a little time in 

why. Our impression — derived mainly from a recollec- 

ii.il].. I Mil- way in which the novels allectod us when wo read 

ihem uncritically, with other "yellowbacks," in our schooldays — 

 ly owed tlieir great success to finalities ciuite dUToi-ent 

'! to which tho novelist evidently attached nuist ini- 

iiin'. We never knew with any certainty what they were 

' ; we never followed tho ramiflcntions of the plots as we 

' ' ■• of the Waverley novels; the cliai-actf^rs were 

." : ! • us like the characters of Dickons and Thackeray ; 

' iS for tho great moral ideas — we did not even know that they 

v.i-;i- there. In a way, indeed, and in places, wo found the works 

of Victor Hugo as obscure as those of Persins or Mr. Meredith — ' 

no doubt because they embodied a symbolism to which we had 

not got tho key. But wo turned to his books, again and again, 

"of one particular sensation which they could always bo 

II to providf>. They n)n(1»> our flesh creep, as did the 

1 Poe ; they seemed 

.,' ; for the sustained 

<s the tight with the octopus and the ad- 

, _„ -lie of the sewers it was worth while to 

:.:li many p.iges of apparently extraneous matter. 

1 itie books DOW is to revive many memories of many 

s but no memory of any intelligible story or any lucid 

:'l:i- story symbolized. 

Ml" tinw» one csiinof re-rend the stories without feel- 

1 make our flesh 

,.ose would imply 

iiDOur, and in that sense Victor 

.t' On.. i.iWrht as plausibly say 

creep that RzckicI 

...«. .,. L,..- ,..,,■•, ,,i „ry bones. Hugo was 

■• M any Hebrew prophet, and as flrmly con- 

'I n nic-. >.ii:.- to dilivcr. Or. ;-, 

I'-'): , ■■■.111 ii I , nlwiy , I he |. ..,, 

][ to be, as Kepler put it, " icthiukiiig the 



thoughts of God " ; one also perceives it from the way in which 
ho is known to have comported himself in his daily life. He was 
tho sort of man who would get up at a literary dinner and sniuto 
the Kuturt) in the name of the Past, or both in the name of tho 
Present, according to tlie exigencies of tho hour. He sjiid in liis 
old age that it was nothing less than his duty to go on producing 
verso and prose, in spite of tlie possibility that his powers were 
failing and that a gootl deal of his work might not lie of the highest 
merit. It would Ih^ the duly of Post.Tlty, he adde<l, to go 
through his voluminous prixluctions and scjiarate the wheat from 
the chaff. And Posterity, by a strange and bittor ii-ony, has 
decided that tho wheat is r»>presonte«l not by the passages which 
embody the great moral ideas — which, after oil, aro put more 
concisely in tho copybooks -bnt by the passages which make the 
reader's flesh creep. 

The influence of Victor Hugo does not seem to have lx?en at 
all proportionate to his popularity. His name nuirks tho end, 
not the 1)eginning, of a literary movement. Kvcn in his liretimo 
tlio hungry generations had begini to tread him down. Tho 
romantic school is nowadays represented in Franco by M. 
(Jeorges Ohnet, a writer whose works have about as mnch to do 
with literature as those of Mrs. Henry WoQd. There proved to 
1)0 greater vitality in the school of Balzac, whose traditions were 
inherited by Flauliert, by (!uy do Maupassant, by Zolii. Such 
disciples count ; tho disciples of Victor Hugo do not count. In 
France, at any rate, his influence is, for all practical purposes, 
extinct. It is only in Kngland that he has had a disciple who 
has made a noise in the world. Is it necessary to s;iy that that 
disciple is Mr. Hall Cainc ? 

We do not suggest, of course, that Mr. Hall Caino has tho 
appalling solf-eonsciousnoss of Victor Hugo — that he aspires to 
Ijc regarded as a literary high priest or supposes himself to bo 
" rethinking the thoughts of Go<l " when ho is engaged upon a 
j)ic>ce of littjrary composition. All that we mean is that Mr. 
Hall Cainc, like Victor Hugo, shines in melodrama, and that his 
most conspicuous melodramatic i(U!.a is also to be found in Victor 
Hugo. In any novel by Mr. Hall Caine there is one great scene 
that habit has taught us to look for. It is tho scene in which a 
thoroughly respectable person— ho is generally ftomo one of 
importance in the Isle of Man — announces, with much pomp of 
circumstance, that ho is not .so respectable as ho appears to 1ms 
but has a secret sin upon his soul. .\nd what is that but the 
great scene in " Les Miserablos " in which M, Madeleine ex- 
plains that ho is roally .lean \'aljean ? Whether Mr. Hall Caino 
took the scone from " Les Mist'-rables," or got it through the 
medium of Mr. .lohn Coleman's nielo<lrama, with its fine outburst, 
" Here, take the fetters oft those honest hands and place them 
upon mine," or arrived at it by independent cogitation, wo do 
not know, nor docs it greatly matter. Tho main thing is that 
tho resemblance is there, and that it entitles Mr. ILall Caine to 
rank as a disciple of Victor Hugo. 



SARA COLERIDGE. 



Among the many notable names which appeared in Mr. 
Ellis Yarnairs pleasant reminiscences, published last year, not 
the least interesting is that of Sara Coleridge, tho only 
daughter of the poet. Those who are familiar with her letters 
will lie glad that the world should be reminded of one whoso 
I hardly so green as -^ to be. Sara Coleridgo 

i. il an ideal of w.. Iiicli can never lie out of 

date, lu days when " Higher l-.ducation " had not become a 
practical <ine!>tiou for women, she was an accomplished linguist, 
well read In classical as well as modern literature, a keen 
theologian, a litcrarv .iii;.. ..i considerable originality miuI 
acumen. 

Yet those who iim'^i mi- m-st testify thai she was seen 
to tho highest advantage in her home life. For literary 
distill'   bad little or no ambition. Her earliest work, 

the I 1 from Latin into Knglish of Dobrizhofler's 

" Account ol the Abipones," was undertaken with the view of 



Aiicrnst 'f. 1000.1 



MTKRATfTRE. 



Im'I 



■II. I 



ncl r;iv Mf[- nil »i MIT 



maj;i)i-ioii " wn.i written originally f<ir the arauHcnir<nL of lior own 
llltin Hint, and its jinlilioation wax <(no to lior hiiNhanil'i wish 
alone. It Is Mtrangc now to turn over tho pagci of llii>i wfll-iii;,-h 
forgotten fairy ttory, and try to in)iigino what umt 

havo boon liko who worn thrilled hy tho iho 

" slender princes," and " yonthfnl inaidens with liraided 
tresses " whom tho l>">t>k doMei^ibcn in nonio^vhat long-winded 
fanhion. In later life Sara Coleridge's boat iutolloctiial 
powers were dedicated to tho editing of her father's work, a 
task which devolved on her after tho death of her husband and 
cousin, Henry Nelson Coleridge, to whom wo owe the chronicle 
of the |)oot'» delightful " Table Talk." Her life was not long 
enoHpli for her to conipleto her labour of love, and the volume 
of Coleridge's poems, published in 1852, which liears on tho title 
pago her own and her bi-other Dorwent's names as joint-editors, 
was completed by tho latter alone. Tho lalM)ur involved in tho 
collection and arrangement of Coleridge's scattered writings was 
very considerable, and Sara Coleridge threw into tho work all 
that energy and enthusiasm of which she had so largo a share. 
Deeply imbued us she wa.s with admiration for her father's 
character and genius, she thought no trouble thrown away, if 
she might only vindicate his reputation as a thinker and teacher, 
and clear his name fi-om tho niiaconcoptions and prejudices 
which had inevitably gathered round it. She aimed at beiug 
his interpreter no less than his editor. 

Oreat an was Sara Coleridge's intolleclual debt to her 
father, in her childliiKMl she owed more to tho influence of 
Wordsworth and Southey. In one of her latest letters, she 
s(H;aks of the long walks she used to take with the former, about 
Kydal and Grasmere, and tho conversations Ijctwcen him and 
her uncle Southey to which she would listen sometimes for 
hours. It was not sti much any definite teaching that she, 
received from either which left its impression on the girl's 
mind ; but she was uuconscion.sly and deeply influencocl by the 
companionship of both. Of Southey she said that ho was upon 
the whole tho liest man she ha<l ever known. 

Sara Coleridge was an ardent educationalist in the best 
sense of tho word. She devoted herself heart and soul to tho 
training of her children, and, to judge from tho scattered refer- 
ences to the subject which ap|icar iu her letters, her opinions 
on it wcro well worth laying to heart. In those days, when 
education was hardly looked upon as a science, and no socictit^ 
existed to teach parents how to bring up their offspring, she had 
to rely on experience and her iiativo mother-wit rather than the 
counsels of authority. One is glad to know that her |)ains were 
not thrown away. Her son's career, though short, was brilliant, 
and full of promise for tho future. It is probable that ho mvo«l 
much of his siu-cess to his mother, both directly and indirectly. 
They studied Homer, Pindar, -lischylus, and Plato together, and 
when absent, ho would write to her for help and advice. His 
successes at Eton and Oxford strengthened tho general impres- 
sion that he was destined t-o add frosh honour to his ilis- 
tinguishcd name, but his early death prevented him from 
realizing the hopes centred on him. 

Sara Coleridge's li-lters arc perhaps more rt-ad nowadays 
than anything she published herself, but tho touch of lime is 
felt oven uik)u them. The conti-ovei-sies with which they so 
often deal arc mostly sui)orscded. The literary criticisms lliey 
contain liave lioen iu some instances falsiOod, in others rendered 
superfluous, by tho verdict of time. The events and inirsons with 
which they are concerned lH>long to a bygone day, and can no 
longer engross us. It is tho personality of tho writer which gives 
them Uieir lusting charm. In her editorial work this necessarily 
occupies a subordinate place, nor would she havo wished it other- 
wise for one moment : — 

Father, no amaranths ere shall wreathe my brow, 
Enough that round thy grave they flourish now ! 
But love his roses mid my young locks braided. 
And what cared I for flowers of richer bloom ? 
Those, too, seemed dc;ithlc8s — here they never faded, 
But, drenched aud shattered, dropt iuto tho tomb. 



It 
■*- 

!<•- 

tin 
<A 

h 

... dL 

•gniaad 



\ M»'^i' 1 I HI"' "I IMT M\v r 

subject. Hut, in the 1. 

lioh 

ri.l. 

from 111' 

knew li. 

her intellect, c 

and thought, li ... 

alTectiun. Kvon > ' only kr 

the beauty of her i ...;... ;. M- V 

genius in her face, a " radiant • 

spell." Her i - • .... \ 

notice of her 

After ei 

when t<i 

versation, ui 

stand the sin 

her lot was cast. Those, h.  v her 

could not know how tender a .1 _ ire lay 

bright and attractive exterior. Doroted to ber ' 

her children, lull of wann family •^"  ' 

consideration for tho.sc whose inter 

utterly unlike aud inferior to her own, I 

that as I have never known any woman of 

equal to hers, so I have vcr> 

character in all things more i 

owe a debt of gratitude to Mr. Yamali for 

character to our mincbi. It is of too rare a i; . 

forgotten. j^j n iiosTE. 



•T- 

-■•10 

m nociety 

ii'uli r (hat 
>d 

»t 

re 

i^r 

'JS 

.o of » 

• Wo 

'i % 



•ly 



IRcvtcws. 



CHINA. 



Ill his preface to CaiN.i ANO TiiK PuiMETr Caiids. with 
XoTfx O.N A Visit ni .Iai-an ^ r ^ ' 

Joseph Walton, M.P., dis, 

aud lii.H lM>ok certainly is very {<tr ui. It 

<'onsist.s in tho tinin of a >ierics nf par n f<-w 

linc!! in I li 

as " i>os^ y 

work," "pawn shoiw"; and a good xa.\ n 

look as if they had been annexed from l. id 

other works of reference. Whenever Mr. Walton >- 

where ho |K>urs out thostat' '' ' ' 

" The trade of Hankow is  

" The r:iil»-ays of < " The. 

staple pro<luct-s Of ' ' "oc is 

I of the leltei>. will. 'lo 

<• of the Oxfnnl . r, 

with lhes<! luild St , wiiirli 

pretensions " \\\>iil. „ .'d to fooin 

we havo an occasional g«<Hl story, and a fair numlwr uf 
observations. Tho remarks, for instance, on ("■■'■■■■•■' ' 
Chinese regiment are interesting, and xhow 
qualities of the " foreign devil " can l>e apprri,^i.u<,o .i\ im- 
children of the oldest civiliz:ktiou iu the world. 

These '., 

in addition i   y 

receiviHl their money in full, without anything bei^ A 

by the paymaster for what is knij\ni in China as ' .' 

they were greatly astonished. As the news of > il 

treatment spread, the niunbcr of rcir-- '■  t. 

There is also a jrrini hnmonr in i , .f 

the KIdorado, the I r that w^ts cuuvoyiiig Chinese 

troops when the wm 

Tho captain, knowing there was no escape, was prepared 
to surrender, but the Chinese soldiers on board would not 
allow it. They preferred that tho ship should be sunk and 
their lives lo»t thcru aud then, rather than bo subjected to 

10-1' 



80 



LITKHATUHK. 



[August J, 1900. 



Ih<' i.>i-(im~. «liM 1. 1I1..V i)w>iii^..lv.>^ -ir*. ill il>« hiihit of Inflict- 
ill, i vvi)ul<l Itc tlioir 

full' 11 ii4i-> ir-ii .iii\i' iiuti nil* n,llll|'« (M Mil" ■' (\l|)t» 

Tumpliu told UH that the KowKliiiii; wnw n kxI, ns 

h.. . Tho 

CM 10 «lllV 

K 

tl. 

IIm'v «vn' s 

<>n IxMni II,' . . Uo 

iinprov«kNi lliat 1 uro had lircn oITpcIih! through tho 

bribery ol tho Bi v».ts by tho JanaiiCMO. 

Wo oomo, at laat. to a chapter in which Mr. Walton drops 

" tit bits " an rilx- for tho 

Invttntont fif I ^ oriU'r, to 

^, \\^^l> I lioy favour 

10 afford 1' iKirs. 

Tlu^HC Viceroys, If in favour of rororni,a8 I Ijcllevo, nUoiiIcI 

bo included in tho (iorcrnuicnt which must l)c formed uimKt 

th« protecUon of tho Pow-crs. To oncourapo thorn antl lo 

sfi.   •,■ hands, it should l>c distinctly ii ' ' to 

til ( not onlj can they rely on n ly 

a^ Ih' noi-ossary now, but thai wo . uill 

nil (iillcst protection horoaftcr should any 

attvnipL bo made to inflict punishment n|Hin thrni in coilsi^- 

qiioncc of tjioir friendly action. The Chinoso |MH>plo could 

then, wllhout fear of constviuencc-s, show their real viow«, and 

I am conUdont it woiil<i in- i..nii.i ilm iiii> i-..f.if.iw.i., n-.. 1 i.,.t 

inconsiderable body. 

' .  . . i^^i^ jj^ rcMii.iiu wlicllier 

the it into li ii, and wliether a 

;i by tlif I'owers, v 
'I is tliat such ao > 
lary, and that, soon airer the 
' , , 'itin^ China in tho interest of 
Kuropcan trade, and the rc-planting of unjirolo<;ted Kuropoau 
coloe'"- ■" '''e interior of tlio country, other Boxers would arise, 
nior< rie and bettor armed, and a fresh series of nia»Hacro!< 

' ' r • ,11 this, of course, is more matter of con- 

ic and tho pessimistic view ai-c alike 
'ICO that can reasonably Ix" called 
cial map uf China is Ijomid up in 
Mr. Waltuu'tt buolc. 



BYRON'S SINCERITY. 



I'l l>\ IIIM S 



i < iiim- .ir<- iHMT uivd I if talking of B.vrini s jium' 

Byroniitm. by which it meant his vanity, his affectations, his 

Kvon Moore, his biographer and friend, fully 

nil nn Irishman's natural love of a lord, se«Mns to 

!\H that the lord should Ijo an Adonis in 

i-^ well. We cannot otherwise account 

lor 1 II, which Moore continually brought 

lo b'- lid host. He never wearies of jotting 

down particulars as U> Byron'n temper, caprice, hysteria, parci- 

•■ '—s of beauty, and in'T---<- •■' rirth. Bat, apart from this, 

ih all his genial Hi' 1, with all his sweet, protty 

indiiig the whole Byron as 

<l, in the essential manly 

Utl«'r j '■. The 

tr"<l(l<-n itstops. 



,- volume of 

• ~H more clear tho m:in's wunt of pose, 

ily. He Was aa sincere to nil the world a« all 

i-vt to be when by itself. Kvory one of us Is 

 '■■•'■ <,ur own soul, bocauHo then we haro 

never feared any one, or anything, 

'ii;{ to tlu- aid of 

• d him |>erfectly 

. Never does he Lake a pcu 



I (to 



In his hnnd but ho oxpn'ssf's hinwcU clearly, frankly, unfalti^r- 
ingly, as m<>n express fchems«'l\'»(i to each other in sp<><M'h, but 
•laro nut writ<>, and his brilliant, entertaining, slogging lett<'rs 
an* marvels of hom-sty and truth. 

The fourth volnme of tho Lottoi-s.ediU'd by Mr. Pnithero for 
Bvuos'h Wokkm (Mnrniy, fls.), should not fail to win unpri-ju- 

' view. The lelt<'rs iM-giii with his 
I-, I8II>, afU-r a suiniiier s|m'iiI wilh 
the Sh<'lleys in S i. au<l go down to Mareli. 

They ileal with the „' jieriod of his residence in \  

with his notorious amours there, and with his introduction to 
and intimacy with L.ii (iniccioli. On tlio side of his work they 
ch-al with tho composition of " Manfreil," of tli« last can»<i of 
" Childo Harold," and of tho first four canUw of " lX)n Juan." 

Jni'ideutally, tho letters present Byron in the char.icter «if 
a ni' .)us and affect ionate father, aiul tlioso paternal 

final have scarcely lviv>ii )iroi>erly apprtMriatecl. Thoy 

did not liud much sco|)e for ■' he w-.is dei>rived of 

the society of .\da, his Ir liter, liy his " moral 

Clytoinneslra" (which is tho phniM" in which he n.sn;illy r<>fers to 
his wife) ; and Allegra, his natnnd child by .lane Clairiiiont, 
died in her sixth year. But all his references tn both children 
are full of affection, and those to Allegr.i display a whimsical 
pride. The letter in which ho informs his sister, the Hon. Mrs. 
lA!igh, of Allegra's birth, has novor Ik-cu published iK'forc. 
We give a part of it: — 

(Klorcnce, May 27, 1817.) . . . Th<<y tell me it, 
(.\llegra| is very pretty, wilh i)lue eyes and tlnrk hair; 
and, although I never was att.iched nor pretended attach- 
ment to the mother, still in case of the et<Miial w.»r and 
alienation which I r<iresi>o al»out my legitimate daughtt^r, .\da, 
may 1k< a.s well to hayo something to rejiosc a hope u|Km. 
must h>vo something in my old iige, and pnil)ably cii-cum- 
stances will render this p<X)r little creature a great, and 
perhaps my only comfort. 
In another Iett.or to his sister (Venice, Augast ;{, 1818), ho 
mentions her iigain : — 

My little girl, Allegra (the child f spoke to you of), h;is 
lioen with me these three months ; sho is very pretty, 
remarkably intelli;;ent, and a great favourite with overyl>o<ly ; 
but, what is remarkable, much more like Lady Byron than her 
mother — so much tto as to stupify the learned Kletchor ;iiid 
astonish me. Is it not odd ? I suppose she nuist ;i I lo 

her hiator, Ada ; sho has very blue eyes, and I! ir 

forehead, lair curly hair, and a devil of a sjiirit — but that is 
■'■ipa's. 

i'hc last par.igraph in the volume also refers to Allegra, and 
occurs in a letter to Hoppncr. Wo give it, although it has 
apiK-arcd before : — 

(Uavonna, .March .^^, 1S20.) Allegra is prettier, I Chink, 
but as obstinate as a male, and a-s ravenous as a vulture ; 
health g<HXl, to judge of tho complexion— tom|K^r toleral)le, 
bat for vanity and pcrtiiuurity. She thinks horsolf handsome, 
and will do as she pU<:iscii. 
A whimsical a<rcoiuit, sun-ly, of a child only three years old, 
two months, and snm'' dnys. 

A goo<l II .;es in the letters which Moor«; thought 

advisable to  now restori'<l, although we are still far 

from having tho full U-'Xt vouchsiifed ns. All tho rostrtWHl 
passages go to prove Byron's courage anil candour, in Moore's 
Life there is a letter to Murray (Bologna, June 7, 1810), which 
concludes thus : — 

I never hoaf anything of AiLi, tho little Kloctra of my 
M ilie nionil Clyt' is iiot ver, ' '"• 

of I ;■-, but there w d;iy of I' it 

1 Hhiiiild not live to see it- .  . \\'\>M a long lolUr i h.ivo 
acribbled ! 

But bc-tween the two last phrases is a passage concerning 
tho suicido of Sir Samuel Itoniilly, whom Byron never forgave 
for tho |iart he |itayc<l in the drama of sciKtnttiun with Ludy 
Byrou, which is of interest : — 



AiiLnisf I. IHOO] 



r.iTFir xTfiri' 



til 



I ii.i VI' ;ll ii-.lsi 1 1,.- 

.•4-.MJl-<"ir|M. Wllfll , III- 

niuM Im- Olio iiliil liii^lii Ik Ikilli; 
iiiv wholi' hitiiily li-i'.', Iimiioh, . 
(.iliiiifc iriy ic'Lilin'r, li«) wi'iil. ovi-r l«» i. 
Iiriii};iii}; (li-xil:ii loll on my hnirlh, aii.t 

llllllMcllolll ^xIn, <lill ||(< tliiiikli 

u iialiiriil I'vciit :i v(\.i- il'iiii. 

roiiiinnii (InincNlir nil l;iy hix cnr. 

roati, or NhiiiiM I'-  ... .. .. ..liiU of l.utiany V ,i, ,.>i... 

in his Urivi-il I'lmry ikitnjic Imd not llio coiirago to 

iiiipvivo Ills Niii  lur wimt, eiso w-.w a wifi- lo liiiii at hit 

liiiio of life '!) rt'llcrt or conMiili>r wjiiit my fci-liiips iiiiist hiivo 

liit'n, when wife, iiiul chilil.itnd sisti-r, uml iium-. . iml 

(•«iiiii(ry wrri- (o Ik- my siu'riflco on his li'j;r>l all.i . . nt 

:i iiioini'iil wIuMi my In-allh wiis tl(M*liiiiii^, my f. 'mr- 

rissi'd, iinil my mind liad ln-cii .shiikcn liy i> i< of 

ill'^;i|i|H(liitMi<'iit, \^hilo I w.vH yet young iind niitcht hiivc 

i-i'loi-iiiod wh:it might havo l)ocii wrong in my condhct, anil 

rcti-invo wlial was |Wrplc>xing lii my ulTairs, Hut (ho \vrt<tch 

is in his grave. I doli<st<>d him living, and I will not aUc^i-t fo 

pity liim doad ; J still loatho him —us much a.s wc i-an hat u 

dust -bill tliat is nothing. 

,\ niio oiitlnii-st of hall" this, and a good oxMitiido of Byron's 

siniM-rity. l''or most of us ilo alToct to s| of tlio doati, 

for the |iiir|K)s<', gcniTally, of (losing as i. .iis hcfon," tho 

living. Itiit Hynm o\|ircssr><l himnflf always and al all tiiiuw, 

and what tho living thought of him hocan.-d not at all. And so, 

iillliough ymi olinnso to oni|>hasi3u< tho dark side of his nature, 

you .should not forgot his one virtue of fearless and unflinching 

^iiict«ity. 



.losi.iii U i;m.iit, 
of Compar.ilive 
V ' >> ■( .(;. 

I (Vol. I v.). 



DICTIONARIES. 

Mii-M I M Mi 1 r l)nT|u:,-Ai:V. Kdiliil liv 

M..\., i'h.l)., D.lM... I)o|m(y I'lofossoi- 
riiilology in the lniver>,ily ot Ojiford 
(Henry Krowdo, .K:\ 15s.) 

TiiKOxroni) Km.iisii Dictioxauy: Gradoley— t . i 

Im1<t.,I.1i- Inonshing (Vol. V.). iwllcd by Dr. .1. A. H. 
.Ml KKAY. (Js. (id. «-.H-h |>art.) 

Dr. Wright is making gixid |>ro'^p("«i <vlth h!< ninloot 
Diolionary. This iseeond volume i 
dip where ho will in its |«igcs, tin 
tiling worth reiiiomheriiig. 

Some of the most interesting arliele-s are records of old Ion- 
and eiiNlom ; a few eom|)arativoly well known, such as ilowniun 
lor water with a switch ; but most of thum will be quite fresh 
to tho majority of roadei-s. How many know that dnj/f/i-r-nuoicif 
wusi until lately paid to justices of assizo on tho Xorthorii t'irt^uit, 
to buy weaiK»ns to defend them ag-.iinst marauders ; or have 
heanl of the driinffdrrCs rliMik, a tub worn publicly by il 
as a punishment { Many of the old onstoms mentiom 
to the country life which is fast vay. Such .no llio 

foiiilliluitijh or ploiigh-mtiinmings in le, and tho ijfcxe- 

iliince in Cornwall ; the lU-rf-xtciit or allowanci; made to a 
labourer in lieu of grass for a cow just l>ofor<! calving ; or /ire 
(iii<t »(iJt placixl on iv byre which a cow has to (kiss over. 
Others relate to social life. Thus tho widow is sup|>osed 
not to marry again in her husband's d«t<Mfj/c(ir ; dirgir. or 
tlrcilgie is a memorial fejist for tho dead. Then, iMpiiii, 
there are scores of technical terms ; as dim, a y«irliiiK lamb, 
which becomes a nvddcr aft<?r one ytvir, and a. .fter 

two ; drupe, a farrow cow, or by ti-.insferenco a I tn ; 

riirock, a hen of tho lli-st year. Mr. Hall Caii d in 

Miiii, for he has preserved for iis the till .•, or 

" pniising man," a Manx mat. ho plies his trade with 

ilio help of soft sayings. Soi' bit of history or a local 

legend is iminortulized in a phrase. Thus tho Aurora Borealis, 
which appeared at the Karl of Di-rweutwater's execution, over 
siiico has gone by the uame ot Dcriiriituiatfr lifjIiU. The rustic 
humorist in the ,wcst country calls a bog by the uaiuc ol Dart- 



h 



.: the Im-i 
.1 I/. I... . 

I- ; ; tn- ^- , i- 

Ix hold to I' 

.No Ic," iiil 
n rovoliHii!) til 
Wi: 
mi< 
tluMC! wortls which by Dr^'tU'ii'M canon >'• 

giVi'li I'lli-ii'iii'V ill I I li-i- 1 I II II- 1^ ill. in • " 

»i:- 

Wllii .1 iitiiii , III III 1 1 I |H (.1 

make Mhullow tmncho!4 or tin 
liotwocn cri".  
for wlilcli I 
Hi;. 

U'. 

dun;, a liay's work, rtiHti\ . 

sky whwioo the wind o. 

(limmrry, a dark riKMU. The " inon< 

g(>|i( !• iIlv lillllloroUH '■■• ili'iiii'. i il.ir\ 

Tit .ir<r is Imi 

WlHM^ I ^|l^. ssingclUIII 

ilonilij, (tonnrrd, doll 

lu'iid, d>inderlii-(ut, d'l 

DiiMtlii wcntlirr is e\, 

i-.iii ili'ii, diih, or d#i[; ; ilulin-^ i 

llsiilis dawdle wc h^vo Wn'.' 

SVo he-.ir not only < 

Ixiggard ; not only of 

A |H)lo planted in i 

craves food ha.s tho , , . 

gadalHiut Rirls or piglets arc flsyig* ;i 

dretuics aro covircil with /n/drn//- ' 

Wo are struck by the vsriety of im 

wont or form ; a.s /••//, dn 

from different orieins : s. 

numlM<r of • 

niimliur of 

s pooch. 

ejiin (iip. 

names and names of animals aiv very odd 

There i- •  -■' '  -"'l: full^- of 1 

pliraj»OH hero .-s are an /''. 

ill deem'd iimi lumj u, m ini Itw . " 

one's feet run faster than one'» ri: 

pn .- 

pl> 

(o<-l: i:< llie oi noy liiiit been lust, Mul 

appe.irs for i  

Wo can suggest one or two . 
next issue. '■'■■"  i'-.^'-^ iit,., •• fn, 
shiro ; so i 

Kugland, and tnij<r. im .i niMi-i-iiii-.n nan. 

us<hI of a woman with child. And it 

do!' • •  r .... _,,, 

wl ra 

di 

m>' 

industry, i ry should Im tu Uta iiitudii of <••! 

who love fho 

Dr. .Murray's tw !"•• 

main words, and a nuK '' 

section are largely of French origin, e.g., ij 
and derivatives ; those in the I section cooic u^.-. 



LITERATURE. 



[August 4. 1900. 



;' 



I .iir. Kill with th*«ie nrr, :> iiiri«i. iiiitiiiM-r r>( Kiip:liHh ••om- 

- with I'm. All I KiijtlMi 

HI 1111- ti NOi'tioii iH gt< III , Mimii >-iiii 11 ■. I .■iii(«>und!* HIIm 

,fs. A.H with so iimiiy otlu-r iiii|Mirltint words, the doriv;i- 

'■■■ '   1 lis ix rui-ioii>i ; 

'I, a lniiiclr<-<l 

;!• TIh' likii(llliJ> • iil.tl lo ill (Iio F' 

l; I Virgil will Ik> ro>\. Tho wi>rd  

hin at, lcii>t tlirro diffcrrnt oripiii-*, carli with H* M.'iit» 
.»f hirttorirai oxamiilct. CtiinQr h:is an intcrpsliiiB pcdigrw. 
To gmitl, tbat is to hring to a nonpluK, wt» And is as old 
as 1548 : graM-KiVloic appcar< in a burial notice of 1582, but 
:i|tpart>nlJy tho w»rtl xvas thon used of an uumarric<l woman wlio 
livMl as a niarrifd wife, or a inistross. It.s use in a more innocent. 
s«-nsc is quite iwidern. and IH-Kan in India. If Dr. Murray Ih 
1 '   'v duo l<» a niisreadiiijl of Kr. grdiir', 

V '. cix)kery Imoks for tlio sjinie ihiiij;. 

TIk' I f«-«it..ii i.iiil.iiiis -.rveral articles of iiM|>ort;ince fur 

Knglish Iboupht or ••Msloin. Tiider Infliievrr is much astrohigl- 

eal lore, r.iiiginK fi-om Chauwr to Kiiskin. Woiilil many siidcrei-s 

from tlH^ dreadi-d scourge connect the word inflnrnzn with the 

xtars 7 It is allied in |topular thought with running at (he noso 

....I ,.ynj4^ imt the Italians u>»cd it for any " visitation " or 

lie. The relations of ingciiioMs and in{/fniioii», tiihiimnii 

.11111 iii/iiimniir, desiTve study. Several legal terms occur here 

also : tiiforiiin/iiiii, iiijiiiiclioii, iiiiiinfc, iiMiiiCHdo, the last origin- 

 lie explanation. Farm lore may Ije found under 

I- - i"ff''*, 'be Are, there is another iiujlr, " tn 

l'>udle," or a " fondling " use<l in u bad sense. The history of 

in... ij.if.- shows considerable changes of iiH^aning, Ijeing used at 

r -jfting or the like. Ink and iiiii are among the most 

rt c wortis in this section. Ink is derived fmm cHcuiis/iim 

(tytaiNrroy), but coming from the O. Fr. enijiie it has never a 
lunger form in Knglish. An article of three eolumns on inn 
gives a goo<l deal of new information on such matters as Univer- 
sity hostels, Inns of Uhanccry and Inns of Court. As appli<><l to 
a hostelrj-, the inn must Ik? a place which gives Imlging to 
travellers, not a inepc tavern. 

Aitiong^t de.itl wonis which dest-rve to live we may note 
• >il<' of outlaw. There are fewer of those exiwri- 
,,iiag<.> wliich Dr. Murray calls noncc-wonls ; bnt 
|M>rhaps inlu-firing may Iw classed among them, Invented by 
.1. Wilson in 1828 and used by no <ithcr. This word, however, 
expresses a new idea idiomatically, and is different iir principle 
from the would-ljc humorous c<Hn])ounds, formed by writers who 
lack the literary sense, some of which we have noted l)efi>n! as 
unwv>rthy of a place in tho Dictionary. We must not omit to 
mention some important grammatical articles on aflixes, -yram, 
-<;tii|i/i, and c«|>eeially -ix'j. 



IBSEN'S "LOVES COMEDY." 



I-«»vk'm Comkiiv. By IIkmiik Iijhkn. Translated by ('. H. 
HMtroKI>. (The MtMlern I'lays Scries.) (Duckworth, lis. M.). 

IlKicn is such a Til.inlc flgui-c in modern literature that wo 

are Hurpriaod some enterprising Knglish publisher <loe» not issue 

u complete and uniform edition of his woiks. Meanwhile we 

iMlc<»nio thlit admirable rendering of Kivrllglicilfnii Komedie 

. 1 1. 1, _,, f,,^ tiip jj^^t^ tj,„^ renderc<l acccsssiblo to tho 

The lajMe of years since the play wait written 

;i.tiretl its vitality ; its interi>st and value now 

I In the iHisition it occujiies in the long list of 

/ ..diirrd at rbristiania in 1802. 

It V. 1 1 works. In the two 

dr:Hii _ Mie, llnd traces of tho 

' r with a ni<vt«age, but ho is hidden deep in the clonk of 

-ii-.l n.Mi .1.,/.. Lorr'i Vomaly is tho Introduction to 

>yii. It was the flrst piece of work to arouse 

•■■ " • 1 among hi» country- 

1 i< 11. til. • <•». It was his flrst 

bklUc-cry ui n:vuu, .vua u Viu Loixi L'umedy timt moulded 



Ibiien's career for it drove him to take tho " oxilo'u staff and 
sorrow's pack," drove him from his compatriots who |>oured on 
him " in draughts unsparing " 

The wholesome, bitter tonic-drink wherethrough. 
Though sick lo death, I nerved mywlf anew 
To face the fight of life with steadfast daring. 
Ciirionsly enough it does not strike one immediately as tho 
iirk — even immature — of u gn>at dramatist. With tho possible 
exception of hero and heroine the dromatis penontp. are stock 
puppets and the strings arc wofully apparent. The action is 
meagre, the characterization ineffective. Tho stylo, too, differs 
entirely from that of Ibsen of our days. It is florid, abounding 
in clever conceits and windbag rhetoric. Its dialogue is (Icry with 
metaphor, sparkling with wit— the dialogue of Brand accentuated 
by a thousand indiscretions. Is this the precursor of Ghosts 
anil Tlw Muatfr-liiiUder? Well, it contains, throe distinct 
prophecies which have been fultillod in Ibsen's subsequent 
plays— the prophecy of contempt for commonplace humanity, of 
belief in the loneliness of grcatucssiof the author's obsession by 
the problem of marriage. 

Love'i Comedy is an attack on what we may term the 
usages of Norwegian polite Society. In this- it is of local rather 
than of universal interest, for wc are happily free from tho 
nauseous business of the Continental I'crlobiiiig upon which are 
poured the vials of his wrath. Bntas Ibsen's view broadened he 
added daily to his sl^oro of ridicule for small creatures. Tho 
keynote of bis pessimism in Love's ('omcdy is, as Dr. 
Brandos points out in reviewing his later works, not hatred but 
contempt.. In the picture of the crowd of gari-iilous and stupid 
love-makers in Lore's C'omedi/ there Is no shade of pity. Ibsen 
in 18(i2 wrote from a heart of stone — have the years softened it? 
Ibsen's text in almost every play is " lie alone is strong who 
stands alone," and in Love's Comedy the themo is tho 
strength of lonely love. In ortlcr to conserve their love in its 
power Falk and Svauhild i)arted to live alone that love might 
Jive for over. It is a strange doctrine, this teaching of passionate 
Idealism, but a doctrine which i)ermwites Ibsen's crcctl and work, 
as Trofcssor lierford nrade clear in his recent article iii 
Literature. As the editor and translator of Louc's Comedy, Pro- 
fessor Ilcrford evidently hesitated to riiiotc the work in proof of 
his th<,>ory, but of all his plays this is tho most characteristic of 
Ibsen the idealist. 

Wc have neither space nor inclination for a discussion of 
Ibsen's views on luarriago here set forth. They but add to 
the Chincso 1)hzz1c of his later plays. Dr. Nortlau has some- 
where collecte«l Ibsen's " advico to those about to marry," and 
it must be admitted tliat ho succee<ls in proving his case of 
grotcsiiuo contradictions. Tho moral of Lovc'» Comedy is 
that marri:igo for love is a monstrous error, that ideal love 
cannot survive the taint of tho realities of married life, that to 
lovo and lose is l>cst of all. Tho play ends with a marriage of 
convenience between Svanhild and a middle-aged, pompous 
merchant, and wc seek in vain for signs of the author's disgust. 
Wi'll, not iierhaps altogether in vain. Lore's Comedy closes 
with the signillcjiut lines: — 

Most of tho company " Hurrah 1 " 
Mark the " most." It may l>c that Ibsen is among (be 
small minority. It may Ihj that we have no right to identify 
the creator with tho creatures of his fancy. In reading any- 
thing from bis pen it is necessary to keep Ijcforc the mind his 
declaration of independence : 

" To ask is my vocation, not to answer." 



APIS MATINA. 



All who appreciate sound nii<l graceful Latinlty should 
l>e deligh(c<l with the colleition of Latin versos, trnuslntod 
and original,' which Canon Young has lately published under 
the lioratian title Apis Matina (Macmlllan and Bowe;), Cam- 
bridge, 0». D.) In selecting his passages for translation he has 
ranged rather widely in iwint of lime, bubjcct, and (though 



Aiigtist 4, 1900.] 



LITERATFRR 



sn 



lyrics prodoiniiinto) inolrc, so lliiil Anipio opportunity In alTor<I(<cl 
lis of jiiilKi»t( "f 1''^ IK1WIT-. iil'inl.i|(tnliiiii. At tlio sniiio tiiiic. tlio 
fiict that tlio KiikIIhIi . no in m()--i r t<i 

nil nii(( uIho IiIkIiIv ' i-^lii* o( tli< .oih 

initliors teiltlH to put (li<> Liiiliii VQrnioiis iirilttitl upinnili- In a 
(Iccitlodly Hovord t<>st. It is not too milfli to say tlint these very 
sturdily HUrvivothnt shock ofsliRht disnpimintnifiit which nliiiosl 
inevitably ncoom|u»nics tlw flrst rending of the trnn-slaiion of a 
favourite piissap'. 

Tlio lover of Tonnyson, for hutnnpo, oominf; ncro'<s this from 
lh.> " Holy (irnil " :— 

'nien nnsliM a yellow k1''«i" "cross the world, 
Auil wlii're it smote the plowshar<' in tlie llelil. 
The plowman left hiji plowing, and fell down 
IV'foro it ; whoro it Klillcrod on her pnil, 
Tho niilkinnid left hor niilkin;;, and fell dou-n 
IWore it, and 1 kiiew not why, hut tlion(;ht 
" Tho sun is rising," tho' the sun had risen, — &c., 
will probably become so flooth'd with reminiscences of tho 
meUHlicii and tho kI"'""'"* "' those wonderful Idylls as to Ih> nt 
flrst incapable of appro<-iatinf; a translation. But lot him allow 
A sufllcieut interval to elapse, and he wilt lliul that with his iniiul 
still attnn(Hl to Tennyson's note tho following hexamotors, 
retaining; as they do sonu-tliing of that marvellously concentratfsl 
effect of mystery, aro good and skilful enough to rekindle in him 
something of his emotion. 

. . . lnde-jnl)ar sensi rntilaro per orl)ein, 
quo simnl at(|ue ictus splendt>scit vomer, ibidem 
sistit opus, llexo<(ue genu se sternit arator, 
stcrnit se snpplex virgo, nutlctralia liniinen^ 
luco laccsssita ot diatcntas ubero vaccaa. 
tunc ego— sod Phoebus dudum se moverat orlu — 
" sol oritur I " dixi mecum, nam causa latcbat. 
Wo should, however, naturally expect a still fuller measure 
of success in renderings of |)o<'try written in tho classic 
tradition, and may find it on turning to the admirably sym- 
pathetic version of tho tender and majestic, passage in the 
" Paradise Kogained," descriptive of Christ's sojourn in tho 
wilderness. Or here, again, in a different province, is a rendering 
of Amiens' aoug in As Yon Like It, which, if it lacks quito tho 
same open-air freo<lom and the irresisttblo song-noto, is yet very 
happy in its tunefulness and suggestion of the refrain. 
Quisqnis fi-oiulo snb ilicis 
niccum vult recidians ludere llstula 

mnsam aptare avium mo<lis 
si curat liquidis, hue ferat hue pedem ; 

nullos hie nisi turliinis 
hostilesquc hicmifi sentiet impetus. 

qiiisquis, sorto petontiiun 
spreta, dcgere .amat sub Jove simplices 

quaerens ipso sibi dapes 
eontentusque datia, hue veniat comes ; 

nullos hie nisi turbinis 
advei-sosque hieniis sentiet iuijiotus. 
A volume such as this invites a comparison of Knglish and 
Latin lyric metres. We have only space hero to sng.gest the 
almost illiiultable variety of Knglish measures, and the com- 
parative fewness of Latin verse-schemes. Thxus HoojI's " Past 
and Present," Macaulay's " Battle of the Lake Regillus," 
" Hulo Britannia," " Casablanca," Campbell's " Parrot." and 
many more are all turned by elegiacs. On tho other hand, each 
of three passages from " In Memoriam " has a separate nicasuro 
devoted to it. Tho rendering of its fonrteouth poem by stanzas 
consisting of throe choriambic lines and a fourth glyconic 
particularly appeals to ns, but Canon Young has mastered all 
his metres and his selection almost .ilways leaves ns with the 
impression that no other would have been so fitting, h^pccially 
successful are tho Alcaics which represent Shelley's "Arethusa" ; 
the dance forward of the first two lines, the pause of the third, 
and the darting swoop of tho fourth, conjuring up a vision of 
motion no less fascinating than that suggested by the breathless 
rush of Shelley's pooui. 



CHESS 



It ia the privilege of m loatktr in any departmont nf huswn 

ondcavonr to havo hia lifo-work d' liWMlad 

dnn-n to |)oiiter!ty. In the caaa of M r.-muKia 

chi>Ms player, audi a niiinririal ihhsIh nu m\<ii\i-i^y t 40 

years h« haa boM a fortMiiORt (lOKltiun m >' r«. 

Such a reoonl ua ia cuntainnl in Mii. Hi.' «r 

CliKHM, Hulcet4)d and annolaUHl by hiiiiiH i^. 

P. A. (Sruhani (l»iigmaim, 7h. (kl. n.), ia ' ,^1 

ooii' ' ' te<l to tho •cioiitilic I xi<i5il;ui» ,4 Ui» 

nil' 

Hui II .iiiii Lit ii 111 V , ^f 

ill hia youth rori!;o.ti"l ,,„, 

|>rontablu nil' I t than | ,«| 

to claim Mr. I i ita own isl 

inorcliant prince, tho country guiiio<l ita trr«>nt<Mit  '.r. 

At the age of W tho fntnro champion luul ~i. ..i- i,i, 

jioouliur avocation, and he ia found in tin- 1 i<|. 

fold against ton strong oppononta. Tho aiir> • n ki i«| 

thia olToi-t ae<>m8 to have det«rmin«<l hia futiira c<" liia 

career from that date has boon a wi • '..r 

t«>stimony to tho poRition which ho  

circles can )>o lulducrd than the plain, uii\ :;i ,t in 

the three Internntiunal (,'ablo Mutchoa ,. ... n of 

America he was Rel('ct(><l on each occasion to do battle at the 
firat board. Among tho nuuters ot tho proaont day Mr. Hlack- 
bume may be said to hold a unique |>oaition. Aa a blindfold 
player he stanila an<l liaa stood for many year* luprcme in thia 
{•articular branch of hia art. Hu haa done moro than any otiMtr 
player of his day to popiilnrir.o the ^ame in thia onuntry, and 
it haa been hia custom to dovoto aonio tiiuntha of every yrar to 
touring among provincial clubs, aini e«t 

niond>ers in simultAncuns contests. V .nt 

doitartment of end gainca, ho is acknowltxlged by gonor*! coiuwiit 
to bo second to none. 

In thia excellent edition of hia games, full ji" lua 

to all the prominent characteristics of iiix stvtn. id» 

selection of bis siniultaneoiia and blii . n, ami 

for the beuent of the sceptical tliu i. ., ^.....v^ |...>^.xl at tho 
London Tournament of 1863 are rooonlcti in full, rnrivallcd, 
however, a.s this particular pon ' •  'it 

cannot ho cxpect<.-d to protluco ' he 

games that Mr. Hlucklmrno has mt 

foomcn wortliy of his steel that t: . ly 

turn. Of au ' than u I on 

collectcti, an. t.. tlui ■•y.\ 

by the mast. Tho clr on 

a«lopte<l will !■! .student t u- 

tion of the various openings, ami at tlio same ti ' ly 

to lead to the realization of the ho|ie exprei.^. ., . . ,,.. -...lor 
that the liook will l>e found useful aa a manual for chosa playera. 
In his prefatii! ' s on the Riiy I^jpeit, tlii* ' :i<~bur uf 

genius and i alike, Mr. Klackbunie v men- 

tions that he iicVli adopts this ■>!• it* 

unless he happens to Ihj " a lit" s 

draw." This is .surely the ig 

player, and the pivsent c •! 'ly 

the fertility of resource, i lie 

brilliance of combinatiuu » -ic- 

teristic ot hia play. 

A won! ol congmtnlation iadne to editor and pn'.'--* ' •' 

the care that has been taken in tlie production of the 

.Mr. .lames M:. ' II 

commend itself {•• e 

it too much of their liim* and attention. 'J U 

of chess, from match play, which is sci' .s 

amusing, to skittle-cbe»s, which way be .-i »? 

scieutilic. Social chess, as Mr. vi.-.^>. •■■k,.; !■» 

hold a middle place between the ; ics. Of t it 
games that he has collected, oulv t\\'j run to as many at unriy 



84 



UTERATURE. 



rAiiJni'it 1. 1900. 



mov<«i. T' - -- *'- ' -.  - j,„,j xm||-kno\»ii |.iiiMr>. 

ami art- v ihnii for profundity. Of 

1 llial I. ' 
ill tlii< I 

■'.itliir iiiiiisii.kl 
i> tfi lif iiiti'r<"il- 
iiij, il ' 'II iir<>, 

for miniit- „ ^ roiiM 

Im> bettor tluin Mr. Mii.'«nir» liook. It niay lio tiiitl his liistoric-nl 
,i......i. i,.nv«>s (irtiiw" ■■■■• '-^ '-' 'l"-:-«vl, but liiN choice of (ninic^ 

it. ami r^ <o«I by n dijiRrain of the 

i('!":ii jiosilion. 11! . ly :uinotal«Hl. Tho " immortal 

Cnnw- " in hi>r<>. \ ii by .\inlorss«»n niul lost in nil 

rH|uiiily - by Ki' Mr. Mnhon's iioto 

IKiint* nv  o by whl' i li.nvo Immvi. nt lonot, 

"hI ami 
 III, II ro 
priiitnl with n«>rf<»ct »ocur«oy. ir tho liook is at nil cn|>ablo of 
improvomont on it« own s|iooial linos, |H>rlmps a fow brilliant 
omlinss micht have been adtlotl with advanta{;o. Horwitz's 
piin. - ' iild think, wotiUI supply soiiio of thorn. 

\ i-'o r<^oivo<I a revised and onlarc*"*! edition (.^^d) 

PiUNCiruis or CuE>>a in Thixiry ami 



OTHER NEW liOOKS. 



•■ Powell of Endlcsis Fame." 

ii.3s. (Vl.) is a n^printof five 

ii-I'owcll to the /Mi/miiitoii .M'.y 

• dt-jils with lion-shootiiift i" Rho<U»sin, the soooiiil 
Miiniinjj in ('a|K» Colony, the third and fourth with 
ii:, and tho Ofth with Nuipe-shooting in Tunis, when 

, ^; , for his companions. It is all 

: and tJeneral Baden-Powell's 
1 <»f llio Gallic wnrriont should certainly be 
when p<'ople t*MI ns that they aiv likely to 
<-<Mne over here on a mid : - 

U'lirit curiosities t4) nie my KriMicIi conipanioiis were ! 
Thoir Ret np for snipe-shooting was their uniform 
ii'lM and jacket, with haggy linen overalls, and capacious 
Cnino bajrs and puns slung on their backs, and they rode 
thoir •■ .1 stHllioiis in n-giiiii'iital s;iildli'M. . . . 

As I ith my two foreign coiii|)anionM, I Hccme<l 

to :ih my old U<M-r friends starting out on 

si  !• veldt. But instead of the silent wliiniiig 

ti( IliK-r tobacco liien- e:iiin> from my coiiipanioiis an iiicesNant 
j:ibl«<'r, and a string of ((iiestions as to whether, in passing 
thpMii^h Paris and Marvilles, I had s(s-n this or that singer 
«ir danseuse. . . . This s<'«>ined to In* the only interest iwit 
only of this pair, but of half the onieers one nu:t in the colony. 

St' 

well known as an astronomer 
aud a writer of various fascinating romances snggesliHl by his 
aHtrunoDiieal oi<<<i'"- I' <- l>^-. well known that ho is an ardent 
invostixator 'h, and ban lMf*n n memlx-r of 

tbo I' - 1 ■••r . ... -. ...ly of Spiritism since IHCl. TllK 

^J^t . 7». (VI.) contiiins a s<'le<-tion of tho cvidonoo 

«thi' Il ). iio4l in this piirsiiil, and is a volume inlliiitoly 

trff <  than a van-load of novels. Tho author 

lull such studios, ho nays, 

. •■•1(1 that our hopoa of 

M. I'laminarion 

ilks. gives ox- 

s of everyday, but hitli. vplaiiieil, pheno- 

. - .Dil l...l.lx ..111 <i..i;..l>if..i >.. f(ir tho futtiro. 

But bin (iri i oxiRtc, has k real 

«■»; • 1.-. iiivi^ilile though it lie, and 

an  11, and outliving it. That mind 

sett U|>^L> miiKi, i^ftM-r.iiiv iiiironncioufily, bat •oiuvtimei oon- 



'■■ '■■ if ism for Instanc.-, .:> ;. . . .n .. " ....li ii...-.i |r.-.^|.i.- 

il, it is almo-t a truism. But M. Klamniarion 
 - ■'.■ it ui' iii;iy onoday be able to siMid our thoughts tliroiigh 
 :vs we jiliwse, by I lic> force of our own will-power. Does 
? Quito as incredible w.niM ■•.•nu'd 

. had thi'y b<>eii told that v. I i.l run 

ill tlie streets of lAuldoil without horst»s, trains go without 
engiin"i, and telcgriphic messages lie sent without wire. 
We may siip|x)se thought then to radiate out on nil sides, 
and to tnwel with a swiftness which aniiiliilat4>«i the conditions 
<if space, making Itself, necessarily, fell by that piirticular niin<l 
which is ill alisoliilo liarinony with it, and saying nothing t<> 
those other minds whii-h have not this harmony ; just as — this is 
Klammarion's own instance - if a cert.iiii note, b Bat say, bo 
sounded in a nsini, whether by the voice, the violin, or in any 
mlier manner, the string iM'longing to b flat on a piano near at 
hand will vibraU' and resound, while all the other eighty-four 
ni>(<-s will remain mute. In illustration he gives many examples of 
vi-.ii.ns, presenlinienis, dreams of distant or of future ev(>nt.H : and 
although all of these may not Iw convincingly authenticated, as 
some critics have complained, what dm-s that signify? Surely no 
c;indid person, with an iut*'llig<'nce, a wositiveness, alwvo tho 
briiU^K, but could, if he would, add his own cjuota of psychic exfw-ri- 
<'nc<-s. Vet, liecause all life is one, even the brutes have their 
share of psychic power. Thus, Flanimarion gives us the case of 
the dog, Lioiine (No. XIII.), who, in the act of dying, ap|M'arod 
to her mistri'ss in a dream — i.e., the ilog's thoiighl , tnivelling out 
to that mistress's lirain, pronipt4>d the dream; and \w are 
roininded i.f the story of the second sight of St. Columb's white 
pony who came and wvpt over his master fori^se«'ing tho Saint's 
approaching death,. IS well asof tho pn<monitory terror of the two 
oxen destined for slaughter. In twio of I^oti's incomjiarablu 
sketches. Again, time having, inetiphysically speaking, no rf?al 
' . being but tho ne<'essary condition of our thinking, wo 

.1 hojv it is that when the conceiilration of coiiscious- 
iK-.s.'. in tlie brain is temporarily alsilished, as sometimes happens 
in drt-ams, as is always the case in the luagnetic sleep, in second 
sight, &c., wo obtain the power of ris-onstrucling a iiast in 
which individually we could have had no part, and of fon-si-eing 
the so-called future. Kroin this ))oint of view the prophetN of 
Israel, the pyLliiinessi>» of Ori<>ce, the mystics of the .Middle 
Ages fall into line. All life is one; and |H-rha|is the iH-lief in 
our individual identity, as something apart from all other life, is 
the obstacle Aliich st:inds in the way uf man's knowlodgo of the 
ti'ue exl«nt of his iiatui^e. 

** Stepping Westward." 

A Book ok U.vuTMoon, by S. Baring Could (Mothuon, fis.), 
is uniform with tho same author's bisiks on Devon and t'orii- 
will. He has the advantage of knowing his siiiijeet intimately, 
and his knowledge hxs enabled him to write a biMik which is 
interesting in spite of its somewhat casual prose style. Dirt- 
moor is treated from every point of view. Tliere an- chapten 
on menhirs, camps, and driiidical i-emains ; there are legiMids ; 
there art< stories of the convict establishment at I'l'incetowii ; and 
then' an- descriptions of the natural featui-os. (Jm- would have 
bt»en glad of a little inori> about the Tors iiion^ espi-cially with 
i-ereix-ncoto 1(10 pi-.ictice which the rock-climber can get on them 
if he likes to make now routes up the granite pibw on their 
summits but the chapter on bogs is lliorough and thrilling. 
Mr. liaring (Joiild sc-ms to have h;i'l Mime slarlling e\perienciis 
in them himself ; and iiovi'li i of s<>iisa( ional situations 
will Hole for ns«> the w.bi . i.l that " the only convict 
who really got away fnmi I'rincetowii, and w:is not nvapliired, 
WIS last H<'eii tjiking a bis' line for Kox Tor Mire. The 
grnppling iroHH at tl«' disposiil of the prison authorities were 
insunici.nt for the-- '■ ••! "••' -'••■i .-i." n-.-i," 

Oulde-Books. 

M.\Mi-MiiilK (Dent, 4s. ChI.), edited by (ioorge A. B. Downr, 
belongs I'. 'I"' I"'""'- ■'■••- "f guide-lKKiks. Tho first part coii- 
siMtMofi' •coi 111 of essays cm iHittiny, oiiIoiih)- 



llll'M, II 111 



, i.;i,, 1 1,,, ii.^.i ; : 



August 4, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



85 



» general pfnzottopr of pliiodl of int<>!.  rounty. Literary 

RRHOciiitioMs arc carr-fiilly aiifl synip . dcjilt with ; tlii' 

groat rt.'imcN boinjj those of Ctiarli-M Kiiit;Mli'y, (iilhcrt White, 
Lord T<'iiiiyiK>ii,.Iiiiio Aiistcii, and I»<"Bh Kichniond. whose" Little 
Jano " is burinl at HruUing in th«( IhIo of Wight. Porhnpi, 
however, the fhiiptfr lu'iiding " Charlos Kiiigsloy'.s Country" 
i» a little iniNloiiding. To many of nn C'liiirloH Kingsley's country 
Is not Kvursley, but the north of Devon. Ix't it bo addi'<l that 
the guide Ih good to rend as well n» full of information, and 
that llie pictures are artixtic and the maps clear. We welcome 
the new wries warmly, and shall I(x>k out lor " Norfolk," which 
is to bo the next volume in the series. 

The fourth edition of tho CUiDE To SofTH Wales in the 
Thorough (Jnide Series (I)ulau, lis. Cd. n.) has been revised with 
particular attention to the re<|uirements of cyclists, who get a 
10-page supplement on pink i)aper all to themselves. 

An AutoblOfrraphy. 

TiiK Last <«i tiik Cumhino Bovs, nn autobiography, by 
Ooorgo Elson (.lohu Ivong, tjs.), has a prolace by the Dean of 
Hereford, who tells us what ngr<><'nblo emotions come to hitn 
when he contemplates tho career of men who have risen from 
small beginnings " possibly not to tho summit of their ambitions 
(which is resorve<l for very few indee<l), but at nil events to a 
position of indepondenco and resiK!ctnbility." Mr. Elson, in 
fact, began life as a " swceiT-lnd." and rose, by his talents, to 
occupy an odlco of importance and responsibility in the shamitoo- 
ing department of the Lenrnington Turkish Bath. His rt>minis- 
cenccs cover both (loriods of his life. They give us instructive 
iiiforiuation about tho bad old times when l>oys had to climb 
ehimnoys to clean theni, and tlx-y tell us what gratuities Mr. 
Elson riM-oived from KmmI Archer, .\l>ington Baird, and .Mr. ,1. 
L. Toole, and other geutlemen whom he manipulated in the 
discharge of his hydrivthera|)eutic duties. Having oui-selves, as 
it hap|H>ns by a fortunate coincidence, " turked," as wo called 
it in the days of our youth, in the establishment of which Mr. 
Elson was a pillar and an ornament, >ve are al)Io to add our 
testimony to his professionial and conversational abilities to that 
of these more <lisliii;;uislied witnesses ; and we are delichted to 
learn from Mr. Elson that his nwrif-s have met with the rewartl 
which was their due. " When I arrive<l at a gentleman's man- 
sion," we read, " I was not ex|MH'tetl to go round to the back 
door ns of old time. The front door was my riprht entrance, 
opened by the footman, who would take iKissession of my top 
coat and silk hat." It is, indeed, a happy picture on which to 
drop the curtain, and wo quito share tho emotions rt^garding it 
which the Dean of Hereford has expresseil in such well-chosen 
phrases. Lot us add — what wo hojie we have already succeedeil 
in suggesting— that there is hardly a dull page in .Mr. Elson's 
book. 
" M. A. P." 

Pkoii-i: You Know, edited by Percy Hurtl (.\rrowsmith, 
Ss.Hd.), is a collection of npprtH-iations of notable contemporari(*s, 
rcpriutod troui tho Outlook. They are .somewhat on the same 
lint^ as tho " Modern Men " Series which used to flgure in tho 
National Obsermr, but less malicious, and not quite so brilliant. 
Moreover, one occasionally comes u|K)n mistakes, imlicating 
that the writer's acquaintance with the subject is but sui>or- 
flcial. To siieak of Zola's " sublime absence of humour " is to 
confess that one has not read " La Terro " ; and to speak of it 
in connexion with the " .I'accuse " letter is to show a singular 
failure to understand in what circumstances humour is .suix-r- 
fluous if not inapprojiriate. And to .say that Lord Curxon of 
Kedloston " won tho Arnold essay with a portentous volumo 
on Diocletian " is to say tho thing that is not. Mr. Curaon, as 
he then was, did not win an essay but a prize ; tho subject 
was not Diocletian but .Tustinian ; and tho essay was not a 
portentous volumo but a -slim pamphlet of tho usual character 
of prize essays. 

RoiiEitT R.\iKKS, a brief biography of the originator of 
Sunday Schools, by T. Henrj- Harris (Sunday School Union, Is.), 
is meant for childrt>n. It is well and picturesfiuely written, 



thr. 
mat 



>«(<ll to • poaiMMlty wkich mmy 

Mewint, Johnnton have nctit lu tbclr Mxr to iLLnmunnnr 
CiiiNuu: Qii'sTiKN (In.). It i-. c«npf«lM(»iT« and 

oontainn, on a kltii;le iihiwt. a I -if China, • Ur|» IHp 

O' •' 1 of tbo Orleot, MMl 

lur^ ,. A,.. 

Clli.NA Of To-ltAV (Newm-1. Od. n.) In an album of piot«f«a. 
mostly photo;;r:iphs, to be coiopb'ted " iu about 12 waekly 
I>artit," lllustRiting tbo crislii in tbo Kant. 



FICTION. 



" The Inoraaalnjr Purpoa*." 

Tlie «'ni»rii»itis succi'-,., <if " Tho Choir InTi»iW«>" natnnlly 
secures a lar_' ! i  , „,. 

lNC-KK.A«IN<i I'l 

Kentucky he knows so well and shows un i 
forests as they were forty years ago. Amid : 
duces ns to two children, so ho terms them, of th4' Hevohi- 
the intellectual and soi-iul revolution wrought by tl»- ^' 
Civil Wnr. David, tho hero, Is a poor, devout, i si 

lad, working at the hemp on his father's farm. Ht n* 

founding of a new fniversity near at hand, he d> i 

IxM-ome a minister; goes to the Bilil. n- 

fused by the theology of his fem-liers i .,• 

Churches, fuddles his untr.iirv • •• 

new thouRlits of the Old - ly 

enoiigh, yet so tragically for him, his l>eliel v . 

That is the dnima of this man's soul with (Sod. >< il 

side of that Revolution, which had converted tJ > 'm 

heroine, from a wealthy Southern heiress into a simpb l.» i.y 

schoolmistress, alfecte<l the drama of his heart with woman it io 
for tho reader to discover. 

Though we cannot, hand on heart, pronounce •* Tbo Iii- 
croiising PuriM>s<' " to l>e a very gn-at » ' •' e 

may safely assert that it will achieve a larc •• 

it on its merits. What -t. 

in style, for Mr. .Allen v 

such phrases as " a p" 
" a pile of apples "), ami 

endeavour to Ihj pictur«'s«|Ue into aa«>ele«l r; 
enumerations that seem to bo an e<'ho of ^^ 
do not consist in originality ; for those who have watched th>* 
care(*r of the religious novel in England, who have livcsd through 
the doubts and soul-senrchings of a Roliert Klsmcro or a David 
Grieve, will Qnd little that Is new, iutellectnallv - ^-'. r' 

cally, in tho increasing purposo of this soi 
David of Kentucky. They can hardly >' ■■•' 

roused by tho chap.icters, for, with the  II 

tho characters of tho l)ook arx' m<- 

>>ketches of the girl whom David u i 

es|»ecially of his mother, the farmers I 

in her house with the regularity and c<-. 
a dead log," are, so far as they go, indeed a. 

The success of the book will be duo t>) , 

than these. Tho tone of the author, who deals with tbo «'. 

and difficulties of the farmer's l>oy in a mai- — ■'•■-■- -. - 

and yet sympathetic, will commend it to ' 

unlimited interest in religious questions. 

for not over-subtle theological discussion, w i 

tho AngUvSaxon race, will once . by " The 

Increasing Pur]K>se." Fr<mi a I the bonk 

shares the great merit of N' 

atmosphere produced by the > 

farms and the hemp-bresikers ol Kentucky, surviv.iW (r: 

old time, in the days when after the great and ferrilile m 

of tho Civil War a new spirit was astir in the lan-i 

aspirations were making tht^nsolvos felt in n:'—' 

wholly appropriate to tho story, and gives it 

which goes far to render the book a work of art. 



86 



LITERATURE. 



[August 4, 1900. 



or Um Jl/mr. 

Mr. Ernest GUnTillo reteUs the st^ry <rf thcorly purt of tho 
S,,,..!. 4 r-:- )u w,r in bis exciting novel Tiik Dfau-Axcii Kjukii 
<.M' '^.), and weaves into it a fascinating love affair of 

j>i«-^uui.ioiy his o«ii itwiKiniitj;. Tlio Natwlian, Daviil (IradwcU, 
and SomerBCt, tho hoitiio Knirlisluiian. Iiuvo many ndvcntiires 
before goo<l '' niudo to 

prosper. li. '1. 

Fob thk Qcesn in Soith Afbica (Putnam's, (te.) contains 
«.-.r ' " ' - 'iiig tales of tlio life of Tommy Atkins and 

hi- war. Mr. Carly I>avi» Ha-skiiis writtviwitli 

great . iiicerity. His is a ImhjIc 

that V :■■* " and uU \vlit) havo 

followed the \iirivd (orluiivs oi llio war. 

A Gextixman in Khaki (Cliatto, Is.) i^ :^i..x- of a wt?lcomo 
by K-ason of its title. Mr. John O.ikley Is not a groat writor, 
bir "  ^ how to raaVe the most of hi- uid introduces 

su t-rs as Mr. Khodcs, Colonel i , and the rest 

witii UU amall skill. The story is full of iuciJcut. 

An«r Mr. Thomas Hardy. 

iiorlt'i^h is an inland village in Wessex where the country 
folk h > iMipulation of 700. 

It it d' inn, carrier, viiz 

if. .u.d, iiiU.-^tl, with c\i . nance of a Hardy 

li< tho nutli.ir «f Jan 0.\ : ul, Look, Os.), Mr. 

O) ' iil)s«TVer and no plagiarist, although 

hit -. ^, . "He do hold up his nose pious-high 

and that chit of his alius wi' two or dree Tellers hangin' 
round her — great vooils, as I should zay zo! "and so fortli. 
Into this world of sharp-tongued women and slow men Mr. 
^\^as peers with an .; I kindly eye. His pcMiplo are n-al 

fleah and blood. His i of well-arrangod stories re:uls 

lik' in wiiiih ilio i-har.«'ters have acted vicariously 

foi " .l:!!i Ot!«t " i-) the first of this well-told 

aeri. - r to this author or 

to Mr. '  ' ""e of the work 

of the writer of " Lnder the tircenwood Tree." 

*• Taming the Shrow " and " Leonard Seal's Wife " are 
exoelleoUy told. " Jan Oxbcr " should be widely read. 

John Stpan^e ^Wlat»p. 

KvorjiKHly knows that the popular author of " Bootlo's 
B.iby " can tell a good story. There is no com|>licated plot in 
The Makuieu Misk Sinks (White, Ss. (kl.), and the story is thin 
and rather conunou place ; but as usual it is well told. Of cours(>, 
we all know the young man who has never known his parents, 
but finally turns out to 1m! an carl. In this particular case it is 
highly J 'lit the yonng man in e|Uostion would never 

hiro»»01 in the little 1)ox full of love relics which 

Ix  left to his wif(>, who in that 

w.. . ious birth. Miss Binks is a 

■Very plea-s i n? witli plenty of common sense, though 

perhaps all' utter-of-fact with her love. John Strange 

Wintt^r, however, U at her best in descrihing foolish s<K'iely 
'Women, and this is a sort of society novel, with the Binks family 
aa «tp«(«auj rifhei. Mrs. Oliver Boddingham, n<fe Polly Binks, is 
a living creature. Her cravings for " smartness " and her 
wretebedness at being snubbed by her sister-in-law are very 
amusingly described. 



Mr. Koltcrt Barr is by nature and tflmporanicnt a modern 
writer ; and that fact is never i<  Mont than when he 

writaa novel* of the Middle Ages. mj AiiM (Methnen, 

6«.) is a atory of the Cnuadcs. U o|/ciii> \ 
gndnally dnil. Mr. Barr dor-i not pivf i 
patted . . pretty uiiicli 

■•if th' l..iraries. Tho 

book ii' ?>torlos, all dealing with tlio same 

period .'Ir. Barr has done so much good 

aad toi^ ' that we are sorry to see him straying 

into Bcu... -,.,. '•■ '" •''». at home. The humorist's 



Kong with the lines **A man must bo an ass. Who lights in a 
cuirass," roprosents Mr. Birr's natural attitude towards such 
matters. He loses much more than lie gui"- '■>■ trying to take 
tlie Middle Ages seriously. 

Studies of Women. 

Ill A l'i..viN Woman's Paut, by Norley Chester (Arnold, 
Os.), and in Lotus and Lai'mx, by Helen Wallace (s.imo pub- 
lisher, same price), we have two novels written by women and 
apjicaling to women ehieny. Both are well written, both will 
give their meed of entertainment. The part of the plain woman 
in Action is alw-ays to play the guardian angel to her fairer, and 
so frailer, sist4>r, and thus Norley Chester employs Fay Kennedy 
to watch over her friend Doris Vortescue and to jirevent her at 
a critical moment from tiikin;; an irrevocable and luifortnnate 
step. There is a great deal of nice and hi.chly-cultured conver- 
sation on the way thither. 

Miss Wallace in " Lotus nnil Laurel " provides an original 
situation. A famous vidlinist, Madame Waldsteln, has an only 
daughter, Karola, who also displays great talent for tho violin. 
Tho mother is tortured by jealousy, forsooing a rival whose fame 
will l>egin to wax as her own lx»gins to wane, and she does all 
she knows t > thwart Karola's musical proclivities. But it is a 
law of nature, apparently, that i)ar. .>iUd 

prixlnco lUial iHjrseverincc. Karol.. ■•'• for 

nothing but her violin, and just as licr umtlior liat sitcriliced 
everything in life for her art so Karola will do tho ^aiue. The 
rivalry between the two wonjen works up to n ilrauiatic moment 
when the mother, putting her pride from her, besce<'hes the 
daughter to give up her professional career so as to leave her, 
tho mother, undisputed llrst place during the few years which 
remain to her. And Karola refuses her mother's prayer. With 
so strong a situation as this tlie book might have been great. 

Mks. Jkkemir DiDELEitK, bv H. J. Jennings, Ix-ai-s the im- 
print of Messrs. Harristin and Sons, of Pall-niall, and its price 
is not stated. The story is very fairly g<H>d reading. Tho 
e<>iitral flgnw. is a swindling but seductive little widow, and the 
])lot deals with her matrimonial i)lans Ixith for herself and her 
daughter. Nothing is new iu the idea, but tho treatment is 
fresh and bright. Tho author should avoid in future the de- 
scriptive names which he has chosen for his characters. Every- 
time one reads of Mr. Gush or Mi-s. Didelcre, one is reminded 
that they ai-e not living i)e<)plo, but lalx-lled ty|)e8 in a book. 

Thb XiJitTiiF.RN Belle, by John Werge (Digby, Long, Cs.), 
might be one-third of its size with advantage. The su|>orfluous 
matter in it is evidently the mistake of a beginner rather than 
delilMsrate " padding." It reads like the diary of a young 
woman who has spent a season in London and recorded every- 
thing she saw, for the Ijeneflt of hor native village. For an 
unsophisticated American, if such a thing existsi" The Northern 
Belle " would be an excellent guide-b(Kjk to London. 

Blix, by Frank Norris (Grant Uichards, 5s.), has a good 
deal of "sling" alx>ut it and an exhilarating young heroine, 
" as trig and trim and crisp as a crack yacht." She wi-ars shirts 
of "a rattling stiffness" and a dog-collar round her waist instead 
of a l)elt. Some men might find so nmch breezinoss and tautness 
a little dangerous to sentiment. But tho hero falls in love with 
her, greatly to his Own advantage. She cures him of gambling, 
encourages him in his liU-niry work, proix)sos to him valiantly 
when he seems diflld<Mit, and is altogetlu^r a thorough " good 
fellow." Mr. Frank Norris is a spirited writer. 

The Naked Tuitii, by Miss Andrew Merry (wo risk the 
title) (Now Century Press, .'Is. M.), is a would-bo clever collec- 
tion of stories which misses Ix-ing of value on account of its 
-■■'■- :-ity. The first story, which gives its name to the book, 
to toll of the life of a liuly of society who, as it were, 
•• I'i 'y* tho game." " The only law she acknowl<^dged was tho 
passing inclinaticm of tho moment." Some of the social sketches 
are rather \ despite tho fact tluit a lady of fashion 

speaks of " i. - invites." 

An entirely absurd sU>ry of an adopU-d daughter is 
BiCTTiNA, by May Crommcliu (Lang, (Is.), although written in all 



AuffUHt 4, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



87 



wriou-uioMH. No donbt young ladlca on noa-Mid^ boorJiM next 
MiDiith will roiid it with iiitcn-st, but then yoiinc luJicw, Hnavtm 
bloss thorn ! hiivo tlio diKOstiuii of tho ontrich in tlio nialtur of 
llrlioii. They »-aii n-iid iiii.vdiiiiK ut ull which ciiIIh itacK a 
novo), »o long ai« it, iiibIich iio doiimiidH upon tho mind, und wo 
can truthfully u.ssuro tlioin that " IJottinii " novor niukm uny 
kuch duuiandH. 

TiiK Quw:n WamI", by Joan MiddlumatM (Digby Long, 0«.). 
dealu with the fortunoH of tho two very lioautiful ttndoxtfMtivoly 
high-brod d.i. 'fa |irtnid old Scottinh carl, nnd it in well 

that Miss >  layH H|Mtcial HtroKH u|>un their br<>odin|;, 

for wi- iifvor :,luiuUl liave KUi'sHCd at it from thoir doiu|^, and 
ha.viiii,'s, or tlioir bohaviour towards their Kri-nch maid. 

DAtrriHTlilts OK PlmmI'UK, by Anna, Comtosso <li< Bromont 
((.■rocning and Co., (is.), ha.s a kind of na'ivo immorality al>out it 
which is lianii!«>«« bt^canse of the wild improbability of i-vory- 
thinc in tho itoak. No yonng person would think of applying to 
hoiTM'lf tho doctrines of th«» throo " soilwl doves " of the story, 
for tho Him|ilo reason that tlioy are not huniuii Ix'ings to |)oint a 
moral but merely diH-orative creatures who ndoni a tale. Their 
very names bexin the improliahllity. They are not related to 
ono another, anil their comiiauioiiship is accidental. But one is 
called Hera, tho s<voiid Atene, and th<< third Neieni. All 
thii"e have uiielassed themselv(>s, anil ther«' is n touch of 
KieldiiiK: in the chapters in which each r<Matos her history and 
misfortunes. But they are all endowed with genius, which 
reinstates thera in MO<Mety— one as a great actress, one as a 
<{ntH^n of opera, nnd one as a violinist. All thre<i got " i>uit<>d " 
witli husbands, almost simultaneously. Buffer these absurdities 
the book niiglit be a gixnl one. 

Leva's Laboura. 

AUhon;;h aftt'r reading STt'DlES in Lovk (Dent, -Is. M. n.), 
by Miss Maude Kgerton King, one's mind is filled wiih tho 
w>rrows of man, the stories havt> a spirit of tx-auty within them 
that belongs tt> the sweet side of melancholy. Miss King 
applies her delicate, sensitive art to the situations that 
boixler trivgedy and occasionally lead to flue and noble 
issues. Such a study as " Dr. Deianey's Experiment " ii> 
original and yet j)rofo\indIy true. The strenuous nobility of 
the three principal characters, the pure joy which the womaiVs 
love for tho dying man wrests from an almost boiielcHS trii/Mixst', 
is a (Ine example of nervous work. Such a story as " A Help- 
mate " is rare in recent Action. It tells of the devotion of a 
sincere, uncomprehending nature for a subtle, not alt<igethcr 
generous, brokcn-heartiHl artist. Janet, who has married tho 
artist when the love of his life is dead, really considers a picture 
entitled " Tho Soid's Awakening " to 1k> inspiring and helpful 
(in a few such touches Miss King places her > ' vividly 

l)ef<ire her readers), and she is so proud to be • .to tho 

nr.ui she loves that no depths of self-abnegation, atTriKht her. 
What is asked of her the reader will do well to se<i f<ir himself. 
She is taken ill, and then "on tho very threshold of death they 
llrst met as true lovers ; and they wore hai)py. Antimy wondered 
that ho had held his happiness at arm's length so long. He had 
selfishly shut himself up in the d:irk house of his sorrow all this 
while; and when at last he opened the door to thel,ri)ve that h.id 
licen knocking and waiting so patiently, over Love's shoulder 
lookeil Death." But the artist or observer — and the author 
knows that to bo one you must Ih> tho other — is not content with 
an easy tragedy. Janet recovers, and the end is such as all who 
have recognized tho facts of life must own to l»e a true one. 
Tho other " studies " are, after their fashii^n, equally good, 
compact of quiet humour, pathos, and sincerity. Wo knew 
that the author of " Itouud about a Brighton Coach Oflice " was 
exjiert and acuto ; it is, therefore, doubly pleiusing to find from 
her latest book that she is inspired with a true seuso of tho 
beauty and tragedy of life. 

Boys. 

Three boy's books come to us from Messrs. rartridgc. A 
Boy ok thk Kiisst Kmi-iue, by E. S. Brooks (."is. (W.)* is a story 
of France in Hie tl:ivs tif \aih)lo(i!i, Tliort* is tuii faiiiu^!! iiL''hrin::r 



:i« w«. fv.'f ri.i lamtli 



in ittoMtlHTy ibfi'i'-xiiiot^iv 

the und, wheu the 

in tho battle <>f I 

bntik l« not ^ 

Walliir KhiNle« (j.. (,.(. 

utory too. Thi-re i« a 

in nearly »« 

William-. T 

ki<l' 

(Jr.i- 

in the dayi of tho 8|iiini»h AnnvU. 

•-' v. KcHoOUlur AXU l*M«.....i.ii" 

Hwl ^iiM'k, r>n.), ban great imint*. Ti 

and hi' 1 
their iTa 



iinUI 

-■ -. Tba 

"A. hjr 

' '-'ry S'-'-Ml MiMOl 

V rliaplflr* wkMl 

.•dl 

»t) 

MB Morav 

' •'•'uv I«id 



contrast s to i 
olIeixHl siiici! 1 



"U* " »p«cian>ii« wo hat' 



Wo di>siro to offer Lord Ktli-^ini'r.-, the snthnr nf Jrtt Csn- 
ItlTTllKUH (Heinemann, Oe.),f>i 
Imdly at the hands of Im- 
printer's reader, aiul he •* 
uf an hour when the h 'II 
and Kiiglish met his ey lo 
printed Ixiok. It \ »uch 
blots as thes< thai iMJtUy 
that his e.ua.y Wi>uld i 

Tiu; Jio.SK ANl> 1 in. I'T Arihnr C»iiali<<t Smitll 

(Downe . Z». Od.). i» a volnrae ol 'irtea. Mr. 

Casslotl Smith, who evI.i.'M'iv I. , -•nw to bo 

luore or less undo rthe . 'rislan, 

di'miii-nce. An unploasim j..-si'.ii-' i. <" '> taemt 

of the stories, and tlio tone, generally s whole- 
some. T'  '  ' ' 

Mvv. '*" or 

appropriate title of a q " ■*• 

Frmlorick Towushend M . . . «" 
Press at 3s. (J«l. There is  rert 

tho style ; but while the " mum . 

a kind, their actions are too wildly fan -:o 
rrtider, who will bmr lx>wildennont only wii'-n .i uiiMix.-r uu<s> um 
bewildering. ^^_^^^^___^^_^_^^ 

LIBRARY N0TE5. 



i 






The long-desired Int«-' 
Literature is well on its  
recent 1 
bibliogr.i. 

The catalogDo Is to incluilo I' 
and will be publish'"' '■"■ •'"• "r. 
Classille<l subj<<ct i 
an attempt will Ih- em. mi- 
titles. Kach nation is to ' 
vari 
In 1 
were re]' 
may l)e  

scheme will i '*" 

visiimal Inleri- i>o 

m.iin outlines, it may bo possible u> bring tiio whoie oaUiopM 
up to a high IcvcL 

An International Biblit^raphioal Oooference, In connexion 
with the Paris Exhibition, i*  ' " " ' -^ day* 

August lOth to l:^th. This will 1' ierwK» 

of Librarians (as :id ba= a aei)^ 

rate organizing > '"'• »new"l"ra da 

rinstitut, will l>e th. **» 

riu-,. .Ill r.uuheou, the '* 



I or 



SB 



LITERATURE. 



[Anj^iist 4, 1900. 



given to the schemo oC the Intornationnl InKtituto of Biblio- 
graphy (or the adoption of uiiivcrsiil cuUlof^uos of I)il>lioKr.iphy 
based Dpon a de<<imnl cla»siaiMti<iii. Tho subscriptiim of 20 
fram-s is d.  to bo charged for membership of tho 

Libniriaai' l 

In Wolverhampton all eln!i!H>H have iiho»-n Rreat public spirit 
in support of tlie now Krtx" Library, the foiindation-dtone of 
which was laid the other day by the Duke and Duchess of York. 
Tho project was iiitendixl as a worthy commemoration of tho 
Queen's Diamond Juhih'«>, and tho fln;iiici:il problem was met by 
voluntary olforinp* from cbiUlixMi. wMrkiiiR men, IckmI mnpiiatos, 
and athletic clulw. The rosul( will bo a handsome buildiiif;, 
with accommodation for 100,(M)0 volumes. 

With the approval of the Sboreditch Vestry, the Klcc'tiie 
Lightinfc C'omraitt«<o have made a grant of £2.'>0, out of their 
profits, for |>rovidin;; liooks in the Public Library. This pift, 
which is equivalent to a year's exp<>ndituro on lifiht, may, it is 
hoped, b<> an annual one. We iM-lieve that, under a s|M'eial Act, 
at Oldham the Library and Museum has derived substantial 
beoeflt from gas profits. 

The lat«> Mr. Tallmt Baines Ue<»d was the possessor of 
» largo typographical library elassilUnl in accordance with a 
schemo of his own. The liooks have l>een purchased by tho 
governors of the St. Bride Koundaticm for their technical re- 
ference libr-.iry at the St. Bride Institute in Brido-lane. This 
already contains the " William Blades Library " of ."{,500 books 
and pamphlets and the " Passraoro Edwards Library " of 
nearly 2,000 volumes, all on printing and the allied trades. 
Kach of these eoll«>ctions is provided with a goo<l annotat<><l 
eatalogne, and the libr.iry is invaluable to the technical printing 
elasaes held at the Institute. 

We have receive<l the thirtieth annual report of the Library 
and Club i-ounii'tod with the works of Messrs. Braby, at Dept- 
ford. This institution encourages thrift, provides relaxation, 
cnltivatcs a lovo of re-ading, and further gives pr(»of of kindly 
Interest between employers and employetl. We learn of tho 
anccess of a coal club, a g.irdeninK society, and an ambulanco 
class, while from the library of 5,000 volumes 1,741 books were 
lent for home reading, no deflnitc time being laid down for their 
rctttm. 

The State of Iowa Irns, in a new school library law, effected 
% eoDsidcrablc advance upon anything yet attempted in this 
way. Every school district must set aside anniuiUy a small sum 
for each child of school age. Tho money thus obtained is spent 
upon bcmks for the library. This enforces what has only lx>eu 
attempted voluntarily and to a very small extent in England. 



Corresponbence. 

- —  — 

THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 
TO THE EDITOR. 
Sir, — Your note on the attempt to revive Erse as tlie 
langtugc of Ireland omitted to cite tho very apposite instance 
of Greek in favour of your contention. As a classical language, 
Greek is still the delight and linguistic treasure-house of 
Knrope. As a spoken tongue it shan-s the discro<lit and dis- 
advantage whii-h l>elong to the sp<<o<'h of all small and niipro- 
grewWe populations. You reinemb<'r how that eminently 
practical and unsentimental person tho Roi des Montagnes 
wrote to his daughter that " il faut que tu sois en 6lat do 
pArlcr le franvai*, I'anglaiH, I'allemand, car enlln tu n'es pas 
falts pour viTre dans ce p<>t it pays ridicule." The Grct-ce of 
okleo time waa not a " petit pays ridicule," Ijocause the golden 
tUyv of its language and lltoraturo were also the days of its 
political strength, of it* empiro over the greater part of tho 
then known world, and of the trade, tho riches, tho leisure, and 
tte Tigoar, the curiosity, the resthmsncss of mind and luxly 
which cmpirG and tnido bring in their train. Wliy are our 



little islands not a " jietit pays ridicule ? " Surely because we 
rule far and wide, because 

Who knows whither we may vent 
The trcisure of our tongue, to what strange shores 
This gain of our best glory shall bo sent. 
To enrich unknowing nations with our stores t 
What worlds in the yet unformed Orient 
May come refined with accents that an* ours ! 
Irishmen help us to fight our battles and to rule our Empire, 
and it so<Mns a pity that a respectable but unpractical sentiment 
should drive them to enrol themselves among the small and 
back«ar<l trilies of men. At this moment, a distinguished Irish- 
man, th<>Licutenant-(;overiior of the Xorth-West<'rn Provinces of 
India, is hardening his heart against the sentimental objections 
of his Mussulmans, who would retain as the Court language of 
their province tho Persianized I'rdu, which to tho more 
numerous Hindus is nearly as dillicult as Erso must needs be, for 
many years to come, to the bulk of Irishmen. Sir A. P. 
Macdonnell is as practical as all Irishmen are when they are 
not misled by pseudo-patriotic sentiment, and wishes his Courts 
to use the real living ubi(iiiitous sptH'cb of liis province. If Erso 
were really the |K>piilar language of Ir(>land, not only would 
administr.itive and legislative sup|)ort be unnecessary, but, 
even if applic<l in tho contrary direction, would be unavailing 
to eradicate a living language. For this I can quote another 
Indian precedent. It w-as a Scotchman, Sir Georgo Campbell, 
who forbad the teaching of Assamese in the primary schools of 
Assam, and substituted the kindred s|)eecli of Bengal, as being 
spoken by a larger, a more progressive, a better educated 
commiuiity. lu that case the experiment failed as completely 
as Sir .\. P. Maedonnell's effort will undoubtedly succeed. A 
dying language can as little bo resuscitated as can a vigorous 
8|X)ken spisK-li be destroyed by legislative action. But p<'rliaps 
Mr. T. P. O'Connor and his friends are wielding a mere brutnm 
fulmcn, and have no real diviire to see tho yoinig g<M>eratiou of 
Ireland tnrne<l into a " domum ambiguam Tyrios<iuo bilingues." 
For there seems a want of unselllsh thought in tho attempt to 
crowd Erse as well as English into the too scanty school days 
of primary scholars. 

Faithfully yours, 

J. D. ANDERSON. 

THE DATE OP PEPYS' MARRIAGE. 
TO THE EDITOK. 

Sir, — There is a ixwsiblo solution of tho doubt rospccting the 
date of tho marriage of Samuel Pepys, tho noted " diarist," 
which it may be of interest to investigate. 

Three entries of his give the date as October 10, leaving 
the acttuil year undetermined : but the registry of St. Margaret, 
Westminster, puts it determiriatcly as December 1, 105.5. This 
discrepancy |Kiints to the conclusion that thc-re were two cere- 
monies. Accordingly we may nssnme that the earlier one was 
informal. Taking this view, wo find that Mrs. Pepys camo of a 
Catholic family, so the wedding of October 10 must liavo boon of 
some sort to satisfy her religious scrupUjs, and perhaps those of 
any Catholic priest having access to her who might have been 
willing to accept the risk of so doing. 

Following up this clue, we find that banns wore put up on 
October 10 ut St. Margaret's and published on tho 22nd and 
2^lth inst., followed by u legal mai-riagc on Deccmlier 1, per- 
formed by a justice of the peace. Mrs. Pepys was then barely 
fifteen. Faithfully yours, 

A. HALL. 

Highbury, N., .Inly It. 

JUDGMENT IN LITERATURE. 

TO THE EDITOH. 
Sir,— In the notice of the abov<! book, which appears in 
TOur issue of .luly 28, your revi(!wer says, " Mr. Worsfold, for 
HOmo reastm or other, assumes that ' rcniism' munt alwaijii lie 
rrpugntint to the moral nenHe." Allow mo to point out that this 
stiktement is absolutely untrue. Tho degree in which it mis- 
represents my views will apiiear from the following passage (on 



August 4, 1900.] 



LITEHATURE. 



89 



pago 72), which duflnoN tho scnso in which I have umsd tlto term 
iu tho book in ({iit>Ht!on : — 

" It is only l>y rt-fereiicf to thin prlnoiplo (i.e., the prinrlpio 
of icloiilizatioii) that wo can attach a dcOnite siKniflcunco to tho 
terms ' realism' and ' rcalintic ' as nppli(><l to works of croatlvo 
literature (and of art in K*>m>ral). No work of i'rpativ«> litomturn 
van be ' rpalistii^ ' in thi- st-nM! that tho author has roprodu<i><l 
reality and not thi- im-ntal aspt^tof reality ; for if the author had 
attempted to do this his composition would not tK< a work of 
creative literature at all. If It is used an a terra of reproach 
tho word can only be i)ro|)erly applied to the work of an author 
who has so far nefcloctod to select his material— to idealize In 
fact— that his work has lost tho quality of giving pleasure. As 
however, this quality of giving pleiwuro obviously depond.H upon 
tho nature and chanicter of tho individual reader, as much tta on 
tho nature and chanicter of tho l)ook, the term cannot Iw us<'d 
withany precision unions wo cretlit tho individual whom the given 
work fails to please with an average degree of artistic and moral 
)>f>rception. .\nd since tho latter— mor;d perception— is tho 
more commonly develc>p«d, tho term has como to l)oar a signifl- 
imiico which is almost equivalent to ' immoral," or repugnant 
to the general sense of mankind. But in thus using tho term it 
is necessary not to forget that its original and wider .signittcanco 
is different. In its wider significance it characterizes any work 
of literature (or art) in wliich the author (or artist) has repro- 
duced any subject, or any aspect of a subject, which lessens or 
removes that ' beauty * by virtue of which a work of art gives 
plea-sure." I am, Sir, obediently yours, 

„, „ , AV. BASIL WORSFOLD. 

Tho Temple, July 30, 1900. 



"MR, BOYTON." 

TO THE EDITOR. 

Sir, — In last \vcek's issue of your paper your reviewer of my 
book says : — 

" If it had not been for Mr. Anthony Hope's imaginary 

kingdom stories Mr. F. M. Allen would never have written 

' Mr. Boyton." . . The imiution is not very happy." 

It it were not for your reviewer's discovery I should have 

remained in ignorance of these things. I have not read any of 

Mr. Hope's stories, nor have I 8e«'n any of his plays. I sav this 

regretfully, not boastfully— so that I could not have imifate«l 

him, happily or unhappily, unless, indoed, I am tho victim of 

some curious form of mental disease. 

I do not desire to juggle with words, nor am I anxious to 
enter the lists with a critic, but the Kingdom of Poland— even 
asl took tho liberty of r«'constrmting it- is not an imagiu.iry 
country. So far as I can ascertain, .Mr. Anthony Hope's lHx>ks 
do not deal deliberately with tho future, '* Mr. Boyton " does, 
and this fact (or llctioii) is suflicienf ly emphasizi-d. Unless the 
date and the scene of my story are considered the story of Mr. 
Boyton's exploits would no doubt bo a more absurdity. 

Good, bad, or indifferent, " Mr. Boyton " is my own, and 
owes nothing to anybody's influence, writings, or suggestion. 

On matters of opinion I readily admit that no writer is 
entitled to quarrel with his critics. I will confess that I am 
sorry to learn (from Litei-atu<e) that there is in my story " a 
complete absence of all love interest." I endeavoured— |ierhaps 
maliciously— to avoid this pitfall ; and, though I rang no wedding 
bells and " gave a wide berth " to tho Divorce Court (and its 
purlieus), I tried in more places than one to show that my hero 
had shaken off his early misogyny and had fallen in love. 
Indeed, I went so far as to devote a whole chapter— evidently 
a sheer waste of good paper and ink— to an account of his 
making a proposal of marriage ; and in the last page of the book 
I indicated that a wedding was an event upon which tho 
imaginative reader (or reviewer) might with confidence stake 
his, or her, last dollar. Yours truly, 

' F. M. ALLEX. 
Munster-house, Lncien-road, Tooting-commou, 
London, S.W., July 24, 1000. 



V We withdraw?' 
Allen to read Mr. An- 

Poland l» iiol, uf luui*. , ^ii 
Poland of Mr. Allen'* titory it, 
kingdom, M-i-ing iliul it has an .\ 

In s|>it« of the " |irci|MM,., I 
" love intercdt " in the lMN>k. |Ki>.J 



' ; but wv exhort Mr. 
bat tba 



AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 

♦- 

Messrs. Macmlllan nnnounco"An A(44M<h/ In Peklnir " !■* 



Mr. A. B<'rtram Mitfonl, who was 
back as 1805. His book is an actual 
Legation at Peking, bas<-<l on the an 
Mr. Mitford went to the I^-gation in . 
published his ;'Talo» of Old Japan." 

Wo understand that tli. 
victor of .\liwal and (f(j\ 
which his grand-nephew has in h:ii 
autumn by Mr. .Murray. The aui. 



' kinf k« far 

'I the Brlti>ti 

. KruB Pcklnic 

f"w 7«Ms Ut«r 

SaUh, 

to 1852, 

iisbcd in ttuf 

Mr. Mooro 



Smith says in his written n-quest for the loan of letter* ot his 



Sir 

17. 

' oe 



in 



great-uiu;le, has been pres«>rved for many 
I-xlward Holdich. It is a pity that tli. 
telling nothing cither of Sir Harry's Go. 
or of the closing years of his life in Kii; 
letters will Oil up the gaps. Kven xs it stan.is 
covers nearly half a century of a carwr 
ordinarily full of lighting rom 

course, from Sir Harry Smith 

the Orange River Colony, and IxiWnsmuiI,. in .Natal, took their 
names, the towns of Whittlcst.y (named after the burUl place ot 
Sir Harry and L:.dy Smith) .ind Aliwal also serving to com- 
memorate their connexion with South Africa. 

But Sir Harry was tho hero of aInHMt a hmdred flgbu 
before he became Governor of the Ca|>e. He had twelvs elaspa 
to his Peninsula medal, and ho won his wife in th» mb« 
campaign. The story of this love affair is worth repMtijig. 
After the assault of Biidajos. on April 6th. 1812, two bambane 
Spanish ladies, one the wife of a Spanish officer serving in a 
distant iiart of Spain, and the other her sister, a girl of foartoea 
years— Juana Maria de Ioh Dolores de Leon— elaimed tho pro- 
tiiction of Smith and a brother onicvr. r. ..y 

had fled to tho camp from Badajos, wh. ,| 

violence from the infuriat<-d soldiery. 1; 
torn from their ears. Smith and his f. 

of safety, and within two years th.- ^ 

w-ife. In later years sho w;is , ^. 

Meantime Smith had  „,; to do in many part* of tbci 

world; from the battl. use to the capture and l...r,:„5 

of Washington was only a matter of a f.>w months. iT 

later, at the unsuccessful attack on New Orleans, 6, i i.,.».,rd 
Pakenham foil into his arms, killed. Smith returned from 
America in time to take part in the battle of Waterloo, and to 
march with the allies into Paris. One ot his young«^r brotlieni, 
by the way, was the first British officer to enter tiio capital oo 
that occasion. Then came the Kaffir war at the end of 1834, 
and Harry Smiths memorable rid«- of 700 miles from Capo Town 
to Graham's Towti in six days. Kight or nine years later be was 
knighted for his services in the Gwalior campaign, and not long 
afterwards came his brilliant success at Aliwal. " 1 never 
r«'ad an account of any affair." ssiid the Duke ot W. , 

the House of Lords, " in which an officer has sho- .. , 
more capable than this officer has of commanding troops 
field " ; and it was of Smith's despatch announcing his vinory 
that Thackeray, in his essay " On Military Snobs," wrote, " .\. 
noble deed was never told in nobler language." 

The author of '• Oom Paul's People," Mr. Howard C. Hille- 
gas, which we noticed last autumn, was for many months with the 
Boer commandos. Ho managed, however, to get through the 



90 



LITERATURE. 



[August 4, 1900. 



Britiak lines with a good tloal ct literary and ariiHlIo matorial 
atoiacd av " ' ' 
volume c- 

Books ni geoeiml trarol will Im> nnnM^miiH this aiitiiiiin. Wo 
hare already anoMuieed " In tlio Ice WorUI of Himnlnyu " and 
•• Abork U>o Berben ot Algeria " (both to come from Mr. 
Fisher l'i>" i.> ....i m i- M'-rray's list includes " In Tnscany," 
by Mr. M U.wl, Britinh VicMwOonsul for West 

Tusoany. .ur. i i^mr 1 n\\iii is also In ' it a Im^^Ic tMititlixl 

" Hall-Hours in .lapan." by tlio Rov. ; Nlooro. Mossrs. 

'■ I. by Mr. A. B. Wyldo. 

.iiuitoly, and who is said to 
Itavu iuul " Ui<! |ii'ivili-^ti tA ihu friendship of Kin); MtMicIik." 

Two more travel books of a somewhat unconventional char- 
acter are to come from Mr. Kishcr L'nwin. They are both al>out 
tramps. Ono, entitled " Landlopers," is a tale of triinip life, or 
" traT'linp," in the Australian buMb, written in the fom> of a 
diary. Much of the story is said to Iw fonnde<l on the experi- 
ences of the antlinr, Mr. J. I>e (Jay Br«'ii'f<in. The other IxKik 
is by an Ami Mior, Mr. Josiah Klynt, and is a mor(> 

serious study ii ul life. It is descrilM-d as uu account of 

the adventures ot a scientiOc student, who lived the I ifo of a 
tranp, with all its perils and vicbisitudes, iu onler that hu might 
study tke question of traiaps an<l their relat^ion to crime on its 
own i^round and in its own p(>culiar conditions and environment, 
lias-sian, German, and Knf;lish tramps are studied, :is well as 
American. " Tmnipin); with Tramps," as the volume is calle<l, 
will contain an iutrodlK-tory letter from Mr. Andrew I). White, 
the .\ Amba.vsador in Berlin, aud a chapter and glossary 

devi.: traniiM* jargon. 

Studentjs of Italian art will also be well catered for. 

T«i> ..r three months ago we referred to the forthcoming 

!> by Messrs. Putnam of Mr. Bernhard B«>renson'8 

oig volume on the Italian Painters of the Renaissance, 

veil aj, to the two new editions of " The Florentine 
'■ " in the same series, revised and considerably 

Mr. Murray now announces a sorao^vhat similar work 
— " i '<'rs of Florence from the Thirteenth to the Six- 

****»"' •■< " — by -lulia Cartwright (Mrs. Ady), intended 

for tnivellers in Italy and students of art." 
' . ^ book will also lead to a series. 

Dr. James Brock Perkins hia written the story of " Riche- 
lieu, and the Growth of the French Power," to be published 
shortly in Pntnam's Hemes of the Nations Series. The author 
has • lieu's administration in his history 

of " ." but the present volume, it is 

atati ' • ai of new sources of informa- 

tion, mid in the Affaires Etrangeres 

I :ris and other public olBct>s. His book will bo followed 
month by Mr. li«l>ort Dunlop's Life of Daniel O'Conucll. 

" may be some delay in bringing out the volumu on " Louis 
i.x. fSaint I»uis)," which should follow the O'Connell book, as 
Mr. Frederick Perry, the author, has been sent to South Africa 
ou GoTcmniciit service. 

Some startling statLstics are given in the nnnnunccmcnt of 
tlm book on " Th«? I>x-ust Plague and its S u," by Dr. 

-1in<ras Munro, whirli Mr. Murray will ^ ;>iiblish. It 

M-t-mn that of the <>■■ luaro miles which the earth's land 

surface comprises, 1 , , 'U arc more or loss contiuuoasly sub- 
ject*-*! to the scourgo of the locust plague. " It causes a 
gn»ti-r loss Isith in blo<xl and treasure than a war even between 
Great Britain and the South African Republics." 

A second series of ir ■les on " Literary Hearth- 

stoacn," writti-n by >1 •. vi!l In- piitilisbed by 

Measn. Putnam i; li 

Ch»rl«/tte Bronte ai,. ,^ 

deal with Hannah More and John Knox. About the same time 
KIcHsrs. Putnam will coi.iw.ni- ili'ir •..■ries of " Historic Towns 

<:w Knf land " and - <s of the Middle States " 

v..iii a Tolnme on the " i., ..■,-. ... i.„- Southern States," edited 
\iy Lyaan P. Powell, with an introduction by W*. B. Trent. 



the new year) 



llalxao's works are to become common property on the 18th 
"f this month. M. Cnlmann Lp'vy has aire- m to reprint 

ill his works in Ilf. C>()c. volumes. Fortl. i publishing 

thom up to the present year Michel Ldvy paid, In I8(i."), lUt<H'n 
years after the author's death, the sura of 80,IMK) francs. The 
works of some of Balzac's famous contemporarii-s will not ceaso 
to be copyright until much later. Do Mussel's copyright 
expires In liXKV, do Vigny's in 1913, Lamartine's and Sainte- 
Benvo's in 1919, the elder Dumas' in 1921, Gaufier's in 19'2*i, 
.Michelot's in 1024, and Victor Hugo's in 1933. 

Anion i liy Mr. Murray may b<» nien- 

tionoil " •! . n<e of the Right Hon. Hugh 

' •fs," by his son, Lieutenant-t'olonel 

uli liiis will probably not appear beforo 
Dangerous Trades," in which a number of 
experts deal with the different aspects of industrial occupations 
as affecting public health, edited by Dr. T. Oliver ; Mr. Sydney 
liuxtou's " Political HaudlHiok," adapted to tho coming general 
election ; and a translation, in two volumes, of " Tho Greek 
Thinkers," by Professor (}om|>erx, of Vienna University, who is 
tlie author of the standard German translation of Mill's 
" Logic." 

Messrs. Greening are publishing a volume entitled 
"Northern Lights and Shallows, and Kskimo Folklore," edited 
and translated by Ralph Graham Talier, proprietor and manager 
of the Kskimo Village at the Paris Kxliibition. Tho Ixsik will be 
niaile up of folk tales translatotl from the originals told in tho 
Kskimo tongue. Although this is their fii-st publication, tho 
authoi-shipof them undoubtedly dates back hundi-eds, and possibly 
thousands, of years. 

Books to look out fop at onoe. 

CHIVA— 
" Ad AttRcbi in Peking." By A. B. V. Mitfo^l. Macraillan. 

SOUTH A rule A— 
" The OriKin of the Boer War Revealed." By C. H. Thomas. Hodder 

anil t^tou);hton. 

riCTlON — 
" The Oatelem Barrier. " By " Lucas Malet." Mrthaen. 6». 

REPntxT— 
" In tho Day of Battle." By J. A. Steuart. Hutchinson. 6d. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS 



FICTION. 
The M»amevlBlB,Ui li.f^.FarJeon 

"] x.'tid.. U«» pTt. HiM<'hinHon. tfc*. 
A Gift from the Orave. UyKdilh 

IVharioii. TJxiin., 184 pp. 

Miirrn;k". 2>*. fid. n. 
Fitzjameik By l.uUin Sirrrt. 

7|  .">iiii.. iil IMi- Mi-lluiiii. :^. liil. 
Smoka-Room Tales. Hy S. C. 

Arnold. 7  liiri.. :!l pp. l>cuii. 

HISTORY. 
Plotupes of the Old Fpench 

CoUPt. Hy Culhrriiu- lirartl'-. 
Hx.'j^m.. 3Tti pp. l'nwin. PK. (Wl. 
A Review of Irish HIstopy. Hy 
J. I'. Cannon. 7J x6in.. &2 up. 

l'nwin. Bn, 
MISCELLANEOUS. 
Westmlnstep Abbey. Hy fl. A. 
Trfiiitbrrk. (ij x lin., /;S pp. 

M. ').-. 

Foptune-Telllnir '■ 

dtc. t^l. by licelu 
Txtjin. '■■ •"■ .-. 

MUSIC. 
Ths Mairtc RInic of Music. Hy 

Jl.Honnl'' I ii pp. Dent. 

Yvonne, i .miiif. 7}x 

6Jln..Wpp. l:.;;..:«li. l". 6d. n. 

POLITICAL. 

l.l»v..».M«"i unci BmplPS. Three 

'I'. JliT-Kl. (lilhrrt 

'. I.. Ihimmonil. 



Watts- 



Hr 



Th~ V' 



1). 3«. M. n. 



Aylnrln. 

IMntOH. 

II. fid. 
England's Peril. Hy H'. U. 
(^uiix. 8ix5iln., 122i)p. 

Ncwnes. fkl. 
"Younar ApplL" Hy EgeHon 
iaatlc. 81x.'>iin., Wipp. 

Miuniillan. Gd. 
SCIENCE. 
Oas Enirlne Constpuotlon. Rr 

Ji. r. .1. /• ■• ./)•.. uiuiA.J. 

IIV,,/. <l 

x)W. 14k. n. 

The Stud pi lamlca. Hy 

(;. -V. Muu...n. I .i;..-^. 71x5in., 

238 pp. lull. 3h. «d. 

SPORT. 

Spopt In Wap. Hv M<0.ritn. It, 

S. S. lluiUnl'mnll. TJx.'iJin., 

'.T.'pp. II. ill. uiiiiu. 3h. (id. 

TOPOGI' 

The HIstopy oi ish of 

Pno'stoii. 1 ; .' I .s. A. 



J'-'- Ui'- 

Oup Forests ail .. .. -^-.....-u. 

Hr J. .Sitibtl. a ill! liml.luii iliUl 
Library.) 81 x 5iln., 3ln pp. 

Ii. ,,1 T. i:^). 
Hampshlpe, 
\S iKlil. H'onnli > 

U. A. li. IhMiir. ,.,.. 

Dent. 4X. tkl. 
TRAVEL. 



Buch dep Lledsp. ^ ' 

Ui Alilii., L'l^'pp. !>' 



Hy. 

TheO...... .u>.. 

ths Continent. 



Jitcr.iture 

Published by CbC ZlimCS. 



No. 147. SATURDAY, AUGUST II, 1000. 

CONTENTS. 

Notes OF THK Day ni. 02. ttJ. iv» 

Pkkhonai, Vikwh •' One or Two Old NovpIh," by C. H. T. )>.> 
PoEMH— "To a Hiogriiphfr," by W. O. Hole. "Bo 

Sat isfli'd," by (trace Ellorv Charming 0.» 

Nkw Lkiiit on Sib Walter Kalkioh, I., by F. 8. 

Boiis Ofl 

Sir Thomas Ruownk 08 

PoKTs AH ("HiTics OK PoKTUY. by T. H. L. Ix>ftry 08 

Pi 11 i; A i.TENBfKO. THE VIENNESE I.MI'RE8810NIST 9B 

}; 

 I John Dryden 100 

Th.' Ui.ul 101 

Chiiliiicrs on Charity 1(C2 

Thi< Kaily Histoiy of Enplish Poor Relief 102 

Social Hiid Piililiial nvnaiiiics W2 

The Story of Kros aud Psyche _....„... 102 

Theolojty— 

I'm ChrlHto Pt Krolrvln— TpTtnnl rommenlanr on tho Holy 
(iOHiielH— Til. ' ' ' St. I.uko— Tho Atonpincnt 

in lIiKlern 1 le KngliNh t'hurch In tho 

Kniirtciuli KH, 101, 105 

A Oif of Miirs— Our Cove— Tho 

t'l' iphy of a Charwoman— 

Ak :ok 106 

(^ORKKHi'ONUKN^fc; t lariK^^H Hitrluwe 107 

Authors and Pchmshehs 107, 108 

List of Ne\v Books and Reprints 108 



NOTES OF THE DAY. 



Mr. .lolm Murray is cloarly bent on extondiiiK liis old- 
established business in more directions than one. His series of 
novels iii a new departure for the firm in Albcmarle-strcet, 
and hard upon this comes tho announcement of tho MonUUy 
liertfw, a publication on rather new lines which is to appear 
llrst at the end of next month. 

• « « « 

Tho size is alx)nt that of tho old yew Review. Antique woven 
paper, anew fonnt of typo, larRO margins, andstitche<l bindingwill 
i\o all tluitcan be done for tho exterior of tho nowpcricKlical. Tho 
contents will apparently l)o very much like those of the existing 
reviews, with two exceptional features. Tho Monthly Review will \w 
illustrated, and it will eont^iin a cerUiin number of " editorials " 
as well as siprned articles. Tho appointment of Mr. Henry 
Kewbolt xs editor is full of interest. The author of " Admirals 
All '* has already achieved a well-«leserve<l reputation as a 
writer of stirring verse, and we hope that he will bo no less 
successful in conducting a high class review. We wish him and 
Mr. Murray's new venture all success. 

• * » * 

Tho St.age Society has had a successful flrst season, and 
proposes largely to increase its membership. Other changes 
are also contemplated. One is the substitution of some other 
night than Sunday for the i)orforniances. This pi-esents certain 
difHculties. A theatre and actors are not so easy to secure on 
a week-night. The eidargement of tho society will also make 
it necessary to give two representations of each play instead of 
one. It is to be hope<I the society will really set itself to do a 
useful work and to benefit its age by seeking ont and ])ro<lncing 
Knglish plays. Our stage is at a critical point. A great deal 

Vol. VII. Xo. 0. 



lit In tentatively opproarhlnK the dramatic form, > . 
cnooaragMl «-o »ball have tho makini^ nf a mraiem Kncliali 
drama. I>ackinK ' -ivo np (bo att««ii|it aad 

the theatre will ^ i><>ino lA wnm-oat mn- 

ventionUKiUtcnxl up by ipoctacular adnrnmcnt and nade-lMll 

display. 

• • • • 

.\t a time when coaU and other eonim<vr':.~ — „...,. 
dearer beeauno of tho want, it may bo ft  
people to learn i ' 

The talk, at pn- ^ . I 

NubstitutinK tho half-crown novel, in paper eoreim. Tkla b 
practically tho French i>' ' ''■% haa both adrantagM MMl 

drawbacks. The .idvani it it lnpr»~ii»-i thf hook- 

buying |)ul>lic ; tho drawback is that,  r to 

get a living wage, a volume that a Uh.- ro to 

handle can hardly bo turned ont for tho money. Nor U It any 
answer to this argument to »<' i«cr ean have 

b<x)kH iKiinid if he wants to pre-' <? case of loaK 

books by anthers who demand heavy royaltiea, tho French 
puhlishcrH habitually economiaio in th<- ' of tho paper. 

with tho result that a new novel by M. /. ^t Invariably 

makes its first app<'ar.inee in a /ornuit attcrly unworthy of a 
binding. No doubt, however, the state of tho market for »lx- 
hhilling novels is jnst now such as to nuiko nome new experiment 
desirable. Publishers an.i 
back to the old three-v. 
since tho libraries block tho wuy, 

• * « • 

The managers of the German Theatre in London, c«iec>art;;ed 
by the success of its season at St. (;<  to 

have .t winter season extending from ti jbcr 

to tho middle of April. Tho performanco this tiroo wiU be 
given in tho Comc<ly Theatre, Haymarket. 

•• « « • 

A syrapathr i of the career of "John Oliver 

Hobbes '' in the I contains the interesting annoonccmeat 

that Mrs. Cmigie's nest novel will prolwbly dc«l with Xoncoo- 

formity. It is a subject on v lies 

of Mrs. Oliphant, there is - 'leat 

novelists haveasarule been rathcrshyof giving tho sympatbetio 

ro/c of /eiUM! prrtinVr to a Dissenter. Tho syim ' Dinscnter 

is almost as rare in fiction as, say, the syni). .ntist or 

the sympathetic dancing-master. Mrs. Craigio seems to have 

many qualifications for repairing tho wrong thus «lonc to a large 

and useful section of the community. Her ancestors, we learn 

from the Rool-iwiii, were Free Church «r r is 

one o( Dr. Parker's d<!a<-ons. We trust  sort 

of novel about Nonconformity that the Doctor and the deacons 

will be pleased with. 

«   •» 

In the CoMt«mpomri/ /i.tiVic Mr. Ay! 
Literature for having refnse<l, twti ye 
Tolstoi's theory of art seriously. Tho delliiilion of art which 

Mr. M;i".i.> ii^.i-.- -....w... «:,!, >,-.,.,i f^^m Count Tolstoi runs 

thus :- 

Art is a liuiuan .u^ nyin 

consciously, by means i , , to 



02 



LITERATURE. 



[August. 11, 1900. 



othora feeliuKv he has lived through, and that other people aro 
infeeted by those feelings, and aUo exporienco thoiu. 
The definition, of roni-w, narrow-s the moaning of a word to 
utuc!i tliv (liolioii.irios jjivo :i wiilcr >ii;iiiru;iiico, iind which can 
be nsed, in <> y kind of worl. ' ' "'V 

inles ; and it i in it even as : i 

of what i- .u'l, i:. &i" i.d A. It 

wtwld er<  nofor v , t<> infect 

I il through, 

1 , , . Is liim to 

:to. It w<' vohidu tlie art ot any man of letters who 

I. , not write i ^ .o literature — -any luasterpiooo addressed 

not to the feelinfr* but to the intellect, like Gibl>on's "Decline 

and Fall." It is not even fair to the imaginative writer. Itwould 

proro that there is no art in the novel of observation, but 

' .ivel of « .-. That is to say it would 

irs" iiii .1 ! iiie than " Madame Bovary." 

the definition may stand 

i >i, it will not hold water 

1 art in {;■• lias any one ever given — and 

\ _ ' r givi' — .1 'liiit t!i:it will defy analysis ? 

« « 

A eorrespondeiu \Min-, ;—  A i-.iTniKwiion of events 
In China with Mr. M. P. Shiels' romance, ' The 
Yfll.w n.iii'^i^r,' which was .published two years ago, is 
(.li'ii-. 'I'i ..i-.. is fniich in the novel that is prophetic of 
th<-|ii«~.i .fially in some of the minor details of 

th<- l-H'k. u ol the British Fleet coincides remark- 

ably with the iKiok ; although since Mr. Shiel's novel ap|)eared 
there have, of course, l>eon many changes in our Chinese 
squadron. Vice-Adiniral .Sir Ftln-ard Seymour, of course, Is still 
in command of tlie Fleet, which includes H.M. shijw liarfifur. 
Terrible, Bonaventure, Daphne, and others mentioned by Mr. 
8hiel. But for the w"ar in South Africa H,M.S. f oicer/ii/, which 
plays an important part in the i-oinance, WY>uld almost certainly 
I' The usurpation of Prince Taan, hitherto 

:i . ff what is virtually des|K>tic jxiwer, bears 

a - . • . . to the rapid rise of Dr. Yen How in 

till- i--'k I.. ;i ^ :;itorship. The massacre of Kui-opeans 

and their flight seaward, so vividly dcpicteil by Mr. ShicI, 
have Ijcen realized. Wo liavo learnt to our cost. In accord- 
ance with the author's warning, that China is now annod 
with the most modern weaiions of the highest scientific 
precision, which she has riuiotly, but continuously, In-en lm|>ort- 
iog from Europe since her vmr with Japan. It is obvious from 
the efficiency of the Chinese trooi)s, and jrarticularly the 
t." iiat the military drill planned by Dr. Yen How has 

!►■ d out in reality to a large extent by the Chinese 

:■ ; and it is only too prul>al>lc that the foreign ollicers 

li '■ murdered by the soldiers they have disciplined, as 

actually happens in the novel. But the most startling fulUlmenl 
of any event foretold in ' The Yellow Danger ' is the Chinese 
Invasion of Sil>erla : it is fortunate for Kuro|>o that this raid is 
not likely to bo followed in fact, as in fiction, by the armed 
exodus of all China." 

•   • 

An article in the Qunrterhj on " tbo conditions of groat 
poetry" is an attempt to find i why Kngland is not 

producing great poetry at the pr> The writer's idea 

U tliat " at the root ol all great jKH-try there is some form or 
etlier of strenuoas and impassioned optimism " which " must 
be generally diffused throughout the ]>oet's own country or 
throughout the world," and that this U not the case with us just 
DOW. It Bounds pUusibb;; but it is always difllcult to characterize 
correctly the age in which we live. The discovery that the 
British Kmpim is a happy and united family may very well be 
held l> I the future to mark oil c. I us one of 

widcl.. iiisin, ill spit." of ifH ( ., lack of 

poetry ; • 
jioetry wa- 
<' 'l in a period when 

«' lists. 



According to the reviewer, it is not enough for the |)oet to 
be an optimist ; ho must also address nn optimistic public. 
Otherwise his work will not I)o on the high plane of the inter- 
preter but on tlio lower plane of the missionary. This, too, 
sounds plausible ; but «-e begin to have our douhts when we find 
the theory invoked in connexion with the name of Mr. Swin- 
burne. Surely Mr. Swinburne's early (Kiems c^innot Ix) regarded 
as endeavours to interpret the pi-cvailing scutimonts of an 
<• ^>ge. He was rather the jKH-t who set out to cjirtfcr 

'■ >. Ho was, In short, a self-apiminttHl missionary to 

the tmurgeuis ; and he was received by the (>oiii'j/(!ois much in tliii 
same spirit in which niissionarii's are rt>c«ived in China. 
l{o»i)ect:iblo newspapers denounced him, and respectable fathers 
of families put his works on the fire with the tongs, with the 
result that his first editions went to a premium. Nowadays Mr. 
Swinburne is himself a J>oiii^coi», and interprets, when he does 
not obscure, the widely diffused optimism of the averag*^ man. 
But he wrote better poetry when his optimism — it that bo the 
l>r(>p(>r name for his appeal to pagan gods to " come down and 
redeem us from virtue " — was, as the r<.>viewer puts it, " the 
precarious possession of some small clique or iiarty." 

•  • » ' » 

The little poem which runs : — 

La vie est vaine, 

L'n i>cn d'ainour, 
Un pcu do liainc, 

Et puis — bonjour. 

La vie est br&vo 

Un pen d'espoir, 
Un peu «lo reve, 

Et puis — bonsoir 
has always tempted the translators by reason of the difll- 
culties it presents. The extreme simplicity of the lines is 
merely a subtle form of artfulness hardly discovered until the 
words are transposed into English. A cori*es|X)ndent sends us 
two versions, the one " capping" the other, which were brought 
iuto l>eing a few evenings ago. 

This life is vain, 

A lover's sigh, 
A little pain, 

And then — good-bye. 

And life I deem 

Holits grief, delight, 
A little dream, 

And then — good-night. 
We like the second one Iwttcr : — 

Our life is vain ; 

A love, some play ; 
A hope, some pain. 

And then — good-day. 

And life is brief 

For me, for you — 
A dream, a grief, 

And then — ailieu. 

•  *  

Against Mr. Balfour's disparaging remarks about Landsoer 
the other day may 1m> placed a passage from a letter written by 
Dickens to the artist on the 10th of .lanuary, 1830 — " Whenever 
I speak of men Iwrn of nature to be writers if they had not 
highly distinguished themselves in some other way (they are 
mighty few) I always instani'e yon with your remarkable iwwcrs 
of ol>scrvation and [wrception." Itossetti was no less warm in 
his appreciation of Laudsocr's " Dialogue at Waterloo " : — 

This is, in the truest sense of the word, an historical 
pictui-e ; ... not merely an enilKHliment of concei)t ions, 
however acute and valuable, founded on the records left us 
from past ages; this, on the contrary, is itself a record, a 
• ol the time, to remain chronicled ; an emphatic person;i! 
iiinony. It Ijclongs to a class of art but too little followoti 
in our day, which leaves its own annals, for the most part, to 
the c;iricaturist and the ncwsp:ipcr draughtsman ; a class whicli 



Augu>t 11, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



93 



iff moro " liiHtoriral " (liaii Mr. C'tohh' picture*, or than Mr, 

Lucy's, or tlinii M. DcliiriK'lu-'x, as iii.L li.ini: n.ili.i. i! fi-..rii 

history, but itsulf liMonj jxitntetl, 

■NevcrthelcHM, tho faiiio of Sir K<lwlii i-., «i. ii-ir, i.n iiu< 

waiio. HIm works Jo not n))|M>nl to connoisscurx with a tenth 

tho force to-<lay that they cliU a Uccado ago. 
» • • 

One of tho most interesting by-ways in the hi.iio! y oi humh- 

ture, thttt of priviitcly priiitwl boolcH, still remains Inrpoly 

«nex|>lorcil. Tho conii>iliition of »uch u history nntu 

considcrtiliio ditlicultitin. Every year incirasts latlii 

them, 111x1 until the tjtsk is taken in hand seriously om imtioiml 

liibliogniphy, in this respect, can only bo ref;nnlo<l as jjlai ingly 

incomplete. Xo consiNtent attempt has Ix-en imwlo to ;!i-applB 

with the matter since Martin ]iublisliod his work on the subject, 

the second edition of which is even now more than forty years 

old. And yet much that is of intorext and importance, esixicially 

in regard to modern books, is licing lost by not taking account of 

)«rsonal pJ-oferences. Privately printed l)ooks fall generally 

into three classes, those privately printed in very limited 

nundiors for sale or otherwise ; those compiled from letters and 

circulated only in a liniito<I circle ; and those issuetl for tha 

purpose of testing opinion on the merits of some proi>osed work. 

  • • 

The first class do not present many difticulties from a 
bibliographical point of view, for they mostly bear tho date and 
place of imprint, and are sutticiently numerous t<i lie tracsd 
without much trouble. Into this categoi-y fall all those works 
illustnitinp; private collections of objrts il'tirt, the beauty and 
value of which their owners, either from vanity or a genuine lore 
of the subject, desire to be moi-e generally known and appreciated. 
Such works are often issued regardleis of expense, as, for 
instance, tho " Museum Worsleyanum," by Sir Richard, two 
volumes, folio, which is said to have cost as much as £27,000. 
Into this class fall al.so the liooks p\ibli.she<l at private presses, 
»uch as tho Strawberry-hill and Lee Priory Presses, and it 
includes besides the numerous .series of bibelots dealing with 
some peculiar class of " ana," like the diminutive volume* 
jniblished by Mr. William Loring Andrews on " Grolicr," 

" Aldus," and other kindretl subjects. 

  #  

Tho second class includes all those volumes which are mainly 
restricted to reprints of the correspondence of well-known atithors, 
r>ot previously ptiblishe<l. Sometimes the.so compilations, like 
the " Charlotte Hronte and Her Circle," edite<l by Mr. Shorter, 
are printwl for tho use of the general public, but it more 
frequently hapi>ens that tho books owe their existence to a desire 
to give a small circle of friends some of that intimate knowledge 
of an author which can be obtained from a stiiily of his 
»pontaneous coiTosjiondence. As may lie i-eadily undcrstoi«l, such 
volumes are extremely dilticidt of acqiiisition, and as they do not 
come within tho terms of the Copyright Act there is no certain 
0>«aas of tracing them. 

 « « « 

The la.st class is tho despair of the bibliogi-apher and the 
collector. But they present a romantic si<le to the history of 
literature, and a volume dealing with them adeqvuitely would be 
liijjhly entertaining. For instance, tho real reasons why Byron, 
Matthew Arnold, and many other authors were inducoil to destroy 
or cancel tho issue of certain volumes of their works as soon as 
print.Hl would make an interesting chapter. Of Byron's first 
work, the " Fugitive Pieces," privately printe<l at Newark in 
180t), only three copies are now known to exist, for he onlere<l 
tlie entire issue, of abo\it one h»uidro<l copies, to bo burned 
almost as soon as they were printed. Another waif around which 
centres a long ond important chapter of literary histtiry is the 
excessively scarce trial print of the " Laus Veneris," of which 
Moxon issued a few copies in order to fortify himself with the 
opinions of competent judges before venturing to issue the 
•• Poems and Ballads " of 1806. But even then the storm raisetl 
siared Moxon so much that he hastily handetl over his remaining 
sheets of that remarkable volume to Hotten to publish, an»l thus 
gave rise to tho two different title-pages prefixwl to this now 



is tJMt 



ju rcf«rds 
th (cnn asd 
f t h s u po— 

thr mllrrtlon 



famous lir»t wlition. Tb« mo*t f 

otferetl by T-' ■.«•.,.■. ... i,.. .i,,r . 

tlie King." 

names from inf-— u>ii.:i 

the earliest ones they f. 

• ■.ii'ifxi.ii!. r 

it -■ ri f, ; 

of 

ni.. 

oeceMMj f or Mch 

^ flK'l .,1 I'll !■ i  

» " ' * • • 

A very scarce l)ook. with a nno out-i.f-.l.N.n. :iiiiir„,.>M.i« 

alKmt if, is George Turl)e^^•Ue■•^ •• Bookc ,, « 

eo|>y of which is in, In. I. -.1 l„ \1 ^ ii. ,•■,{. t4 
" Additioni to til' . better 

known in his ov^i. >....«.,-. ^ k le^ 

tnrn of mind, but to-day hK .op 

wrifiniTH than uiHin his vcrw, ,, n 

classic amonc works on sport. I ,-ftt 

V.i "  ps' " Treat i»o on n'g 

ni.i . ;nid ban much in  ,-ty 

)raKo (liiie all 

manner nf (li ,. ^ 

th' "t laleons, holiliys, lanners, ..]tn 

all" ..iiially as Walton with tho pa: ;i|f, 

TurlKTVile's introduction to his Iwnk is » of 
viTs... Here aro tho opening linf- ; 

I deoni that no man tU 
Bir 

Wcr<' I. 

Of |>eil»ivu Ijailiitl npr. 

To clear tho clouds of dro..,.. ,^ , ,,.-,, 

And mists of mournful mind. 
And banish ' ' ■'   • ^rta 

In chcoi 1. 

 ' - • 

A correspondent, who has b«*n amn«.ing himself lately in 

conning tho titles- : ■■■'  ■• r : ' < • • <- • „ „j,^t. 

of some of his inv' ,„ that 

tho titles i>f books tiivr a | ,,.|| 

a skilful oljserver will km. ,^ 

the old titles are ^ 

Fanning StM-iety .: 

" Kssay on Irish Bulls " under  _;|| 

— thai tho book relate<l to tli' \ ;«,f 

who translated Sliakes|K>are'» ll'intcr's Tale into his own 
language, called it (.'onle ile Monaifur IViHler. Honio 
Tooke's " Diversions of Purley," odo of the most abstntM) 

treatises on etymoIog>', had many purchasers. - ' '  i it 

to bo a book of amusing games. Some of • .id 

titles seem to have pr»>vided useful sin rn 

writers. Biirnaby Kich's " Souldier's \V , [. 

fare : A Dialogue iH'tween < ,y 

very well have si yen Lei. i^ 

Swonl and ( i'l'n." A i, 
entitled " Un. . Heroes, < 

Virgil, Agrippa, &e., " distinctly .rtvalU tho chapter on 
literary men in Carljlc"s "Hero Worship." 

• • • • 

The titles of old Ixmks on dress are some of tlirm u.irf li r»v...n- 

ing. Herearetwo: — " Kngland's Vanity, or the ~ .<( 

PridoinDress, Naked Should'-- •■I M ' ' ■• 

(1(«83) and " Quippes for I r 

»Glas.sto View the Pride oi \.ini( 

a Pleasant Invective against tho I- 

Daylio uswl in Women"^ 

formerly often to 1  a 

example : — 

Reader, here voo'II plainlv •ro 

.1  . . 



Bv 1 III 



n-2 



94 



LITERATURE. 



[August 11, 1900. 



I lilloot iho "1 ot I'lirU-y " a^sulIK•s u im»»L 

a -  puiso. A Si~ .i-ntiiry L;itiii ftrniiiiiiar lias as 

Hut>-titl« tho follonin); :— " A Dclysiou!. Syrii|)o newly Claryll«l 
for Yonpt5 S«'holars yt thonlo for that Swvto Lyeoro of Latin 
S|>r«clip." Old loxioonn would be tomwxl an " Alttiario " or n 
*• New World of Works," or n " Manipulus Vocabulonim." 
Bnt in tlip invention of fanoifnl titles tho Puritans excello<l all 
other writers. Here are the names of some of their tlieolopical 
pmijihlels and Uxiks, " A mast deleetablo Sweet Perfumed 
ly for (;<nr» Saints to smell at " (1(180) ; " The Snuffers 
\ ine Love " ; *' H»>el-|)iocos for Limiiinj! Sinners " ; and 
" I <' Spiritual Mnstard-Pot to make tho Soul Sucezo with 



t '1 tile iiioinu's ;)(io[)i<Hi tiv ^huiiim'n in 
lUst have heli)od to put tlioir readers in 



'i 
introl 
a good Itsuijicr : — 

Kcad this over if you're wise, 

If you're not, then read it twiso ;) 

If a fool, and in the gall 

Of bitterness read not at all. 

T , •• Gentlemen Look Alwut You " (l.-)nO). 

II ; that deliKhtful laxik " CJeffrey Whitney's 

( (i:»S<i) : — 

'■ii... .1 with lieede, then frendly judge, and blaming rash 

refraine ; 
So mayst thou rcado unto thy goode, and shalt requite my paine." 

• »  • 

The world of art and letters in Paris has suffered a severe 
loss in the death of Ary lienan, who dicMl on Saturday last at 
the early age of forty-thn-e. From his father he had inherited 
not only tho love of letters but something of Kenan's chann of 
style, and from his great nnele, Ary Sflieffcr, and his grand- 
father, H<" - I'-r, ho had received his taste for art. A 
pupil of Ci' can, Pnvis do Chavannes, and Elie Delaunay, 

he b: '1 ill their footsteps and (t>nflned himself to ideal 

and 31 :. The three paintings now on exhibition at tho 

Orand Palace give an excellent idea of his manner and ability. 
Although professedly a |>aiiiter, Ary Uenan was quite as much a 
writer and a |KX<t. He wrote a remarkable series ot eritical 
articles for the (luzrite ilex littnix-Art*. His last literary work 
was a Kympathelic biognipliy ot (Jitstavo Moreau. 

 • •  

The Mrrnire de Fmncr this month contains several articles 
siiggeste<l by the present crisis. " I>a Chine qui »e ferme," by 
a navy officer, who adofits Pierre Nesles as his iio»ti ilc guerre, is 
full of actuality. The writer has lieen in China for many years 
and knm«-H the )M<o]>le and the country well. M. Kemy do 
(ionrmont trivi-s his opinion on the same subji'ot. Dr. Albert 
!' " Kn|>erstition, Crime, et Misi-ro en Chine." 

'i jor J. ,1. Matignon, is shut in Peking with tho 

I -utiim. There is also an article by Charles Merki, 

<i , . I " I^ Chine qui s'ouvre," by Keno Pinoii and .1. do 
Marcillac. This liook is a good summary of tho diplomatic 

liivti.rv of till' I'll- Ki^l villi-., till- ( 'l.llii...I:i 



iiii'Ki' \v:i I*. 



I i -)i and Aincrii-an visl<irs to Italy, esi»ecially for 

>' not well acquaint(Hl with Italian, the new 

I I Kevicw, written in Knglish, and published in Kome, 

I iiim.- vi'li'iiine ri>ading. The review is to apiK'ar 

• month, lM>ginning from next Novemlier. 

il. -1-^ I'lifn numlH^r which has l>eon published give* 

» good idea of what use tho monthly will iHt in keeping 
f^r.-Ii-ti '.■■•.;- . i, . i , ' -M! It;iliaii life in iill its aH|)ect)i. 
I ' • . 1 . y, and sport all llnd n place, 

a>- I : •• 1 i . f i. I M I V Zampiiii Sala7^'ir, devotCK an 

i:-'  •: -■  ' I o( Woman's Progress. A 

novel tlcvuli'd Ut life in Ilaly and a iKXit's comer, which " Violet 



I "is tho (Irst to (HI with an appropriate |x>om," In a Roman 

I .11," will bo s|K><'ial featni-es. 

One cannot accuse, Mr. Balfour of |>ositivo originality in 

standing up for the eighteenth century in his address to tho 

University Extension students at Cambridge. Tho 

Ttie prejudice against that century was no doubt very 

Eightfcnth real at one time, owing partly to tho fact that it eanio 
Century, to a l)ad end in tho midst of wars and revolutions, 
and partly to the fact that Carlylo denounced il 
with all tho vigorotis indignation of a Hebrew i)ropliet. Its 
claims to our n's|>ectfnl ccmsideration, however, havo lieen 
vindicated by many critics, including Mr. John Morley and Mr. 
Leslie Stephen ; and it has Irmju shown that tho eightoentli 
century can furnish satisfactory parallels to most of the distinc- 
tive features on which tho nineteenth century prides it.self. 
It laid tho foundations ot British industrial supremacy by such 
inventions as tho steam engine and the s|iiiiniiig jenny ; and it 
laid the foundations of Imitcrialism, si-eing that il was in tho 
eighteenth century that England " ••omiuereil tho world in a 
lit of absence of mind." It was a century of fruitful scientific 
exploration and inquiry — tho century in which Kant revolu- 
tionizctl metaphysics, and De Saussiiro rcvftlntioniwMl geology, 
and Lavoisier revolutionized chemistry, and learned men went 
to Lapland to oliservo the transit ot Venus, and to the Andes 
to measure an arc ot the Meridian. In tho domain ot litcraturo 
the century saw tho invention — some would even say the iier- 
fiK-tion — of tho novel by Fielding, Kicliardsoii, and Kousseau ; 
in the domain of art it was represented by Hogarth, Keyiiolds, 
Gainsljorough, and Itomney ; in tho domain of religion it pro- 
duccil tho Wosleys to bo compai-ed with tho Puseyitcs, and tho 
Moravians who anticipated the Christian Eiideavuurers. Xor is 
it true to charge tho century, as some do, with lioiiig flacci<l 
and incairablo of enthusiasm. Even in this latter Mainly Alxnit 
People |)criod tho world is not so interested as it then was in 
those whom it conceived to 1)6 its greatest men — as witness tho 
fashion ot making pilgrimages to seo Voltaire, tho Priest ot Pure 
Kea.son, at Geneva ; and Konsseau, the Pojie of Sentimcntalisui, 
in the Val do Travers. D(H'ide<lly in loving tho eightoentli 
century Mr. Balfour is not wasting his affections on a worth- 
less ol)joct. But there are, in truth, many reasons, quite apart 
from its achievements in tho intelliH-tual arena, that make tho 
eight<>eiith century attractive- — osjiecially when one looks back 
uiMm it from a distance and is not oblige<l to see anything in it 
that <me prefers to shut one's eyes to. From the i«)int of view 
of litcraturo, which is tho only jiointof view with which we havo 
space to concern ourselves, it was the ix-riotl in which litcraturo 
had not yet passed under the tyranny of tho man in the street. 
Theni were no free elementary schools, producing a hall- 
educateil public clamouring for something to ivad, incapable ot 
appi-eciating style, indiffen-nt to learning that could n<il In- 
tunuHl to iinniiHliato practical acconnt. but eager for cIkmii 
sensationalism and hackneyed sentiment. The masses were 
grossly ignorant ; but there was a considerable aristocracy ot 
intellect. Tho man of letters wrote, if not for his intellectual 
equals, at Icitst for a public that had intellectual taste, know 
when he wsis doing his lx«tt, and did not need to bo WTittcn 
down to — a public, too, that did not susjicnd its interest in 
litcraturo iKH-ause a war was raging at the other end ot tho 
world. Ot course, there was an obverse side to tho medal— 
" toil, en\-y, want, the ])atron, and the jail." Literary men 
often lived in garrets instead of country s<>ats, and frequented 
taverns instead of dubs. If they w;iiited to grow ri(rh, they had 
to keep a shop, like Richard.son, or go in for fraudulent army 
contracting, like Voltaire. And, thongh they were welcomed 
and made much of nt tho Con rt of Frederick the Great, they 
were wise t<^ give a wide lx»rth to the Court of Louis XIV., who 
probably lo<Tketl up more liteniry men in tho course of his long 
reign than any other Monarch in any other ago of tho world's 
liistorj'. Few jKHiple, however, can look at l>oth sides ot a medal 
at once ; and by keeping the obverse ot this medal invisibli; 
one gets a picture of liteniry life in tho eighteenth century 
which is full ot chann tor every man ot real literary taste. 



August 11, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



95 



TO A BIOGRAPHER. 



BE SATISFIED. 



You wrilo liis lifo ! yoii will hut provo 
TImt ho wa.H ncithur iiaiiit nor hoko : 

Nor will ho more our womlor luovo 
DiroMtod of his f^rli of inuKo, 
And all tho triippingn of tlio ittnge ; 

And that bcwitlo what he bcqncathe<l 

III unoxpluinod munineonoo; 
Boaido tho woiilth whinvwitli ho wreathed 

An empty name with consoqucneo 

Tho man was nn imiKjrtinonco. 

But to your task ; yon iindortako 

From hints of sorrow, strife, desire ; 

From what it seemed ho hold as stake. 
To show tho man — his force, his flro ; 
What l;iy iMjnoath his soul's attiro ; 

How he regarded tiod and man ; 

Did ho lliid hard thoMi ((ucstions sot 

Of Life that wo as childi-en scan ; 

Give up and pass with inwar<l fret. 
Not learnoil enough to answer yet ? 

But of himself where hides the truth — 

If he knew not can you decide ? 
Did he not deify in youth 

The thin;;s in manhood thrioo denied ? 

Yet who in this would say he lied? 

Ah ! those unspoken thoufchts which made 

Tho inner man wo never knew ; 
And all that in the (ifenial shade 

Of his givat nature lived and Rrew. 

From far-off founts their nurture drew. 

Nor more of him can you aver 

Than one who niarkinf; fnmi a height 

A distant .sail, can say of her 

The port, though hidden from his sight, 
Tho helmsman steers for day and night. 

These well-proved facts, or those — their sum 
Or diffoi-ence, this or that way it>ad — 

To final truth indeed are dumlt : 

Believe me, both of quick and dead, 
Blest aro we most in things unsaid. 

You loved him and, as friend, were proud 
To know the man behind the pen ! 

Then wherefore show him to the crowd. 
When far lies that Iwyond its ken 
Which made him more than common men ? 

Nor will our love accept your l)est 

Unless it Ix^, as lovers need. 
In such chameloou s|ieech expressed 

That each may there, for his own creed, 

Peculiar conllrmations read. 

W. C;. HOT.K. 



in 
 A 



Be «it!iiA«>d ! t/>v- it nr>t giv#»n in mln ; 

T' 

Ti 

Long t 

Her fr. 

The mln hath raved ; and <tn, for all itt i 

Perchance unlove -i  ' "i ' • ' ■•■'  



Lnve nn, until for Love 'a aake thon dlulaiii 

All thl:  '  ' to love N gain. 

Yea, i li all th'> world derido 

And 1< 

I>ive 1 , 

Thy heaven, and, liie Utsl waul put atide, 

Bo mtifllMl ! 
CJRACE ELLjyjY CHAXNISG. 



personal Ufcws. 

— • — 

ONE OR TWO OLD XOVEI,S. 

This heading of mine, with itA auggndion of • few old* 
fashioned books, and leisure to •■ -11 with 

tho " Hecent Fiction," " Ten i« like, 

which indicate the reviewer's desperate attempts to keep pawn 
with tho fertility of nuxlern writers. There are no statistioi 
that I know of. but probably tho weekly output of to-day 
exct>eds the annual output of the time of Kichnnlson, Fielding, 
and Smollett. These emiitent men wrote comparatively little. 
Richardson produenl three novels only, thoogb two of tlien 
were long ones ; Fielding thrj-"- -h titan balf a 

dozen. To-<lay, nearly every \' : haa twMity 

works to hin credit, and some of them still more, so that nobody 
who does not devote his whole lifo to the bnsinem can pretcful 
to know more than a |M<rcentage o( them. In ancb a atatc of 
things, I am tempte<l to adopt the attitude of the man, nam Mid 
then satirizetl in eighteenth-century novels, who baa made tbe 
grand tonr and professes to road nothing but tho ancienta. I 
have made the grind tour of fiction, from " Thoagones and 
Charicleia," a fourth-century work, to the novel that w»» pub- 
lished only yesterday. Some of them I have reriowed. afd 
these, happily for mo, do not long remain in my memory. 
PereiiMt et impiilniifiir ; which is to say, being interpreted, tbat 
they have their day, a very short one, and are reckoned up 
without much profit to any one. 

I shall always regret that my comparatively recent iutrodac- 
tion to this planet has preclude«l me fi   .. Clariaa*," 

"Pamela," ".loseph Andrews," ami"  uidi.too." It 

would have been a pleasure to me to praise " Pamela" for " tbe 

novelty of tho plan, the strokes of naf' ' j'rithos with which 

the work abounds, the simplicity of I the sentimontaof 

piety and virtue that aiv brought forward.' ' In " Sir Charles 
tJrandison," Clementina would have been d«>scribod as "a young 
creature involved in a passion cxpres-sed with the utmost 
innocence and delicacy, yet i-e»»oo ; 

and afterwartls, on the ret > serere 

struggle, voluntarily sacrificing that very iMssion at the shrine 
of religious principle." Such were Richardson's mixlel young 
women, whom our ancestors heartily admired. When Richard- 
son's village readers heard that Pamela had at last ' ' "^Ir. 
B.. -1 sliiilouv c-iMitl •in;m wU!i no surname, they set eh 



96 



LITERATURE. 



[August 11, 1900. 



bells rinsinR. When a painful interval occurred in tlio publica- 
tion of Um Tolomea of " Clarissa," tlio author \\-n!i ovor^vll(■Inl<^(l 
with letters imploriiiK him to (rive tho Ktory a happy cntling. 
>'or my o«m part, had I been Richardson, to whom tlmo and 
space were no object, I should bavo married hor ultimately to 
Sir Cbarlea Grandiaon. Ho might have been introtluctHi ax tho 
travelling friend of the avenging Colonel Mortlcn, and bo wxiuld 
have been rosdy ' ' ' . : , \ '\nt reasons for marrying 

the lady io the ~ i KichardNun wan inexor- 

able, «a we all know, and tho story, thanks to its detail, is a 
moat •Ceeting tragedy. An abbreviated version of " Clarissa " \vns 
oaee prodooed by a misguided person who failed to sco how 
completely tho whole book de|>ends for its effect on its detail. 
It moves slowly, very slowly indeed, but that is in reality its 
chief merit. Tet I cotild not nndervalne a certain labour-saving 
appliance which appears in tho unabridged edition. At tho 
end ct each of tho eight volumes there is a summary of each 
chapter, so that he who reads may skip, if he is minded to do so. 
It may be worth while to qaoto on© of those summarie>s : — 
*' Iiovelace to Bclford : — Copy of the transcribed paper. It 
proves to be her torn answer to his proposals. Meekness tho 
glory of a woman. Ludicrous imago of a termagant wife. Ho 
had better never to have seen this paper. Has very strong 
remorses. Paints them in lively colours. Sots forth the lady's 
trasscendeut virtue and greatness of mind. Surprised into 
these argtmients in her favour by bis conscience. Puts it to 
flight." But the reader ought not to skip. Take away his 
detail, and Kicbardson is, as Thackeray's Lord March says, " a 
fat old printer who has %vritten a story about a confounde<l girl 
and a fellow that ruins her." Kead him honestly, all the one 
millicn words of Clarissa's story, and you will find yourself, for 
at least a week, in the eighteenth century. 

It may have been with the hopo of reviving a tasto for old 
novels that Mr. Henley has lately etlitod Smollett, undertaking 
at the same time the much more difficult task of commending 
him to tho public. Now, Smollett is excellent material for the 
critic, and Mr. Henley is no mean critic. He assigns Smollett 
his dne place in literature, as a sort of forerunner of 
Marryat and of the author of "Pickwick." Unluckily, Smollett 
deserves not only all the good things, but also all tho hard 
.i,:„~, (hat Mr. Henley has licen obliged to say of him. In a 

-^ of epithets worthy of Aristophanes, Mr. Henley calls him 
■11, arrogant, ro<l-headcd, stiff-nj-ckcd, thln- 
1. ilous, brilliant. Soots hack of geniits." All 

these adjectives arc true. Throw a little of Smollett's filth at 
the canvas — an "■ flnal touch — and the picture will 

be complete. S .rle in these days ! Yes, If wo do 

not mind the doll and stupid foulness which, with all his genius, 
be aeema to have mistaken for humour. It is not the mere 
pardonable ooarseneu of a coarse age, but an unsavoury mess 
which provokes, not laughter, but nausea. Ho knew the world 
well, especially tho aenmy side of it, so that he has a certain 
historical value : bat, when everything has been sai<l that can 
be sai'i . ho remains the only grc of his time who 

deoaii' is reader the physical (jr ,n of a strong 

stomach. Obviously, I cannot back my assertion by quotations. 
Iappealto"HDmpbr '" " "Humphry Clinker" isdistinctly 

theeleaneat of 8mol: ", yet its rcadc>rs will s<x)n find 

that they have to turn over lu pages to the old F^liniiurgh cry 
«< " Gardyloo." Hmollctt will explain what that nutans. Most 
people will prefer llterataro in which it is not necessary to walk 
ao warily. 

Thorp wan another Scotch doctor, uiih a Career strangely 



like that of Smollett, who had, however, none of tlio " spleen 
and jaundice " of tho learned Smelfungus. Dr. John Moore, 
the father of the General whoso Burial is so colobratod, wrote 
" Zeluco," tho novel of the year in 1780. To my mind, *' Zeluco" 
is a fairer representative of the old novel than any of Smollett's 
shady henx>s. It may not bo :i work of genius, but it fairly 
indicates tho taslc of tho generation succeeding Smollett's. Mr. 
Henley incidentally refers to "Zeluco" as "now almost unread- 
able." That is a matter of opinion, and cannot I>o .argued. It 
may be said, however, that any one who likes fuU-llavoured 
villainy will do well to make the experiment of reading thisonco 
famous book. Zeluco himself is so solidly drawn, and mado such 
an impression on our grandfathers, that his character was pro- 
nounced to have reached, " like that of Satan, tho very sublime 
of guilt." Natursilly, one compares him with his compatriot, 
Tebaldo Paglluca, Mr. Marion Crawford's moro recent Sicilian 
villain. Mr. Crawford, no doubt, is tho Ix-tter artist, thongh 
Dr. Moore also was quite at homo in Italy. But Zeluco, accord- 
ing to his old-fashioned, eighteenth-century lights, does his best 
to Ijo a complete sinner, and the gradual development of bis 
criminal nature proceetbi, or is intended to proceed, on sciontifio 
prin('i|>los. That, at any r.ite, is in his favour. 



C. H. T. 



NEW LIGHT ON SIR WALTER RALEIGR 



I. 

From documents which I have fortunatx>ly rediscovered 
I am able to cast new light on various phases of Kaleigh's 
career. Thomas Bilker, tho antiquary (1050-1740), left brief 
notes of MSS. which had been in his possession and which 
referred to charges of " Atheism " against Marlowe, Kyd, and 
Raleigh. These notes were transcribed by Hunter in his MS. 
" Chorus Vatum," and were ntilizoil by Mr. Sidney Loo in his 
articles on Raleigh and the two dramatists in tho " Dictionary 
of National Biography." Tho original MSS. were, however, 
supposed to have disapptMiitnl, and to l)o no longer accessible. 
But last year I discovered the |)apcrs relating to Kyd and 
Marlowe among tho " Harloian MSS.," and gave an account of 
them in No. 'SSR of the FortHighthj licrieic. For a long time I 
could not trace tho Raleigh papers, but I have recently (found 
them in fols. IKJ-lOO of tho "Harloian MSS.," 0,849. These 
documents, on which this article is based, contain the record of 
" examinations " held at Cerne in Dorsetshire on March 21st, 
159:{-4, by order of the Court of High Commission, and they 
lx!gin with a list of nine " interrogatories " on " Athcisme and 
Apostacye." The six;cial Commi^ssioners ap|X)intod to tako 
evidence in answer to these interrogatories wert? Viscount 
BIndon (Lord Thomas Howard), Sir Ranlfe Horsey, Dr. Frances 
.lames, John Willyaras, and Frauncos Hawley, of whom Horsey, 
Willyams, and Hawley have appended their autograph signa- 
tures to the record of the examinations. Cerno is not far 
from Sherliornc, where Rileigh was during this jieriod living 
in retirement. In tho early summi-r of li)i(2 the discovery by 
the Que<'n of her favourite's intrigiii- with Kli/.alM?th Throck- 
morton ha<l resulted in his imprisonment in tho Tower, and, 
though ho was set free after a few mr>nlhs, he remained In tho 
dee|X'st disgrace. As nieml)er, however, for Michael In Corn- 
wall, he attended tho S«>ssion of Parliament in ITjiW. During 
thesc! few months in London, an exiled from " Cynthia " and her 
brilliant circle, ho was thrown largely into tho society of men 
of letters, many of whom were under sus])icion of frec-thlnklng. 
He luid left the capital, however, Ixiforo tlio arrest of Kyd, and 
afterwards of Marlowe, In M.iy, l.V.KJ ; but tho charges mado 
against his *' man " Harriott during tho proceedings against 
the dramatists nn<I «'i>orts later from tho West Country of tho 
sayings and doings of himself and his friends in Dorsetshire 
gave his enemies an opportunity of striking at him while ho was 
under a cloud. That the Commissioners were anxious to got 



Auffust n, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



97 



hold of every iiornp of evldonro nfcnluiit him may bo Inferred 

from tlio flirt that nil tlio witii)*«N«><« fxiiiiniK-il worn f>lthi>r 
clcrffj'"""* •"■ cliiiri'liwiirilciiM, wlii»4> biiitt wonM lutMinilly Ixi 
cintircly on the Orrliddcix sidr. Ami \vn inii\ . .-, fuirly 

ooiicltiflo tlint ill I liii iilli'j^atinDH of xiioli wii i ' t;"t tli« 

v«ir?<t tliiit U to bo urgi'd ti{(iiillHt Sir Waller oii the Hcoro of 
Iri-oliRioii. 

Tlio most Viilimlilo part of tho nxnminiition.i is tho 
" N'lacion " or ro|H>rt of a tlirologipiil tliHOiixxloii with ItuloiKli. 
written and dolivoifd to tho Coniniis»Ioin»rH " ujion liin ontli " 
by Italpli Ironsiilo, iniiiiNtor of Wiiitorlioiinio. |ri>ii»iclo \vnn a 
man of soiiio (lislinotion. Born iit lloiiKliton-lf-Sprin;;, in 
Dnrliiiin, alioiit ir>.'>0, lie li»<l Imm>ii n nit<iMlN>r of St. Kilinniid Hnll 
at Oxford, liiid <;i"il"''>'*"'l '■> i't^K mid liad ar(or\\ar<ls l)c<>ii 
cloctod a Follow of I'nivorsity ('olli';;i>. Uin oliarnctor and 
ntfjiiniiionts I<>iid wcijjlit to liis statciiK'nU, as iloos also liin 
prt'liiiiinary doi'jiiration tliat " for liis owiio K'noN\lcd;;i< lio will 
nuiiNwor, lint for tlial lio hath hardc, and kiiowotli no an<-llion> to 
iustofyo tho sanio, lw» is jiorsw-.idiMl liy CohiihoII that lio is in 
dann((or to lio pnniithcd, and tliorcfor*' rt>fnseth to n.nyo any 
thingo iippon nncortaiuo report." His " relacioii " opens 
thus : — 

Wodnosday sovonlpht lioforo tho Assi><es snmnior lasto I 
cnmo to Sir (icoi'fjo TronchiniN io tlio aftornoono. Thoro 
won^ tlion with tli<< l»ni>;ht Sir Walter RawleiKh, Sir Raulfo 
Horsey, Mr. Carowo Rawloif;h. Mr. .lolin Kitziames, &c. 

Tho pithorinp hcrt) descrilxtl took place, ns is evident 
from Innisido's words, in the suininer o[ 15{K{, some time after 
Sir Walter's retnrn from tho capital. This Klitop"'' '"t*> '•'•'* 
SMioial lif«< at a period when onr information alwMit him is scanty 
would, of itself, lend value to the " ■•••laeion." which goes on to 
de.scrilio tho liesiniiinj:; of tlio tlioologioal debato as folloNN's : — 

Towanis tho end of supper some liiose s|¥>eches of Mr. 
Carowo Kawlei};lies Ijoeinjj Kentlye reproved by Sir Kiiulfo 
Horsey in these words " Coll(S|nia prava corrumpnnt bono« 
mores," Mr. Kawleiirh demaunds of nie what daun^er ho mi^ht 
iticurr by such siweches? Whei-eiiiito F answered. "Tho want's 
of sinn is death." And ho niaklime lei^ht of death as IwinKo 
eoininon to all, .sinner and rei<;lii Hulls, I iiiferritl further that 
as that lido which is the ififto of (lod through lesiis Christ, is 
lille eternal, soe that death wliirli is pi-operlyc the wagi's of 
Miiiiie is death eti>rn»Il, IsHli of tho IkmIvo anil of the sonle 
nisoe. " Soiile," jjiukI Mr. Carewi- Kawleijjh, " what is 
that?" " Uett4>r it were," saved I, "that wo would bo 
cai-efull howe the soules might Im' saved then lo be ciiriouse in 
tlndiiiKe out ther es.sonce." 

This attempt of tho worthy iiiiiii-tcr <.l \S luterliouriio to 
parry Carew Raleigh's query by an edifyiiii; couinioiiplaco dPiiws 
Sir Walter into tho discussion. 

And soo keeping silence. Sir Walter n^iiuestes me that for 
there instrnceion I woulde answer to tho question that befor<» 
by his bi-other was pro|>osed unto me. " I havu lieen," 
Bayeth he, " a schollersomo tyme fn Oxefordo: I have aunswoMsl 
under a Bachelor of Arte, and had tauike with divers; yet 
heitheruiito in this ))ointo (to witt, what the rt>a.s<>nablo 
soule of man is) have I not by anye Ix-nno resMvetl." 

This jiassa^e is of the lii};hest iiiteivst, as it is the tlrst 
discovered allusion by Ka1ei(;li himself to his career at Oxford, 
ns to which wo have hitherto Ikm-ii devR*ndent on an entry in 
the Oriel Collepo registei-s, some loose statements by Anthony 
h Wood Olid Fuller, and a couple of anecdotes by Bacon an»l 
Aubrey. WimmI tells us that " he went up to Oriel in l.")C8 or 
ther(>abouts, and after he had spent about three years in that 
Hons<> left the University without a de};re<'." But it is not 
unlikely thai Wood's stati>iiient is merely a deduction from the 
Oriel entry, where Raleigh llKures as an under$;r.iduale in Vui, 
thonf;h svt" know that lie wiis flghtinjr on llie Continent in the 
autumn of ITAi'.} and probably for .some considerable period later. 
Sir Walter's own allusion dts?s not hel]) us, as far as datt's aro 
conceriUHl, but it gives us a vivid picture of him answering the 
questions of some cxauiiuer in philosophy, who could stir but 



III 
-l» 

y 

flli>«T»IlV, 

r 



nnl 

time llial lliroii;;li tie 
Kntm In hiH m«MiHirr 
Oxoforde," «!■  
'* he wns the . 
anil V. " 

I liiinH4>lf a d!-li 
tofik up Sir W»lt«'r"s •' ;.y an a|<< 
whom Ihen.a.H now, ever;. „ i U' vuniaii helil ... ,„ _ - 

Hearlntce Sir WaKor Rawlnleh tell of hl« rfU|HiU« aiut 

HI ' • lino in f> ' 11 

Cl' . I " out >,« 

Aniiiiit " Ciip. IhI., itnd th' n 

«>f the wiule reasonable i -» 

organic! aniinantis hninnni vitain >." It 

was mislike<l of Sir Walt<>r as oI»m-: AimTI 

withall yealdisl that, though It Could not unto him ax bplfi|r» 

leriKsl, yot it must somo ol*si-ti- ' • •— M, 

therfore had rather say with d. li- 
able S4mle is a s|>eritiuill and —l 
into man by (totl, wherby I ts. 
Htandeth, and stnt is distiiiguisliiil i 

Italeigh, however, again protests ag i 

very diniculty that they aro Mfx^king to aolro : — 

" Yea, but what is tli' . o 

br**athed into inin, &e. '/ ' hI 

I. " Naye then," saieth he " _\ t 

Horeuppon I endevoure<l to _,., 

naye in such dispute's as I ! , runnn 

in cirridiiiii. . . . As. . ' U » 

man 7 You will saye he is a cr<>ature n- 1 : 

but if you aske again what is a cn-.i -- ., aud 

niortall '/ you must of force como backcwardo mmI auiwivor It 
is a mau. 
Raleigh, however, again demurs to hi* opponent'* rvaaon- 
ing, and in his argument wu acciu to bare an echo of Icsuoiw 
Icurut from ILirriott : — 

" O but wo have i in our 

sayeth Sir Walter, " as t..: n.iins oim 

And ask«> me of it, and I can showv . in thx 

window, iu a man, the wbo|.> i-.w,,. <. >--'te« 

of it." I replic<l that such dei .••t 

the nature of a man's Minle, i-mi;!- .■ ^J»•^|I.• . i..r .i» bin 
thinges {i.e., the illustralioiis chosen by Sir Walter) «vrn 
Kubiivt to the s<'nce, six- man's ' ' (,, 

lx> dis<'erned by the s|x^rite. N m 

the worldo than - is a (JuU, >fL Uiii^ a a,yt}rilu to 

subie<'te liini to i .... it is imixmsililf. 

But this Btt4.'mpt of Ironside ; ahnnt 

the soul by an ap|M>:il to the anali .,  'y otily 

drives Raleigh another step iKick in his sceptieisiii. ** Marrye," 
c|Uod Sir Walter, " these two be like, fur Deitlier coiUdo 1 lemo 
heilherto what Ood is." 

This startling avowal donhtloA.s oansetl ~ -'r>n 

among tho listeners, for at this point one i^ x- 

iaiiies, interiNHMKl in the disputation by i 

Aristotle's deflnition of (Io<l as " Kns u 

Ironside, perhaps nett' Ti^tion ti< » Ihird |>im»>u iuta 

the delmle, remark«>d > y : — 

That whether Aristotle, dyingo in a fi>aver, shoulde crie. 
"Kns Kntium, miserere mei," it was une.n .m.' Imi iii,t i^o,l 
wi(s Ens Kntium, a thinge ot thinges, h . ii- 

selfo and gcivinge lx"iiigi'to all creatun-s n . e, 

and conOrmvil by Goii hiinselfo unto Moy<H>s. 
This ap|M>al to Scriptural 
Raleigh, who |iorsisted in denu 

Kntinm." And when Inmside nn-i' rliat il, km 

" Got!," Sir Walter, pn>balily sr it of this 

circular metluxl of argnne-nt. " v^ ^ht bo a*yd ; 

lor that," quod he, *' is Ix^tter f! , : . . i I " 

Thus ended this memorable post-pmudial dialogue. Tks 

12 



98 



LITERATURE. 



[Augiixt 11, 1900. 



•ocuRioy of Intniiide's report of it o»iinot Iw 

,i I " " .11 iif liiM 

«\ > l<"<l;:<*f wn 

|. ill. Sir IJ.iiiKc HorM>y, 

,,, . iKo'll NitioiiK Sir (J«NirK»> 

Tn>M. -In, n lid wmild Imvo dotjvl^tl any M-rimis «>rr<>r 

in tbr v>( what had |>as<ied at tho Mi|>|M>r tal)l«>. M<>r<>- 

• ivcr, anotbor witiints gi\tm an alintMt idontical narrative of the 
rarlior |»art trf th«« disputation, wliii-h had )m>oi\ r«'|M>nt<<<l to him 
at a pri'viouR <latc by Iroiixido hini^olf ; whilo yet another afllruiu 
ihat whon h«« lia" iuhI tho roctor of Wintorlmurno on the 

hubiM't hi> hail •' Ihat th«< inattor was not as the TOico 

,v( I." It in evident, thewfoM', 

xi,. ;.iir had ^t ahrond,' und that 

]ron«i' I ilieeorreet vi>r>inn. 

Ill .'f the deixinonts at Come, with 

which I shall ileal in the mh-<>ihI |>art ut this article," the voice uf 

tl>.. .tr.... " i» iiiuiii..t;il; >lilv luard. 

FHEDEKICK S. BOAS. 
(To 1m- I'liiitiiiiiod.) 



SIR THOMAS BROWNE. 



It is the mark of genius of the first order to be universal. 
By iti interpretation of human life genius of the first order in 
known. But there is genius which is incajKiblo of this iiitcr- 
pr»-talion. and yet makes us feel its power. On this lower level 
ir  than intellect which tells. A criticism 

^ iitary or prt«pos^essod has little value, 

1. . di 111- lid by an instinct which in some direction 

i^ iisitive, cannot fail to be fruitful. Short of t ho 

highest iwwers, sensitiveness and rarity of temperament give 
the best r«~«ults. 

Sir Thomas Browne has not the extendctl and commanding 

view of the greatest thinkers. He could never be put on a level 

■with Bacon or Plato, Sophoelea or Shakespeare. He has 

•■ lite<l, to a certain degree, a criticism of life, but his criti- 

;is lioth limited and immature, and it received no further 

« lit. In his flrst work, the " Keligio Medici," which 

\ I nt the .ngo of 3(), he has given his thoughts their 

From that time he rather c<mtract«?d than 

 Id of vision. The " Kdigio Medici " is so far 
■<«l as to give the measure of its author, Imt, by its very 

:i]ii1 iiiiviM. it «-:is incajKible of sounding the deeps of tho 
lie was too much Nt<H!|)ed in fantasy and his 

. "M 11.......!.. >...iis to be able to give a satisfactory account 

<if buiiian nature. He was inca liable of stating tlie problem 

 If. But in the " Heligio Me<lici " he comes 
• •art. and addresses himself to inoro elementary 

than he was ever afterwanls con- 

n<\ aiiti(|iiurian interests overlaid 

I in him, and thus, though 

s even iiicrease<l, his 

I icealily diminished. We cannot draw from 

1 of things uiKin which wo ciin rest. He U 

. be Ih in touch with um at too small a part of our 

■- •■' ' '•'" 'o see with his eyes. But we can mark 

ids the world, something which can 
:.w of things, if wo have foniied one for 
• .no from wMne other source. And strong 
; were, his 

: :l<st. The 

I ••'* '( ol reflection. 

i- '' 'Ive, alUT tho 

»<'"i~' 1 ' i •■ liiin out for an 

"""■■'■'' :•!•• J. lie, in virtue of 

hi-, .-..r;.. -: V >rk, in cunRlraincd to flguru in the unaccustomed 
<'i'in|,.tny ul lUiuaaeau and Montaigne and Amicl. The " Ueligio 
Mi'dici " U » BWgniflccnt piece of egoiwn. 

Tb« tfmet on Um Barial make* a delightful display o( 
««Uo(4lw-WBy Iflwniaf . Tk« ataiUenl of folk-lurv may revel in 



the " Vulgar Errom." But wo weary for the deeper and mora 
human (|iutlitie« that endear to us the physician's confessions, 
where we can trace in every direction the co-operation of seiiti- 
luent uith reason, the riiildy hues of the heart showing tlirougli 
the colourless iiHsliuin of puri- intellect. We but faintly adiiiiru 
themei-e feats of iiitiOlectiial agility, tho dexterous jioisiu;; 
•j<'twe«Mi the extremest scepticism and a cre<luliiy no less 
extri-me. But it is liani to read without an <>nnoliliug eiiiotioit 
tho well-cadence<l wonia which ilescribo the mystery of tni»> 
affection, or that Night Pietro whirti is as superior to Bishop 
Ken's more famous hymn in deep religious feeling as it is iu 
ex(|uisiteness of thought. Jt is to be regn>tt<>d that wo have uu 
further" conl'essions." .\bove all itwouM be interesting to loam 
what was the change or M-ries of changes which intervened bo- 
Iween such MMitiments as Birou's in Lon-'it ].iil><>Hr Lont and tho 
condition of a happy father and husband, distinguished aiiioii); 
other iiH'ii by the serenity and t«'nd«'ruess of his <loiuestic life. 
Then- is a note of revolt agiiinst the order of iialure. iu tho 
" l{4^ligio MfHliei." S«'X has no meaning to the writer, and lova 
is a kind of disease which ho nwents lus a slur uimn huinanily. 
We are grateful for this piece of self-revelation, but it cuniioli 
satisfy us, it is useless in itself, since its real use is U> i-aiso 
our curiosity to know how tlio man's matured intelligence could 
ix-solve this difllculty of youth. 

The ri«ldle must always remain. Henceforth wo are to know 
him only in his study, and though we may readily admit tliaU 
the mind of Sir Thomas Bi-owne, like his whole lioubcamlgardeii, 
was •• a paradise and cabinet of rarities," yet we uiust Ixitli 
deplore and wonder that his studies t<K)k for the most part so 
gloimiy and iiKK-dhre a ply. It seems little short of a minicio 
that he who had entortainetl so warm and almost, eximvagant a 
sentiment of friendship should come to write to an acijuaintanco 
of the death of a cuinmon friend in such cold and gross tonus oIl 
jihysiology. For one with so true a s«'nse of tho beauty and 
jioetry of life he has a strange relish of life in its nakedness and 
corruption. Sometimes you would say he was the farthest, 
remove liom all that is brutal, ugly, revolting, and sometimes ho 
seems to haunt graveyards and tho dissecting-nsim like u ghoul. 

The secret of tho anlilli<»tis is that ho is in |iiirsiiit of ai» 
abstract, unearthly b<'auty, that liasiio point of contact with tho 
beauty of humanity. Material beauty is at best, only u nieinciilAi 
of the i<lea,aiid mortality and corrujit ion s«'rvo as remeinbraiiceM 
that we should not confound tho et<Tnal idea with its mattirial 
adiunbration. The idea is his misti-ess whom ho loves with all hiit 
jsiwers. And so he writes, with a lover's rapture : — " If any 
have been so happy as truly to understand Christian annihila- 
tion, ecstasis, exolution, tho kiss of the sjioust', gustation of 
tiixl, and ingressiou into tho divine shadow, they have alre4idy 
had a handsomo anticipation of heaven ; the glory of the worhl 
is surely over, and the earth is in ashea tti them." And he can 
write, without feeling any inconsistency, " We ai-o what we all 
abhor," " 1 have so abject a conceit of this common way of 
existence, I cannot think this to Ijo a man ; " and " For my liio 
it is a miracle of thirty years which to relate were a piece of 
poetry," and again resolve, " L'i>ou sight of beautiful ^lersoiis, 
to bless CitHl in his creatures." 



POETS AS CRITICS OF POETRY. 



It is a dangerous invasion 

When jioets criticise; their -.t :irl.,ii 

Js to delight.— .Sht'/Jcj/. 

Of the many contrasts which divido tlic |«ietical literature 
of ancient (irt-ece and JCoiiio fnmi tho iss'tical literatuiv of 
FiiglaiKl, there is none iiiort! remarkable than the following. Tho 
great (KK-ts of classical antiquity, suc^h as Homer, Pindar, Soiiho- 
cles, Virgil, Ovid, and J^ucretiiis, with thu single exception of 
Hoi-ace, almtained from p<N'tical criticism, whilu the greaO 
jsie.lical critics of old, such as Aristotle, Aristarchus, Longinus, 
KustathiUM, seem to have made no profession of the gift of song. 
Tho wisdom ul this abstention froui criticism on the part of Uu> 



Aufjiist 11, 1000.] 



LITERATURE. 



^rontent ninnorn of oUI may be Jti'<tiflcrt hy thi» \< 
of thu tW4) priiiclplim which i U' lli« iih-IIuhU 

• it tho iKM't iin<l of tho (rrilii- - by Hyiillii-iU, 

:iiid lhi» liitU'r by iiiialyNiH. Morwivpr, tho iiintory of KiiKl<»h 
IHM>try nffonl.H abiimluiit ovuli-ni-o to Hhow that. whiU) our most, 
t'apiiblo oritlcH of |MH<try siiuh um Do Quiiicoy, Hiizlitt, Itiisk-iii, 
JDciin Chiiivh, Mark Patfoson, Minto, an<l other orilitw havo 
writtPii litllo or no |>ootry, tho iKX-tn who havo Vfiitiiroil on 
|i()o(ical i-rifK-isiii, with tln' luiirkt-d <'Nco|>IIoiis of Uryilon, 
Adilison, C'oloridK"', anil Matthpw Arnold, whatever may hav« 
Imhmi (hii oaiiM', have often eviniH**! InjUHlice and iiieoii-iiHteney. 
^Vhat, for example, could l»o nior<' inconsistent antl nnfair than 
t'haiioer's critical objection to "the inilelicacy " of (Jower's 
stories, which ar-e scarisdy, if at all, iiioni iiiih-licato than those 
of liis critic ? Milton condennied tlic; use of rhyme, an an 
instinnnent of verst<, on th<! Kronnil that " it was the invention 
of a barbaroHN Ufto, to set o(f wretelied matter and laino metre," 
and yet the poet himself UH<>d rhyme in some of his own mastor- 
pit<ces, and even in his tni^-ily " Samson A^onistcs," with 
sinttnlar sweetness and fore?. K<|inilly at fault was his critical 
tiicnlty, when lie preferri'd his " I'aradise Kepiined " to his 
" I'ara<liHe Lost," which, as Mark Patteson has well said, " looks 
liki" an old man's fondness for his younjcest and weakest ofT- 
spriiiic." His critical condemnation, too, of " glorious John 
Drydcn " ns a " mere rimer and no jxiet " showvd a singular 
uncritical ustiniato of that poet's ^"^at gifts. Pope, who was an 
avowed ailmirer and imitator of Horace, sot up for a critic as 
well as a poet. Drydon h« consUU'rcd " jxxjtaruni priuceps," 
and Conjcrevo " poeta exlmins." The critical value of his 
" Kssay on Criticism " has lM?cn well appraised by Do Quineey. 
" It is," writ<'s this great critic and masf«!r of Knglish style, 
"tho feeblest and least interi'sting of Pope's writings, iH-ing 
substantially a mere versillcation of i-ommonplaces. . . . Tho 
maxims have no order or logical ilepcndency, and are generally 
so vague as to mean nothing." With this jinlgment Mr. Leslie 
Stephen concurs, and considers tho Kssay " as a coinage of 
aphorisms out of commoni)laco." Gi-ay, tho most llnislied poet 
an<l consunuuate scholar of his ago, strangely overrattMl C'ibli«>r, 
Shenstono, and Churchill as p<x3t», whilo in Homer and Milton ho 
found " ptx;try which rolls ou iu sounding wortis with little 
meaning." 

Of Wonlsworth's uncritical criticism the most marked 
instances are (I) his attempt to show that the conversational 
language of the middle and lower classes is the proper ilictioii of 
]KH>(ry, which gave rise to Byi"on's description of Wordsworth 
as ono " who, both by precept and example, shows that prose is 
verso and vei*so is merely prose"; ("2) his estimate of the " Faory 
yueen " of Spenser as " fading iK-fore Sylvester's translation of 
Du Bartas " ; and Gt) his statement that all Scott's |K>etry was 
not worth flvo shillings. Nor did Lord Bj'ron show himself moro 
trustworthy as a critic when he styletl Cow|K'r " a maniacal 
Calvinist and a cwldltHl |)<H>t," and extolled tho " Pleasures of 
Hope," by Campbell, and Kogers' " Pleasures of Memory " as 
the most lK>antiful poems in onr language, if we except Pope's 
" Kssay on M:ui." In Byron's eyes Chaucer was " obscene and 
contemptible," Si)onser he deprecate<l, Tasso ho pri'ferred to 
.Milton, and the old Knglish dramatists lie styled " mad and 
turbid mountebanks." 

Dr. .Tohnson, Prior, and Waller were all inferior poets of tho 
last century, and at times they proved lhems«>lves as incom- 
jietent in criticism as tho greatest of our p(x?ts. Prior was 
utterly blind to tho incrfablo grandeur of .Milton, whom ho 
compared to " a rough, unhewn fellow, that a man must sweat 
to read liini." Waller disparaged .Milton's " Paradise Lost " 
as a tedious poiMu, with no merit but length, if that l>e con- 
sider«<d a merit. Dr. Johnson described .Milton's " Samsoo 
Agonistes " as " a tragedy which only ignoranc-e would a<lmiro 
and bigotry applaud," and, what is more, he preferr(>d avowedly 
Po|x;'s " Iliad " to Homer's. In Milton's " Lycidas " this 
critical dictator found " no nature, no truth," but only " harsh- 
ness of diction." In very truth tho gems of Milton's piwtry 
melt away in the acidity of Johnson's criticism as completely as 



99 



trt 



"■•■k. ^ rtlHt till- 

of John „'er nn if 

ufterwanUIhe minil <<l tlie gi-nlle K<-I>le, who raUtl Mil 

than S|M'niM>r, and ((■■i.. ...... .r \|,ii..,, . .... ._ •■ . 

lnti-ll<H-tual an<l spiri , 

critical Judgmentt ol im. 11..1 |.— ., ,,-,- 1, 

principle laid down by Soulhey ihat " b;..j 

critics i r. 01 tln^ 

tional .• niithor of •• I 

who " could ^co no imrit " in llic j. 

Burns. Shelley, too, admired LtiiMii's • , 

of wonderful genius and 1 

"Cain" he observed that ii . i 

appean'd in Kngland sinctt the publication of " Puradia» 

Uegainetl," and he catcM.-uu B<icettf'o.i ■- " 1 o- ..,•-.■-..... ,.. '(*., 

and .\riosto." 

Matthew Arnold, justly cinineni, .is no >i.i.< a<. » irjiii-, 
to huvo lost his head not alono in the critical rnlcM Ik; laid down 
for translating HiinM-r, but further, in ll:' 
ho gave, as shown by .Mr. Wright, Pri-i 
Hawtrey, of Kton. Hero is a curious iii»iuin.*i •>{ ■• 
critic's eccentricity : — " I omit Hoi?i.-r's ojiithi-t ni 
' fair-throne<l,' and where 1 

for Morning' I pi-eler to .1 ^ 

to the uiast^^r and not to the horse." This, Ut say the kvuit, ia 
not very complimentary to Homer. Of Mr. Swinburne's extrava- 
ganco of critical juilgment wo may iastancu bis estiuiato oC 
Shelley as a poet " who," ho writes, " on- - - o .. .^ 
recortl, but some two or three. He wjis the ]!• , 

the master singer of our iuodern race and agv, tin- p^.x/L IkIhoU 
above all )ioets, Ix'ing beyond all otiier fmi'ts." Was ««v«-r 
tho highly-coloured versi- ofaiMX' 

The Life of our late Laun-ate, Lord I 1 

judgments, which are, as a whole, certainly r> tor 

justice and insight. It is none the less diOicnIl : land 

his opinion that the |M>eticul diction of Virgil is inferior to thal> 
of Milton, especially as Tennys.ni iilnr^.M i.ii;.....i ii... I.'..iiiiui 
singer as " tho l^ird of L. ;. i% 

.somewhat inconsistent witU hiiii^'o ^Mn n n,. .iii.iii,^ , ..f„- for 
tho (K-casional recurrence of sibilants in his vers4', while bo 
jM-riHdrates such lines as the \ •  , 

stormy sobs and says," or " < 
on tho s;uid." ^i 

or less in the vci 1 

music, such ikt;- 

»j>eare. Ta'> .  id, 

Perpotuis solili jntres considere mensis, 
or Horace's line, 

Principibus placuisse viris, noo ultima laus ost, 
or Milton's, 

The sword of Satan, with steep foroc to sniiti*. 
Lastly, it may be worth not 

criticism, as wvll as a !■• r 

that "tho best conceptions should t>o expressed in tho beat 
language." t. H. L. LKAKY. 



PETER ALTENBERG. THE VIENNESE 
IMPRESSIONIST. 



Of tho yonng Ausirian school of writers none baro so 
quickly achieved a reputation as Hcrr Peter .Altenl>erg. Hois 
tho author of neither play, novel, nor even of what can strictly 
speaking be called short story. His fame rcxts oti two volumes, 
"Wie ioh es sehe," ami " Ashantee " (Fischer, Berlin). Piquant 
scenes, dainty prose lyrics, sometimes consisting of ludf a 
do3M!u lines, never exceeding t»x> or three pages in length, 
they, nevertheless, possess a distinctive enrhet, an illitsive 
lVieHeri.scyi charm. Herr Altenl>erg is a Viennese of tha 
Viennese. He knows how 11 a few simple minis every 

nuance o( life, in the uio». .:. city iu the wx)rld. He baa 



1 



LITERATURE. 



[August 11. 1900. 



been callmi Uie Maeterlinck trf ororyiUr life. His art not only 
t ' ' •• drevs nn<l btwrins of M !"<>«, hut in one 

\ OIK" cet.i a p|imT>«e .iiojilli. Hi« in 

' 'I ill a (i>w linos ho pan 

mnniiors than fonli) l)e 
liliriry of tli«> AiiNtrinn 
K-rfj novor boon )>c.vond 
th.vif liliio iiine-BirdliHl Austrian lakes where in sninmer Vienna 
lmth<>s, Intts. ami makes hiilltluy. " Aidinntee " suerRests travel 
In tlie land of fetishes ami the jrravo of failures, but " Ashnntee" 
Is in the Viraina Zoolosii'al Oardcus. and in a series of stafcnto 
dialoinics the writer reeonls his ethnnloj;icril flirtations with 
dusky . I • f,ir a season. In none of 

'"" 1*^' ill' in whicli a man eoines 

*■ M<-n. «t>iin-n, and rhiUlri-n stand on 

'■ 'd out for life, like a liride for her 

l"r;.i. .. 11. waiiinc for something to hapjien, laekintr the 
ooiiiM^.' t.> bid their slunilN>rinj; |inssions wake. There is in 
•ome of Altenherc's fl^rures mnoh that is sj-mbolipal of the 
|»ssinK away of the old Austrian type, and of the ap)M>aranee of 
a newer and rohuster raw'. The aspirations of mo<lern Austria 

•re eoikhrintHl in the following little impressionist picture : 

" Kishins must lie very slow," reniarke<t a prown-up young 
lady who knew as much alioiit flshinpr as most youncr ladies. 

" If it was slow I shouldn't fish." said the pirl-ehild with 
polden-l.rown hair and long Razelle-like It^rs. She stootl on 
the iKink fishinfr with all the imiierturbablc gravity of the 
angler. She took the fish blio had caught off the hook and 
€lashe<l it on the ground. 
The fish dii-<l. 

The lake lay flashing in the sunlight. There was a 
fragmnce of r<H»ds and rushes, -Nvater forget-me-nots, and irises 
in the air. Through the 0|)en windows of the hot«'l caTne th<! 
Wttle of plates and knives and forks. The little fish danced 
a short wild dance on the groond, such as savages dance — and 
died. 

The child went on flsh:ng with all the impertnrb.ible 
irraTity of the angler. " Je no permettrais jamais que ma 
mie s'adonnftt k niie occn|tation si crwdle," said a lady who 
aat on a seat not far off. The child took the fish she had 
caught off the hook and dashed it <m the ground clese to tho 
lady's feet. Tlie fish died. It leapt, wriggling in the air, 
and then fell l>ack dead. A simph> enough death. It even 
forgot to dnnee ; it just jumped into eternity without more 
ado. 

" Oh dear ! " exclaimed the lady. " how cruel ! " And yet 
on the intfut face of the cruel little angler with the golden- 
brown hair and the gay^-lle-like legs, lay jiromiso of a pro- 
fotinil Iteanty and a dnwning soul. 

The face of the aristocratic compassionate lady was faded, 
1 wreck. .She would never bring light, joy. and 
lo anyone's lifi> ag:i!n ; tlu-rcfore she felt for the flsh. 

" Wliy should it ilie when it still had life in ft ?" she 
thonght, as nnnflirr )lsh turiiwl a somersault, and then died a 
himple. (|i 

The . Mt on fishing with all the imperturbable 

tr . i ity of the angler. She made a charming picture with her 
1.1 !jt earr'.-' •■' ■- >"•■ goldeu-browii hair and her ga/elle- 
lik« legs. 

['erha|>x mil- II .y SIM- too wYiuld lie sorrk- for the fish and 
nay " Je ne permi-tlrais jamaiH cjuo ma fillt! s'adonniit it iiiio 
CK-cupntion si crnclle ! " 

But such londiT cinoti.ms only spring np on tho grave of 
dead liO|.. . So, lovely child, llsh on ! 

A" "' • icihing vour ilivim- iiii.i-ii":i. 

live. 

Kill the poor little flsh, and fish on ! 

Alteiilierg's nvilto *' M«n rerro n'«*t pas grand, mais jo 

>>ol» dans nioii verm ! " is siguifii-ant of hiii id«>al of comfin-sHion. 

But in hi* two sli-mlcr vi.lumes of |ien pictur<-fl he has be«.n 

•oec«<»-r  all iho grace and culture, the team 

»'- ..4. 



IRcvfcws. 



A POET'S PROSE. 

EiSAYB OF John nitVDKN. SeloPtisI and islit<'d bv \V. P. Kut. 
Two vols. (Clarendon Pivs.-,, 10s. (kl.)" 

Dryden is usually counted among the poets ; but he, liko 
John Milton, is hardly less remarkable for his pros<». The 
nierils of Dryden's proM« se<Mn f<i have l»s^n strangely neglecled. 
Perhaps the n'ason is that Dryden )>luiMes himsolf so little upon 
t hes«< «>s.says ; hi' hardly takes tlu'iu seriously, but throws you 
them in with a play or a pis-m by way of preface. The same 
cause will account for their unaffected stylo ; which, as wo shall 
see, chanpred somewhat but not for tho bettor ns Dryden becamu 
i»elf-<'onscious. 

Professor Ker has earned tho gratitndo of all who lovo 
English literature by collecting and editing thoM! scattered 
pr«>faces. His part of tlw work, we may say at once, is con- 
spicuonsly ginid. Tho annotations explain allusions iind rar»> 
words which might not be understood (we havi< noted only one 
omission, to " write booty," ii. 1871 ; unil his introihictions deal 
with the value of Dryden's criticism, his authorities, and hix 
style. There is also a bibliography and an in(U'\, and in some 
cns«'s various r«>adiugs are added from later editions which aro 
most instructive. 

Dryden's criticism has stood tho test of time strangely 
well ; and it is a proof of his sanity of view that he was su|)erior 
to the fads of the day as few critics have been. There aro 
lioints, of course, where he is vehement, and we remain cold ; 
no one. for instance, will now take up the cudgi>ls for rhyme iu 
the drama, an<l no Crites is needed to attack it. Unt Drj'den 
was on tho right side in tho controversy, and the time may 
come when he will bo nwded again. Again, the tendency in 
his day was to shackle po»>ts with pedants' rules, and it iict>ded 
some courage to ask " What. I beseech you, is more easy than 
to write a regular French play, or more dillieult than to writo an 
irregular P^nglish one, liko those of Fletcher or Shakespeare ? " 
Our fault is to neglect tho time-honoured rules ; wo have plays 
filling hundreds of pages, extending over a whole life-time, 
skipping from t'hina to Peru ; robust [xM-ts who disdain to 
prune, democi-j(io jxiets who snap their fingers at form alto- 
gether ; from thre<' unities we have fled to no unities ; and 
could Dryden rise from the grave he would approach dramatiu 
critifisni from another side. But he would find himself in th«» 
same jilaee at last ; he has a firm grasji of true principles, and 
demands a reasonable liberty, not licence. Ho had the insight 
to " venerate " Chaucer, although a curious passage in tho 
" Preface to tho Fabl«>s " shows that he could not scan 
Chaucer's verse. Shakes|>caro was to him *' divine," yet ht» 
did not scruple to blame him for what he considered his faults. 
He does justice to Fletcher, and more than justice to B<ui 
Jonson, whom ho seems to hav<- thought almost perfect within 
his limits. His contrast of Virgil and Homer is true, and he is 
not blind to mistakes in either. The criticism of Ovid is happy. 
" OvitI," he says, "with all his sweetness, has as little variety 
and sound of numbers as he (Claudian) ; ho is always, us it wore, 
niKin the hand-gallop, and his verse runs upon carpet-ground." 
Tho insisting on the essential unity as that of action is ])erliapH 
his most valuable contribution to criticism ; but all through 
these pages are scattereil comparisons, definitions, and standards 
which are wdl worth [Mindcring by critics. Kvcn those- essjiys, 
as that on " Satire," which an- chiefly compiled from the work 
of others, arc useful and interesting. Not least of his merits is 
a frankness which does not slick at criticizing himself. Thus h«» 
knows human nature well enough to see that elaborate uttorunco 
cannot go with strong feeling. 

" No man is at leisure to make sentences and similes," ho 
Kays truly, " when his sold is in an agony. . . . My 
Montezuma dies with a fine one in his mouth ; but it is 
ambitious, and <Hit of season." 

The niutli'i'of lliese essuvs Is iKt . vi. "i.i,.| Imi tir.. iiiii.ix.i 



August 11, 1900.] 



LITEKATURE. 



101 



in (Tol'I'-n. Drj'clon Ih mnittcr of f i •  ' " 
^lnliKllt to tlio point, :tii(l with <'.; 

juKl, that r-IT(H't hn ainiH at. Ho has mil, itult-i-il, lliu luj^iiiU- 
«'ciico (if Milton, nor the «"xubcranco of North ; hi» vcrsf ooulti 
KtinK, but hiH proNC has not tho Hcorpion-wliip of Naxhe ; tho 
delicacy itnil grauo of (irovno in not in hlin. But to toll a plain 
tiUo forcibly no one can Hurpawt Drydon. His Htrcngth hty in 
hiH uf)0 of lungnagu an a thing Hpoken, not written ; and thi.s itt 
at the root of all good pro«iu. Ho ia not afraid of a coUociuialiNin, 
if (to use his own words) it in more stoiindini; or inoro signincaint 
than anything else ; and an instructive oxanipio is tii<! variation 
between them and 'em. Tho latter worti, as all scholars know, 
is no vulgar clipping, but a genuine diuloctic form in English ; 
iiidec<l lor English dcsctMidcd from Chaucer's it should bo tho 
form iisetl. Urydcn's delica<'y of ear is shown in chtMJsing this 
form whi'ro it nouihIs bettor than tho other, as may be seen from 
a sentence where both conio together, which runs thus : — " Ho 
set out leisurely and softly with "em, till ho had warraetl 'cm by 
<legre«'s ; and then he began to mend liis pace, and draw them 
niongwith his own impetuousness." After a dental them cannot 
be pronounced with ease ; and so Dryden choos<>s tho other. 
Another instance is tho use of what are called " hanging pro- 
positions " ; a true idiom, as is clear not only from SImkespcaro 
but from the cognate (Jerman separables. Thus we find Dryden 
at his best writing such phrases as " the end he aimed at," 
" which wo are subject to " ; but in later editions of tho 
" Dramatic Poesy," which these examples come from, he alters 
these to a more artificial form, " to which we are subje<'t," " at 
which ho aimed." His fet>ling for rhythm was keen, but it shows 
itself rather in tho absence of ugliness than in positive beauties. 
It is rar«? to find him careless, as in tho " Dedication to the 
■Spanish Friar," where the succession of trochaic endings is 
monotonous ; it is not often he rises to su«'h a high level as in 
the cadences of the first piece in these volumes, an address to 
Lord Kadcliffc, prefixed to tho "Kxamen Pocticuin," or in tlio 
noble " Postscript " placed after the " Dedication to the --Eneis." 
Strength and dignity with ease are the marks of his style ; and 
in thes<> r<?s|H»cts no Knglish author has ever surpasse<l him. 

Tho interest of this collection of prefaces suggests that hero 
is a neglected field for the bookmaker. Who will give us Gawin 
Douglas' prologues in a handy volume, or a batch of tho 
inimitable Jloger L'Rntr.inge ? There nre scores of b<H>ks which 
might not pay for reprinting as a whole, yet we cannot but think 
that two or three more such volumes as these before us would 
flndareajly sale ; and there is no doubt the writings of an ago 
when oven literary hackwork was g<iod woubl have a good effect 
in this age of uninspired duhu'ss. 



THE ILIAD. 



The Imai). Kilitod. with Apparatus C'riticus, &c., by Wai.tkr 
LwF, Litt.D. Vol. I., Btx>ks I.-XII. Second edition. (.Mac- 
uillan, ISs.) 

This is practically a new work. Xot only does it contain 
nearly 200 piiges niort> than the first edition, but the plan has 
been nioilified and improved, while in many matters Mr. Le;ifs 
opinion has change<l with lU'teen years of study. 

The most useful feature of the second o<lition is the .\ppara- 
tns Criticus. A nmch fuller and clearer account is given of tho 
MSS. mentioned in the former e<lition, the work of various 
hands being carefully distinguished, and a numlier of new MSS. 
are added. Five of them have been collected by Mr. Leaf 
himself. Moreover, tho discoveries of papyri have been so 
numerous that the " three fragments," descril>ed as " of no 
critical importance," h.ive now grown into sixteen, and have 
given evidence lor some weighty conclusions. The critical notes 
are many times more numerous, and are now i)laced by them- 
selves under tho text instead of being mixed up with tho eom- 
mentiiry. Mr. Leaf has tised a nice judgment in selection. 
Trifles such as the breathings and iota subscript are not recorded 
without special reason, and only one MS. of any wx'lUlefined 



■iom uapful, 

•' clear 

sciidani 



group i-  

abb- ; : 

anil 

wl... 

may moo what work still wuntu doing. It it indnxl ntnngo, M 

.Mr. I^-af says, that tho text Dal n-eord of II - '• •- '— ••• ao 

much negleeti-d. Tho text itoelf U nooiev jvo 

than the first edition ; Mr. Lo»f evi - vmi 

to b« a MV>rNo reading whoro tho e\ ' jt 

vnut the receivtsi n-uding Iji ' 
is iraffi instea<l of &a}ra i 4, ^ 

principle is jiart of the vi<'\ ,■»), 

<s)llect<!d, and a st;i!i<l:ir<l ,(ii| 

pn>bably by I'i .Mr. 1^-al now hja 

view, .\part fnn  .m and evidence, « •. i% 

quito likely in the case of Pisistnitus, whom we know to havo 
been keenly interesti>d in literature and art. M<.r.«.wr •h bo 
was no imot, this might account for tho iiurtisticbn: ich 

tho Iliad sliows in its structure. But wo do not I' '-nl 

tluit no attempt at unification was imido by tho rhnp- iro 

him. Kven granting Mr. Leaf ly, 

wo ask, should not tho text bo b: in- 

ally was, when this can be dom- 
was certainly used when the  

c<mi|x>sed ; lines will not in I iit it. 'I 

not insert it ? It is nosufllciei;: ytheAtli' 

Ixit knows no digamma ; for it is notan .\ttic poem. Moreover, 
its absence in certain wonls which should have It will toll 
something as to dates at a glance. Mr. Leaf goes no far as to 
print f«if when tho verso nfiuires a trochcns ; and this altboogh 
tho Old Attic alphalict wrote iiot with the same synilioU. Ho 
knows that i'wt is a blnnik-r, yet persists in it, and defends it in 
a note. One ditlicnity felt by Mr. Ix>af we do not fofl. There 
is no ncetl to sup|>OMi that I !  |>oet of tho II "iie 

unchangejible form of tho <l -.tl, -ottfi or -«t ; i-e. 

Both must havo been familiar in common speech, -oi*i liocoming 
•o(t befon^ a vowel quite naturally. Both could bo used to- 
gether, just as in Doric we find nit and rjt for acciiNativo 
plural, or mt in two qnantities, and as in tho Gortyn Ijiwh rir 
and riiit stiind side by side. In ono point of script wo hope 
that Mr. Loaf will find many imit.itor8. Ho writes the iot* 
adscript, as tho Greeks always did, not subscript. 

Tho literary critic will natn «•« 

are as to a |)ersonal Homer. Wli ro 

our readers for tho disolosurt- thii' ui- 

IKisite thing ; but he grants us a [ler- . , i ho 

greatest in all the world's historj"," as the author of what he has 
taught us to call "The Wrath "—an " Achillcid " contained in 
Books I., XL, XY., XVI.. XX.-XXH. This noblo poom was 
built up on a heritage of heroic ballads, referring to the heyday 
of Myceniean civilization, and eom|)os«Hl after the old Greeks 
had been driven <)\ the Dorians. The Ilia.! ' ivo 

it contains several . partly unconnect*"*! wit! :iio 

of "Tho Wrath," stiuK-tiines even c<mtradicting it ; but mhuo of 
these episodes are of first-rate po«^tic merit. So far, this is » 
grt>at advance on the extreme theory which would have the Iliad 
to bo u fortuitous concourse of Iwllads ; but it is not quito 
satisfying. Wo want tho whole question treate<l in detail, by 
ono who is a competent liuguistic scholar, and at the s:iido time 
has a nice critical tasto in literature. It is not enough to say 
that such and such forms are Inter than such others, and that 
therefore tho verse or lK>ok must lie later than the archaic parts 
of the p«K'm. We wish to know whether til' .in- 

ception, or the charact<'r drawi?i!r. <ir th' of 

the author of "The Wrath," . .uidww 

would have the question e\ .•«▼ not 

l)e assigned to the same author, .■ lie 

accidents of transmission are i'\ iig 

the language. And lastly, we cotUd wish to see tho Udyssey 
brought into the discussion. 

Tho notes of the first edition havo been in some ease* 
modified or omitted ; but there are a number of additions fmr- 



102 



LITERATURE. 



[August 11, 1900. 



ticnUrly on Ungnap* and (olk-lnro. In (ho 1 - notcit, 

Mr. Leaf ia Rw>f<i> jw-iiivo thsn of yr>n>. Thii- . ihmI -a- 

aiid-*- in prea<-' hiclt Imloniiprly 

onlled imrp. b I l<m« Mr. Loaf is 

now able to r^ .izor's l'a^^<lnin^<, which is mo>t instrno- 

tiro aa illnatr;! ' „ i : •r. Thorw i^ ini|W)rtant now matter in tho 
appcndiccii. Mr. Leaf now adopts with somo niixliflc:itinns tho 
vienn on Homorio armour not forth by W. Uoichol, and shows 
that those explain the Homeric text ns none otiier ran. Ho is 
now ablo to tise armour as a tost of dato ; tho oorslot, for 
example, which was not myHltMl liehind a larK<> shield, lM>cainn 
neceanary as anon as the small ronnd shield was adopted. This 
ooniet ia made to rondenm sovenil linos snspicions for other 
renaona (p. 577.) Wo cannot, however, cinito follow Atr. Ix'af in 
biasaggmt ion that xa^ox'**"^' r^'fers pii.'tnr<>s(|Uoly to the shield, 
or that X4i>«#Mpf( necessarily implies that tho corslet was usually 
nwde of bronae (578). It may Im> that Bmptii did not at flrst moan 
dafenaive armoar at all. In Ap|iendix I), Sehulzo's Ixiok on 
the lenifthening ot short vowels ia Namiuarizcd and briefly 
diaeaaaed. 

K-— ' -* '-ir tho new Greek type usetl in the notes, which is 
almri- '-, and not l>eauti[ul to look at, the volume is well 

printeU aud got up. 



ECONOMISTS OLD AND NEW. 



We can ima{;lnc few more us«>ful tasks than that which Mr. 
Masteman has successfully aceompltshod in his aelection from 
tho nuwt important i>assages in Ciiai.mkr8 on Cuakity 
( ", 7s. Cd.). These are taken frr>m "more than a score 

».i I i..^i,»-print«Hl volumes in which teaching on social qnestions 
ia oombino«l with a mass of theological and other niattor." 
Chalmers' theories arc not popular to-<tny. The pfenoRil 
tendency of wTiters u]iQn social subjects is to rely uiKiii 
legialation, n|Km abstractions which they term tho State or 
the Municipality, u|>on oUI-oko ]M>nsions, and extensive 
schemes of mnnici|>al housebuilding. Chalmers " took nothing 
for granted, he made it his business to loam the truth 
about the poor, to understand tho ri^litios of tlioir condition, 
to And out the things that l>olongod to their welfare." Ho 
apcnt practically his whole life in studying problems which we 
aro nearly all discussing to-<Uiy. What ho did was to show that 
whore vigorous, tactful, imtient work is available, lepil charity 
becoi '•e«>s»ary. He laid griMt strt-ss upon " tho principle 

ot 1 i«)n tho immense amount of help which the |)Oor 

((ivo l«> till' |K>or, u|»on the resourctw of men's own characters, 
when wise help an<l advice is obtainable." 

We know of no other exiMMliont for tho right solution of 
this great problem. We have no faith in a naticmal iKmrd that 
nndertakos for the |iau|ierism of a whole country, or in a city 
liaard that n ' '  i-ism of a whole to\\-nship, 

or in a m -s. however skilfnl, for tho 

pauperism  ii<i». But we have the 

greatest cor ; y and succ«'ss wher«"- 

with every dittwon |M>sst->so<i o( kindly toolings and common 
•enae could manage aright tho imuperism of fifty families. 
. . . M'o do understand how an intelligent and well 
prineipli^ man ran, in n given locality of some few hundred 
people, so operate on tho springs and principles of human 
feelinfc and hmnan action as to maintain in that economical 
eooditlon, which is tho best possible, all tho families who aro 
within bis cooflnea. 

XolKxIy who is lnt<»ro«ted In the groat problem of poverty 
can fail to proOt by reading Mr. Masterman's admirably arrangi^d 
book. 

Chalmers Indd that " the troubles of our social state were 
Bttinly doo to a long coarse of misguided Interfori-nce with tho 
order of natare." Miit* Loonard, on tho other hand, with tho 

j„^ ,. 1..- - -;  snggCHlH — ThF. KaRI.Y H|t<ToltT or 

Km<- 'ridge I'niversity Press, 7«. (kl. n.) 

—that : <■ L.iw system ia the real reason why 



"wo are a law-abiding i>eoplo and . . . liavo not suffered from 
violent revolutions." IVrhaps she scarcely makes out lior case, 
but then tho hy|K>thi"-is is not the fundamental principle ot her 
l»ook, and only an incidental reflection suggested by her 
roMsirchos. Her industry and carefnlnoss are most praiseworthy, 
and she has protlucinl an excellent bit of work which will reflect 
credit not only n|x>n herself but uiion the Tendon School ot 
Kconomics, to which she owes tho suggestion. Her stylo is 
somewhat crude and lacking in light and shade, and her pages 
ar«> so full of detail that the main outlines aro somewhat 
obscured. But her Ixvik traces with great minuteness and car© 
the history of Knglish i>oor relict -fi-oiu 1:V1U to tho reign o£ 
Charles I. Wo ho|)o that Miss Leonard will give us further 
volumes which will bring tho reader down to the present d;iy. 

With the doubtful exception of love, nothing is more 
calculate*! to dcivo men to madness — so wo aro told — than 
money. Sometimes it is the gaining or s|wnding of money 
which proiluces this unhappy result. Occasionally it is merely 
meditation u|x>n its nature. We fear that Mr. Mackenzie, the 
author of S«c;iAi. and Pouticai. Dynamic's (Williams and 
Norgate, 10s. 6d.), is ono of its many victims. He has read 
» gt«it many abstruse iKKjks, and has succeodetl iu writing 
ii very abstruse book himself. The fact is that ho is not 
a clear thinker, and his endeavours to llnd a moral and 
philosophical basis for |K)litical wonomy (a term which ho 
scorns) has led him into a mare's nest. All modern economists, 
from Adam Smith onward, are, he thinks, hoix'lessly wrong. 
They liavo indet'd no chance of success, for their very 
definitions aro absolutely at fault. Money alone is at tho basis 
of true economics, and all dollnitionsmnst turn uiwn that central 
fact. More<ivcr when Mr. Mackenzie discusses money, ho means- 
silver— why, it is extivmoly difllcult to discover from his book. 
His (luality as a thinker may l)e grasix-d from some of the sen- 
tences in his introductory chapter. 

To say that food or animal life is tho Imsis, or ultiraato 

principle, from which to reason al>out social and jiolitical 

phenomena, is to pUiee man's natural faculties under negation, 

or to have them wholly unaccounted for. ... In contract 

we shall find no contradiction Iietwocn mind and matter, for 

the one is the acting agent aud the other is tho subject acl«d 

u|>on. . . . The " lal)our of pnxluction " and consumption 

is not the principle to start with, but to contr.ict lalxmr ot 

acquisition and distribution. 

These appear to l>e tho promises from which Mr. Mackenzie 

reels off his voluminous work— over 400 closely printed pages— 

and claims to subvert all political economy. 



EROS AND PSYCHE. 



The Stokv of Knos am> I'svchk, kkom Aimi.kiis, and thk 
KliisT Book ok thk Iliau ok Homkk. Done into Knglish by 
KDWAiti) Caui'KNTKk. (Swan Sonnenschein, 2». (kl.) 

Since next to the delight of creating comes tho less 
strenuous pleasure of retelling a l>oauliful tale, it swms a littlo 
strange that tho love-story of oil love-stories, which has floated in 
tho liner air of tho world from time immemorial, but which 
Apuloius in the se<-ond century was, as far as is known, the flrst 
to sot forth in detail, should have inspired so littlo English 
literature since his day. With tho Kli/.alM-thans, however, rests 
the honour of one due translation— that of Adlington, while 
William Morris made the story the subject of one of the tales in 
" The Karthly I'aradisc," and Mr. KoImtI Bridges has para- 
jihrasod the old Latin pros«"writor in verso. Lastly, there is 
Walter Pater's exr|uisito rendering of tho episode as it " com- 
|)osed itself iu tho memory of Marius, with an expression changed 
iu some ways from the original and on the whole graver." 

It Is with this last-named version that lovers of the tale will 
most readily compare the paraphrase (it is more strictly sjKak- 
ing a pretty faithtui outline lllhwl in at discretion) for which wo 
have now to thank Mr. Kdward Car|K>ntor. This is to subject 



August 11, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



](■ 



him to n Movoro tost, yet it in diio to biiii to say tliut li« NiiHtaiiis 
it by no oiuaii» cliHcroditably. In one cliroctiou, inileiHl, ho may 
Ix) Haiti to excel. It tlicro is a flaw in Patur'H tnio it Ih to bo 
fonnd, porlmps, In on occiiNloniil brt-alc and pnuso In the mov«>- 
mont duo to tho HtudioiiH i-oiiKidoratioa of a Liitin Htyle whii-h Is 
nt tiiiu'N ovfploa<l<Hl, Of this wo aro seldom foiisoions in reailiiig 
Ml'. CarpcntiT's prose, and no has boon Muec-<>s«ful in his 
ondi'avoiir to roiicU-r tlu> story more " transparent," as ho ex- 
presses il. On tlio other hand, ho has lost — or rather has not 
eared to ke<>p — tho antiqno flavour, and from all points of view i« 
generally stMui to lie second, thouRh n (;oo<l si'eond, to Walter 
Pater. With regard to tho spirit of tho fable, for instance. In tho 
licautiful j)roso setting from which his narrative shinns out, Mr. 
Pnt^r somewhertf suggests its " gontio idealism." " So that you 
might take it if yon chose," ho says, " for an allegory." Tho 
allegory that ho has enshrined in the talo is most spiritual, most 
pnre, most classic. Ho has gone l)oyond and behind Apuleiusto 
capture the fai-oflf, reflne<l Oreek essence, though he never loses 
touch with his original's generous humanity. Mr. C'ar|)cntcr on 
tho other hand, despite his (ireek nomenclature, ratherdiscounts 
tho classic, side of the allegory, compai-os tho storj* of Cindcn>lla, 
takes a more Teutonic standpoint — in fact, modernizes Apuleius. 
A short par.illel passage from each version may servo to illiLs- 
ti"Uo this latter i>oint. Pater writes : — 

Psycho in those delicate, grassy places, lying sweetly on 
hor dewy bed, ix-sted from tho agitation of her soul and arose 
in |)eace. And lo ! a gi-ovo of mighty trees with a fount of 
water, cl(>iir as glass, in the n)idst ; and hard by tho water, a 
dwelling-place, built not by human hands but by some divine 
cunning. One recognizwl, oven at the entering, the delightful 
hostelry of a go<l. 

In place of this Mr. Cari>enter has : — 

Now when Psyche canu> to herself, after her aerial flight, 
she found hi>i'solf in some kind of enchanted garden. Lovely 
groves and thickets, streams and fountains, wei-o on all sides ; 
and in the midst stooil a palace of fairj- beauty, all cai'x-en in 
ccdai^wood, ivory, and gold. 

There is, of coui-se. nothing very essential here, but tho 
differences do scmietimes extend to essentials, and whilo in 
manner the newer vei-sion is more didactic, moii> elalninite, inoro 
cons«Mous of its audience, in niatt«'r it is not always f|uitc so ex- 
quisitely choice. Pater's handling of the vulgarities of Venus, 
for instanci-, and of tho jealous rage of Psyche's sisters is 
l)erfect ; Mr. Car|K'nter's is not quite wi unerring. But when 
all is s;>id, Mr. t"ariH>ntcr has given us a gixKl and pleasant 
version. 

Wo have loft ourselves but little space in which to discuss 
his hexamot»>rs, but. sin-aking generally, ho lias attained those 
two qualities of swiftness and simplicity ninni which Matthew 
Arnold based his advocacy of this measure as the most suitable 
for the rendering of Homer. One noticeable point is the occa- 
sional allow~ance of a superfluous and unaccented syllable at tho 
oiKJning of tho lino : — 

And birds of the air : but tho will of Zeus was being 
accomplishe<l : 
Whatever may bo the merits or demerits of this licence, it some- 
times causes confusion. For example, in tho following line~- 

And silent i-eturned by the shore of tho loud-dashing ocean- 
It is only when wo are halfwTiy through it that wo discover tho 
"and" to 1x5 neither nnaceentod nor su|>erfluous. When wo 
liavo discovered it we do not, |K?rsonally, like tho scansion, nor, 
indeed, that of any of those lines which are based on quantitative 
principles. And the llrst six words of this line — 

The son of Zeus and Leto, For ho with the King being 
angertxl, 
are surely nothing more or less than the first half of an Knglish 
blauk-verso line, not of a hexameter constructed uihiii any prin- 
ciple whatever. The following are curious, reading, as they do, 
from their acceutuation. like an old English epic. Tho first is 
almost alliterative, too : — 



then 



Downward lo H m|. 
many a dauntle.>i 
MMil of the horoei. 

Which of ' ' 

WUS It tll:>: 

to striving auU li^ 
May the (Jods ■/•■■■ 
who have tlieii 
tlw heights of i»i viiii 



THEOLOGY. 



A CpIUo of Chplstandom. 

Our understanding of tho conflict iNstwocn Christ and tho 
Pharisees is coinpli<;ate<l by the tact that the follow-— -' •'■i* 
sect who met with such storii treatment in the now .{ 

tho Gospels were devout and well-ni' r 

lights. Tho anonymous author of 1' i\ 

(Macmillan, 'Is. Cd.) has taken thi~ lur hi-t : 

and has treated it with so much I :iiid iicn 

that his little book deserves to rank with tl 
" Kcco Homo " and " Pastor Pastorum," lli 
removed with his from the lH>atcn highway and the i 'I 

theologian, e<iually marktHl by tho happy combinaliii. . . . ..r- 

ence and originality. We might add to them two others ol 
larger sco|)e, though dissimilar enough, " Lux Hnndi " and 
Professor Gardner's " Kxploratio Evangelica." It is curious 
that all should have Latin titles; though the latent is lea^t 
successful in describing tho contents of the Itoolc. 

Tho Pharisees, who are individual' '"hI in tin- ^ 

Testament^Xicodemus, Joseph of Ai lud St. 1' 

are far removed from the hyixwrilical lyiw of popular 
imagination. 

The average Pharisee to his heart's core was devout. 
Nor were these devont Pharisees solf-MitisficHl in the -■•.-' 
of supiMising that all was accomplished. Their law in \ 

unresting effort and |)er|ictual in ' ' 

pollution should lx> incurred ; they  

to make one .Is such a creed UUely lo ha\e pri>- 

diicetl smug it ? 

Against such men. who i • 
who never flagged in their  
Ix'lieved to Ih> divine, our Lord »|X>ke his nio>.r 

of condemnation and derision, and at their lu;.... 

death. Had they live<l nowailays, our author iioints out, wo 
might 1x1 siiying how gixxl they were, excusing tlieir narrow- 
ness by their intensity. 

That is the problem. Tho more we realize tho l 
of the Pharise<'«, the moro acute does the lesson of . 
Ixjcomo. The V Imttled ' 

preserve from il' i the jm 

world then knew ; nay, ' 
I»rd, teaching the Mes^i 

Yet they were evil. And their corruption was shown in 
their very name ; they wt3re " So|>aratists." Thoy lacked 
res|X!ct tor man as man, distrust of self, trust of others ; they 
lacked " the knowledge that GoA'a love is as far above '• 
alx>vo tho vilest ;" they lacked the sense of privacy in «!• 
with God, and " go<xl taste, which is only tho glorifying .i 
God." In a word I hoy did not understand love. And thai was 
the only reasvni why they had no bwiiility : — 

That the jvission of love is needful to humility is proveti 
to us by the fact that, except as tho expression of 
meekness and humility ai-e not virtues. Man seeks to . 
cate lowliness as a seiwrate grace, and produces a characti 
than which what we call " pride " is more noble. Our 1 
kuow this, whether wo are willing to coutom it or not. I 
ixx)r in spirit towards man is to be mean in spirit, exc 
tho service ol love to man ; in that service it is the div 
thing wo kuow. 



!04 



LITERATURE. 



[August 11, 1900. 



• •< nrtm-mhly pnt ; and It is a fair csajiiplc ol the author's 
•■t. 

s toapplythpanalysinof Phar!s<ai-tm topurrrnt 

ul the author prt-jiarCTi u« at the outset by show- 

.. .-i expecte«l the Mune )>erversion of the eswntiaju of 

' t»ko place tunont; many of his followers. In Part 2 

 -^ IS i.Tth tho " divine ideai " and eontrasts it with " human 

r< I:s;i»n." Je»nH live<l on temis ot cordial fri<'ndship with evil 

.1- \.. "1 IS with fCiKHl ; contrast this, ho sjiys, with the 

1 _. . • ..f vriinto from tli«> frivninn* a?id vicious to-day. 

 with the wnrld, 

.1 . ..s his dominion ; 

r;\M this >< .I'inent of religion from undidactic 

111 llie.di . m1, tho Konf;, the dance. Jesus 

• ^ that lev© of man for man is tho essential preparation 

•' f-T love of God ; a^^inst this we have the limitjition 

' by malilnf; rites and doctrines tests of spiritual 

!. . Ill tills \. ■' ifhor subjects modem Christianity in all 

iTs lomis to se'. 's of searching but very temperate criti- 

ciMu, .1 cTiticlMii \.ii.c:i, however much dissent it may evoke, 

c.iniuiT lint be Ix'uclki.il to thoso who make profession of 

Christianity. 

In Part 3 the author deals with the Mibject of prayer, in a 

iiifen-sting cliapter, the pist of which is that a loving 

- .-• r must hfXHl simple faith, but that it is only child-like prayer 

that is answered. But then, to l>e wise is to be child-like: — 

" The world is the l<!»son-book God gives man, and it is not 

child-like to reject it and expect rewartl for doing so." The 

next chapter condemns the " sin of assorance " : it is of the 

essence of Pharisaism, this assurance of knowledge, and isindee<I 

L,- the cause of all schism in the Ixxly cor- 

i-iveness in the individual. This leads up to 

1 liaptcr, which is rather inajjtly culle<l " Love's 

:i." Doctrine is of loss importance; "after age- 

I. ni: discassion as to what are the essentials of Christian 

II. •<;rine, prayer remains the essential." Dogma is indeed 
'.' cdful, and its profoundest study, " as also a large conformity, 
.is a matter of convenience " ; but it is the chief office of the 
Church, .according to " Pro Christo et Ecclesia," to echo the 

 '-all of .Tesus to immcHliate fellowship with him — 

uhip of CJort, flic humility of love on God's side, 

I man's. " If to echo this call be 

-sion of the labourers, the liclds are 

• TO ri)M! to liarvest than we dream." These are the 

^ of a stimulating and ))roph<.'lic book. 

A FoUo«rep of Oaan Bupffon. 

I' 'i L 'in spent much time and trouble in investigating 

the . - from the New Testament made by the early 

' ih, and embodied them in several manuscript 

;' X, comjiile*! from the Fathers which he used. 

-'• volumes are now in the British Museum, and arc the chief 

'■e of a great mass of patristic evidence which the J{ev. K. 

'' li-r has published in his Textual Commestary .on 

H. HoLV GoNrrxM (Part 1.— Mt. I.-XIV. Bell, 5s.) In thus 

i -ing Dean Burgon's researches Mr. Miller has been strictly 

r iirviii:,' out tho Dean's intentions, and has liccn animated by 

: re <|i-ire to support that view of textual criticism which has 

 !■■ T>ean Burgon's name. Mr. Miller's 
I t rinc. D<'siring to prove that the 

lort of what he cjills the " Tra- 
il , but not quite, identical with 

 Tfxtus Kereptus "), he end«sivours to set before us tho 
i'-nci-. especially tho patristic evidence which Ijears on tho 

Txiint. and in bis present Tolumo he coven the first half of St. 
M^itthcw. 

It would be a profitless task to ro through this work, dealing 
" '" ■'   '   il detect small i-rrors, 

■itercst. (1) How far 

ry uut ). do his 

Hhv" on Nxlual 

I, the miml ulivious 

■y any means all the 



" readings " which most critics would consider to bo ancient. 
Headings which have purely *' Western " authprity scan'oly 
ever Und a place in the commentary, and many scholars will bo 
inclined to think that this is a serious mistake. Tho n>ason for 
this omission is due to Mr. Miller's opinion that tho textual 
controversy is solely between tho supporters of tho " Tradi- 
tional " text and the followers of Dr. Hort. This, with all 
deference to both those parties, is not the case ; for to not a 
few of thoso who are most closely eng;igetl in working at tho 
text of the New Testament the argnmciits in favour of at all 
• licr of "Western" readings are becoming 

Does Mr. Miller make out a strong 
case in siipiKirt of tho " Traditional " text against that of 
the school of Dr. Hort ? Dr. Hort maintained that tho 
typo of text which he Called " Neutr:il " was tho earliest and 
best, though he .admitted that the " Western " typo was also 
exceedingly old and widespread. Tho " Traditional " text 
which he called " Syrian " (and which there is now a growing 
tendency to call either " Antiochene " or still better " eccle- 
siastical ") he considered in tho main a Liter blend of tho 
" Neutral " and " Western," containing but few new readings. 
We do not think that Mr. Miller or any-one else has ever dono 
anything to shake that part of Dr. Hort's position which devils 
with the " Traditional " text as such. But much modern 
research, including Mr. Miller's patristic evi<lence, weakens tho 
argmnents in support of the " Neutral " as against tho 
" Western " text, and Mr. Miller, though ho does not convince 
tis that ho is right in supporting the " Traditional," does 
succeed to some extent in weakening the ijosition of tho 
" Neutral " text. 

A wonl of appreciation is due to tho spirit of fairness which 
animates Mr. Miller's work. Ho has done his best in every 
case to state the facts telling against his own case as fully as 
those which sup|)ort it. 

The Synoptic Ppobletn. 

The Kev. A. Wright, Vice-President of Queens' College, 
Cambridge, has arranged an edition of Thk Gospkl Acxxjhdinh 
TO St. Lvke, xl. 2.10 pp., with the parallel passages so as to 
illustrate his theories on tho Synoptic problem. It is an 
attractive and interesting work and will bo very useful for 
reference. But the part which arouses tho most immcdiato 
attention is the introduction, which is practically an essay on 
the development of the first three gospels. Tho investigation 
of this problem has been carried on sclent illcally for rather 
more than a century, and yet few critics will differ from Mr. 
Wright in thinking that it is still only in its infaney. 
Mr. Wright deals with all tho various difliculties of tho 
problem. The origin of the Triple traditicm, tho Doublo 
tradition, and the other well-known r|uestions all reappear, 
and there ai-o also s<'Veral valuable notes on other jioints, 
such as the chronology of St. Luke, which stand outsido 
the main question. It is impossible adequately to go through 
all the i)oints of a Ixrak which contiiins so much in such a con- 
densed form. All that can l)e done is to give a summary 
by way of example of Mr. Wright's treatment of a well- 
known point, and to offer a few remarks on the speciiil theory 
of catechetical teaching which he still maintains. Modern 
writers on the Synoptic question, as a rule, agree that thoso 
passages which are common to all thi-ee gospels, or-to two, 
of which St. Mark is one, are to bo traced back to a 
source which is almost identical with tho canonical second 
gosjK'l, but differ as to the Ijost method of accounting for thoso 
secontlary features which make it necessary to qualify this 
assertion of identity. One of tho ways suggested at an early 
stag« was tho supposition ot an Ur-Marcus or original docu- 
ment of which the canonical gospel is a later edition. This is 
less popular now than it used to Iw, and Mr. Wright nioro 
than oneo seems inclinc<I to despiso it. But it is hard 
to sec that his own theory is an improvement. Ho thinks 
that there wero thro*- editions of St. Mark, though ho 
thinks (hat tl ' thre<! editions of oral t<>aching and 

not three dn. y editions — (1) Prolo-Mark, used by 



August 11, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



105 



Lnko ; <2) Dontoro-Mark, UMCd by Matthew ; (3) T.if..-vr..i.- 

wliioh Ih tho fiamo as tho caiioriical (p><ipot. It i < 

prove that thPro w«!r« not thoso throo odltlouH ; but nm- ip..^i 1 1 

iiiHliiiRtivoly to iiiulti|ilicatiiiii of nourtu'H to account for com- 

)iarativ<>ly siniill points, anU would prufor to Ix-i;' 

Matthow and Lnko ImtU used tho Siinio sourcf, th<' 

bfiiij- at'fountod lor in iiiiich tho samo way an Mr. Wood-. UM^d iu 

his ossay in " Stndia Biblioa." 

But tho most distlnctivo fpatnr«> of Mr. Wright's thoory is 
that, unlilco almost all othor oiiticH, ho dot-s not Ixllovo that tho 
hourco or sourcos niontiouod al)ovo wore doouniontary, but that 
thoy woro tho stereotyped lessons of cateohists. Hero it is 
ditliimlt to criticize ; Mr. Wright has called to his assistance a 
class of UKMi whoso oxistonco at so early a date is scan-oly 
pmved, and assumes that they tauRht with all the riaid verbal 
iiccni-.icy of tho Malioniodans. His strong o pr/. in 

favour of liis tlu<oi-y is that it gives a .sutlicient d. \- 

to tlio source to account for tho close similarity ol i 
while leaving sulllcicnt plasticity to account for the >'• 
whoivas tlio diM-nmentary thoory fails in tho latter qualiticalion. 
No doubt Mr. Wright's thcH)ry will accoiuit for tho facts, but an 
unl)elievor in its gener.il probability must be allowed to think 
that ho exaggerates the rigidity of a documentary source. There 
is no reason for supposing that those early documents were from 
tho llrst i-eg-.irded as saci-ed. Therofoi'o, parallels for the manner 
of his reproduction must lie sought, not in tho textual history of 
sacred or standard literary Ixwks, but in that of a|K>cryphal 
writings; and in tho text of these it will \>o found that tho ex- 
tromoclasticity of the scribes' methods is ivmarkable; introduc- 
tory formulie ai-e altered or omitted, incidents are inserto<l. 
speeches are expanded. There is, however, nosuggcstion that this 
is duo to the influence of catechetical teaching. There is also 
another point which boars on this question. Mr. Wright has 
recognized tho interest of certain " Western " readings, though 
ho has not touched on the question of their relation to tho 
Synoptic question. It Is, however, a significant fact that the 
further back tho text of the gospels can lx» traced tho more 
" fluid " and variable it seems, and tho less rigidity is 
apparently used in copying. 

For those reasons, as well as for those which are usually 
employe<l ag;\inst tho oral thoory, Mr. Wright's |Kisition 
does not seem satisfactory. But at the same time it is well tluit 
we should have some one to keep us alive to the importance of 
oral tradition. It must have played some i)art in tho develop- 
ment of tho Gospels. Tho questiou is how much ? If Mr. 
Wright continues tho advocacy of his present views ho is 
not likely to allow us to make tho error of undor-cstimation. 
The Atonement. 

Tho list of contributors to The ATONE>fKNT i\ Modrhn" 
Relioioi's Thocoht : A Tiiboi.ooicai. SrMPOsiiiM (.1. Clarke, 
Cs.) includes names which represent not only different re- 
ligions connnunions, but different nationalities. The C'hristinii 
World, in which tho jirosont series of papers originally a\>- 
pcared, is to bo congratulated on having secured tho co- 
operation of such distinguished theologians as Professors 
Haruack, Godot, and Sabatier, to say nothing of tho well- 
knowni divines, English and American, who have taken part 
in tho discussion. It would bo interesting, of course, to noto 
tho jxiints of contact between the different writers, and to 
endeavour to discover " tho residuum of harmony " which 
undoubtedly underlies tho different ess,ays. So far as tho 
theological position of tho writers can bo classilled, it is only 
necessary to point out that, while one or two (such as Professor 
Harnack and Mr. Snell) seem to regard tho Atonement as con- 
sisting chiefly in tho moral appeal to man's heart made by tho 
death of Christ, others raise tho question — " tho one .serious 
question concerning tho whole subject " in Professor Adeney's 
opinion — whether there is an objective element in tho Atone- 
ment, and if so what tliat element is ; some defend, and 
others apparently reject, tho idea of substitution, which has 
hitherto played so large a part in Christian teaching on tho 
Atonement. The discussion leads to some really useful results. 



r'i*i*L-iMt ifUkfli.. of fiint'i.i vin" tiii, A t^itif.Tii<.nf 4jilti/-}i fiivo f.^tnttl 



»et aside. Again, soveral ot the wri 



mudom ibuught : — 

Tho capital defr< : ... ;,,-. old tbcs.i.. , 
charaetor. Tho Christian thought of our t 
contrary, l>een constantly endeavoin' 
of expiation from the for<?nsie to ; 
It I' >•< in til' 

red' ■■( tho n^' 

flctious criMtiHl by 1' 
. . . The Christian  
as it has not discovered e 

moral laws, until it has tni . • , . ^ 

physical or juridical drama into tluit moral action which 
alono can have any positive elUcacy. 

From a litemry point of view Dr. Hunter** f«»p«>r i« th« 
most eloqr ,11 

iwrhaps, ;;' 

hnman nature and its luture — a view wliicli qualinos I 
tion of tho need, and necessary conditions, of an " at . 
On tho other hand, his short pai>or abounds in passage* rr 
ablo alike for their ]>ower and beauty, and for a ccr'''" 
of spiritual insight which can scarcely l>o raid to < 
tho other essays. Dr. Hunter is evidently prof 
to bring tho doctrine of tho Atonement " iiit 
tho truth and natun* of things," and t' 
sion is the acute remark that_ " tho c<> 
law as a principle and method of vi 
placo of juridical L»w into which \i> 
redemption." 

Mr. Homo's ablo paper is marred !■. defects of 

scholarship. |t seems a pity that the Greek words occasionally 
mentioned in the Toluroo .should be so carolossly prifi'--' We 
have also noticed ono or two minor misqaotations. 

In the Days of Wyollf. 

We have more than once had occasion to refer to th« 
excellent history of the English Church, edited by tho Doan ot 
Winchester and Mr. Hunt, and now in process of publication. 
Owiigj to tho Deau's fluding ik impossible t<> issue his own con- 
tribution this year we have for the pi-' "'. 
Hunt's history of tho Church Iwfore ti; I 
Mr. Caj)es' volume which is now lK>ii>ro u> — Tm 
Church in the Fourtee.sth and FirrjxNxit 
(M.icmillan, "s. 6<1.)— but there is no reason to sn  
will injuriously affect tho success of the work i^ i . 
Mr. Capes has studied and written laboriously, like his 
predecessor, and tho rosult is a solid if somewhat shapeless 
history of a period that has hitherto been littlo studied in 
detail. 

Wo may promise that tho title of the l>ook is misleading, for 
Mr. CaiKjs begins with tho aoeession of Kdward I., and the 
reign is so important that wo think the author would hav« done 
well to mark the limits of '■ iisly. Tho first 

ton chapters give a somewha; • of tlio history 

dowix to the primacy of Morton ; iss various 

aspects ot tho Church's life in d'- '.inlers af 

undoubtedly tho more interestinji. Tl 

valuable information, from episcopal ;. 

as well as from chronicles, »s to the monks and friars, ^ 

cathedrals, schools and universities, pilgrimages, anu 

influcnco of tho Church. Mr. Capes does not 

distinguish tho centuries. We have, in tlv 

descriptions derived from facts of the t!. 

tho same page with others that belong to tho tiU4 < . <^ 

is likely to encourage tho idea that the medieval >. ^i 



106 



LITERATURE. 



[Aiio:iist n, 1900. 



BO di«tinetiT«<M««o(prof;rrwr and d<>cay, which \h far from ))o!n(; 
the raap. VTbat l» truo of the roipn of Honry VII. is by no 
mema nee warity tmts of the n^ifrn of K<l«-ard II. Th« p.irlior 
cbaptMw. " iianlly Mifllriciitly chronolofrloal. 

It it i«onc r fiMni Mr. ('ujm's what 'vvas 

•. Tiio (I iMtopy of the 

.it!»raiitil\ iip<l. 

<< which lormn the c«>iitro ot the lH»k is xin- 
<l. \'. . it of .John Wyolif, an<l of him Mr. (.'a|)os' study 
i« interpHtinR and fairly detailed. It tiee<ls liupplenientiiif;, how- 
«>ver, by Dr. Kaithdall'* valiwblo article in the " Dictionary of 
National Bioinapby." Mr. Capes h.i» studied Wyclif's works, 
but in his nummary of their teaehinp; he omits some important 
points (as, for instance, the f.ict that in the " De Kiicharistia " 
he declares t h man could consecrate the Eucharist, 
nnd in the " 1 \ itis Novdlis " adils that a priest 
can Rive eonliriiiatiuii and transmit order-). His account of 
Oldoa-stle is full and accurate. He attaches just the riglit 
amount of importance to the writinps of Pecock ami Gascoignc. 
Throughout, indee<l, he is a sjife guide. Wo could wish that ho 
had treated the question of Papal jurisdiction and Roman Canon 
Law in more detail, in view of Dr. Maitland's notable Ixmk. 
VTe naturally look for a judgment between the Cambridge 
Pfofeesor and the Bishop of Oxford ; but Mr. Capes docs not 
assist us. ^Vc arc incline<l to think that this is due to the fact 
that our author has not studied the legal side of his subject, or 
the evidence of cathe«lral records (some printed by the 
Historical MSS. Commission, some still in MS.) in detail. None 
the less he has covered a wide ground with judgment and know- 
ledge, and has made few, if any, mistakes, and the only note- 
worthy misprint is the repeated error in the s|x>lling of the 
name of the author of " The Universities of Europe in the 
MidtUe •\ges." . 



FICTION. 



Miss ^Vhapton'> New Book. 

It is not often that a novel is published by Mr. .lohn 

JInrray ; but in A Gift from thf, Gravi: (2s. Oil. n.), by 

Miss Kdith AVhartoii, he has issued a work of great interest. 

The book is a purely introspective study. A man of delicate 

fibre commits a coarse act. He publishes the letters — 

practically the love-lettors^of a woman who WToto them in 

utter confidence. They contain no lietrayal of vulgar, coni- 

' t, for ho has never loved the woman. It w.ts 

;l friendship, with Ijoundless sympathy on the 

; on the other, the man's side, although " to be 

her ha<l Ix-cn a st.itc to touch any man's imagination, 

ical reluctance had, inexplicably, so overborne the 

lal attriction " that ho felt for her little more than a 

cold appreciation of her genius. The woman was famous, and 

her poor letters would bring him wealth. She was dead, and 

they would bring her no sorrow. All that the man had left out 

«f his reckoning was himself. The thing once done, he lives in 

torture. Ho oimmis th«! print<!d volume. 

A familiar letter sprang out at him, ••.-loh word f|uickeiie<l 
by its glaring garb of type. The little broken jihnises fled 
across the page like wounded animals in the open. ... It 
was a horrible sight. . , , A battue of helpless things 
driven savagely out of shelter. He had not known it would 
be like this. 
The romnroo of the man i« 3llnwe<l at the end to have expiate«l 

Is absolutely incapable of 
.1 it. The " (;ift from the 
to him (It a higher self, never fully his own 
is not new. In fact, it is the " stepping- 
stone* " of " In Iklemoriaro " and smnetbing older than that. 

^•" •'" -I ;..••- - •'-'■'-ite and faithful to a degree. On the 

iiarton is satisfying. She has a r.irc 

I '• iigrii %\i,rii. Her phrases arc her own, with 

' ' : ; little of the " prcciousncss " that goes with such 



originality. Occasionally wo have a strained expression, such 
as " She . . . began to s|)enk, with a new suiTusing diflidence 
that made him turn a rouMsl eye on her." More often tho 
- charm by their eHect ot being unchangeable. Kx- 
tho lK>st word for tho b«x>k, though nobcxly in search 
of " a gisxl story " had bettor open it. Nothing hajipens — 
outside the spirits of three most subtly analysed human beings. 
But we congratulate M iss Wharton. 

A Good War Book. 

The war lias suggeste<l — it would 1)e misleading to say jn- 
spireil — a go<xl many novels and a goo<l ninny volumes of short 
stories ; but Thk Isri-fKNCK ok Maus, by Kva Anstruther (Grant 
Kichards, lis. (VI.), is the llrst book of the kind that wo have seen 
that possess<>s literary value as well as topical interest. Thero 
are no lurid battle-scenes. Mrs. Anstruther has " tried to toll 
of certain common people hero at home on whom, when War tho 
Purifier came among us, his deepest shatlow fell " ; and sho has 
achieve<l her task with the sure hand of tho literary artist, 
with sympathy, and with a restraint that is very effective. Tho 
sentiment is never false, and the pathos always rings true. 
Slight as the book is, we class it with tho best books of tho 
year; and it certainly is far and away Iwtter than any recent 
lKx>k with which it can reasonably be coniparotl. Helped by 
its theme it may do something to jx^rsuado liook buyers that 
short stories as well as novels are worth spending money on, 
and even to persuade tho editors of some popular magazines that 
mechanical short stories of impossible adventure arc not tho 
highest manifestations of the art. 

A Copnish VUla^e. 

There is something peculiarly elusive a1)out the Cornish 
character which seems to enable it to defy complete portraiture, 
Mr. Edon Pliilpotts and Mr. Charles Leo have Ixt'ii amongst tho 
most successful ; in a lower grade Mr. Silas H(K-king and Mr. 
•lowph Hocking have reported to the English reader something 
of the life of tho Cornish. We have Mr. Quiller-Conch, too, 
industriously observing, not without a cjuiet eye's dcservetl 
harvest, the little humours and trageilles of Troy Town. Yet it 
is little he knows of the West Cornish, the Cornish who live and 
delve in tho tin-mines, and amongst wliom tho rich vernacular 
most bountifully survives. In Mr. Harris' tales of the life of 
a fishing village, Ocn CovK (Simpkin, Marshall, 2s.), we 
have another attempt to catch tho baffling atmosphere of 
superstition, susi)icion, hosj)itality, hartlllKKMl, gossip, and 
invincible hopefulness that surrounds the fishermen of Corn- 
wall. In largo measure ho has succ(!ede<l. " Our Now 
Doctor " is a truo enough picture of the suspicion chorisho<l by 
the Cornish of a new inhabitant, whether ho bo a doctor or aught 
else. " The Life Savers," too, is a fine piece of descriptive 
writing. There is much truth In the intrmluction of the llttio 
Breton onion lx>y, one. of tho connuon objects of a Cornish land- 
scape. As a story one is <lispose<l to rank " Hard-to-be-Kotind " 
first amongst those the book contains, but as it is concerniHl with 
smuggling it can hardly bo reg!»rdo<l as portraying cont«'^m|X)rary 
Cornish life. We have derived much pleasure also from " Com- 
panions of the .Ship." Mr. Harris, in our judgment, ovor-rates 
the superstition of the Cornish, a frefjiient fault with the artist 
in search of the pictures<|ue. Superstitious as he is, the Cornish 
fisherman does not habitually turn back fi-oni his fishing if ho 
meets a woman on the way to his Ijoat. And th<! "wise woman " 
does not hwrni so largely as Mr. Harris would have us Ik^Hovc in 
the life of tho people. The dialect for tho most part shows 
intimate acquaintance with the broad western sin-ech ; but 
" sproil " wo do not know. Not to have any " sprawl," meaning 
energy, or " rim," as the Americans call it, is a frequent enough 
expression in Cornwall. 

Mr. P. B. Neuman's novel, TiiK Uttkiimost FAnTiiiNo 
(Blackwmxl, Os.), is a very clever piece of work. The story, 
though trivial and nnimportant, is wvll put together and well 
told, though the probabilities are not very carefully respected. 
It is not very crp<liblo that an nuedncatcd young woman of two- 
and-twcnty, tlio daughter of a clerk, would, by giving music 



August 11, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



107 



If^Niions and acting aH cnHhicr in a iIro])ory UHtahlUhmont, earn a 
Niiniriont iiicunio to wnd hor lirotlM-r to St. Paiil'M Kcliiml uml 
to CambritlKo. It \x "till 1<*»» crwlible timt tlio boy, iK-inK » lad 
of N])irit, would allow her to inako thONacrlfloi', ini(t<iidof iwHrkinR 
Honio appuiiitini'iit with a Haliiry itttacht^ to it. But we frcM-ly 
forKivo iIk' iinprolKihililioM of tho Ktory in coiisidorntion of tb« 
writer's skill in uiifoldiiiK it. It is a study of tho lower niiddio 
olnMKON, iiot(|uit<> (■(iiiipuralile with .Mr. tJissiiig'H itiuiilar studioN, 
but Htill very k<xxI. 

Thk ArToiiincitAi'iiY OF A Charwoman, as chronieled by 
Annio Vakeuian (M»o(|iieeii, Oh ), is tho l)ost tiling of its kind wo 
have read. Betty Dobbs, rharwoman and human woman, is a 
living creature whom one mi^ht uie«?t in any London street, with 
her faded shawl and hor basket. But the nvemfjo speeiracn will 
hanlly be found so eharming as Miss Wukenian's prod'gc'c.rwil or 
imaginary. Betty's love affairs, in her comely youth, are excel- 
lent readiuK. Her really hifjli principle, combined with her 
dei'id('<lly lax ideas as to " niarriaKO-linOM " and like formalities, 
make her a whimsical but quite I'onvinciuK character. We agrco 
with the Anglican father wlio befriends her. " ' Oh ! ' 'eo says, 
* I am not afraid, I'll trust you. As fur religion, there's many 
kinds. You 'avo 'ad a time o' trials, but you've never neftlcctotl 
your ofTsprinf;. That is mother love, and love is rolijiion.* " As 
for Betty's chronicler, hor work is excellent. Like Gordon and 
his Chinaman, she has tried to get " into the skin " of her sub- 
ject, and succee<le<l, beyond a doubt. 

AcATiiA Wkhi), by A. K. Cii-een (Ward, Lock, .^s. (kl.), is a 
criminal tale of the ancient kind. Most mischiefs (and there arc 
many) ai-o traceable to a sinister yonuj;\s'OUiaii with extraordinary 
attractions. The (hUioiiement is far-fetched to a. ludicrous 
degree. One incident (the placing of tho dynamite bomb) is 
apparently forgotten by tho author. It loads to nothing. " The 
Leavenworth Case," in its own way, was far better than this. 

Miss Kathorine Douglas King is a young lady who puts so 
much vigour and animation into her work that her successive 
novels come always as a pleasure and a surprise. In UusrLA 
(L.ine, (Ss.) she surprises by her mixc-cii-scciir, for she gives us a 
story of Kiissian life with which she seems every bit as familiar 
as she is with the life of the East-end and with the travelling 
circuses of her native land. So skilfully does she weave her 
spells, and so vivid is her character-<lrawiug, that only aftor the 
book is tlnished do you realize that it is nothing but a sensation 
story constructed on somewhat familiar lines, and probably 
evolved entirely out of the author's head. And if, on tho whole, 
we prefer Miss King's earlier studies of child-life, such as she 
gave us in that delightful volume " Tho Child who Never Grew 
Old," this is not to deny that " Ursula " is an excellent tale. 

Danikl Hkkuick, by S. H. Burchell (Gay and Bird, Cs.), is 
that rarity, a light and readable historical novel. Tho perio<l 
is tho reign of Charles tho Second. The Plague comes in 
incidentally and assists tho plot at critical moments. The 
style is pleasant, like that of Mr. Burchell's earlier historical 
stories. Ho is wise to keep to this kind of novel, tor few wTiters 
of the second rank succeed in l)eing .inything but tetlious when 
they treat of *' periods " and personages. 



Cotresponbcnce. 

—  — 

CLARISSA HARLOWE. 
TO THE EDITOR. 
Sir, — Your remarks on Samuel Richardson in LitemtKre 
tho other day encourage mo to dniw attention to the want of a 
complete nuKlorn c<lition of " Clarissa Harlowe." Tho edition 
of Hichardson's works in twelve volumes, edited by Mr. Leslie 
Stephen and ])ublished in 1883, has V)een out of print some 
years, and I l)elicvo there are only two editions at present 
obtainable, one of them a pa|K;r-backe<l sixpenny edition, and 
both of them greatly abridged. In spite of the length of the 
work it seems strange indeed that the large number of reprints 
of the older Knglish novelists which have found their way on to 



tb« I' 

the ' •■ ol the i iimi alL 

and 1-. - .„ Ii of tho Uij ipn-.lmli 

<H|ual to " Tom JontM " or " 

there aro numlH^r* of hook-In 

only too glad to have an <' 

<lress<'<l and well-prlnt4-«l sei i.i iiii- v.. 

Knglish novelist U|Kin thoir Hh<-lve<i. 

Youm, &c., 
Southport, 28th July, lUUU. 



In 



•ly 



A. II. CAKSTANO. 



AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 



Tho publishers, wo nnderstand, regard tho r<><iolntion pnisetl 
by the Council of tho As.s<H-late«I B<MikM'llem, miuesting Ihoin 
to publish more books under the net system, as a very encounitc- 
ing result of tho step taken by thcni last year. It Is a proof, in 
their opinion, that tho booksellers aro boKinning to have moro 
conlldence in themselves ; and that^ after alt, \mt the main 
object which the publishers had in view when they ' '"mI 

the new scheme. A breach of th«' conditions of the <« 

not involve tho closing of tho 1j<>' lujt the 

offender has to pay full price for . by tho 

signatory publishers. Several of thulii' ' at 

llrst hav«» now signed the agrf-ement — i- 'k- 

sellers alike — and thor«> seems littlo doubt that the system baa 
become thoroughly consolidatctl. 

In tho old days a book was published, say, at twelve 
shillings ; to-day it appears at ten shillings net ; tho advantage 
being that tho lxx)kseller nowadays knows that his rival round 
the corner will not undersell him at :i i liviofc 

profit out of the question. The b' 'vl tho 

publishers "to take into consideralioii Ihi* m\-- of 

making all scientific, tc<'hnical, medical, and Ijooks • mo 

description, net" — a matter which will, of course, !«• led (or each 
individual firm to consider. The publishers an* alri'ady increas- 
ing the numlier of net books rapidly, and in the autumn they 
will doubtless lie more notic<>able than ever. But the time wilt 
probably never come when all books will appear in this way. 

Tho Life of Lord Tennyson, Dr. Horton's coir to 

Messrs. J. M. Dent and Co.'s " Saintly Lives " S<-i lie 

published in tho autnnui. It will 1)e illiLstrated by purlruits of 
tho houses and places in which he livc«l. 

Dickens easily holds his own in the lists which have aln<ady 
been announced for tho autunni season. Wo have already re- 
ferred to Messrs. Chapman and Hall's edition. " Bleak House," 
with illustrations by Beatrice Alcock, will proliably bo the next 
two volumes in Messrs. Methuen's cnlition with an introduction 
by Mr. George Gissing, and will bo followe<l by " Oliver Twist " 
in one volume, with illustrations by Mr. E. H. New. Messrs. 
Putnam are also entering tho lists with new iHlilions of " Cricket 
on the Hearth " and " A Christmas Carol." Tho two volumes 
will l)0 ready in Octoljor, and will l)o similar in goir to 

the dainty Mlitions of " Rip Van Winkle " and " Tin i i of 

SU-epy Hollow " publishe<l by tho Putnams last year. Their 
illustrations will include 24 full-page photogravures. 

Captain Joshtut Slocum's narrative, " Sailing Alone Around 
tho World," which recently ran through six months of tho 
Venturij Magnzinf, is to be publishe<l In volume form by Mcaars. 
Sampson Low. Reckless navigators are i "y heard of 

crossing tho Atlantic in cix-kle-shell I few wonid 

venture to sail round tho world  '-h 

Captain Slocuui trustee!. He pr< rd 

by repairing and improving an is sup- 

posed to have servo*! .as an oystei „ lundrcd 

years ago. Ho starte<l alone on his long voyage on April 24, 1805, 
and came b.ick s.ife and sound to Boston, U.S.A., on July ;lrd, 
1898, after crossing the Atlantic twice and touching, among other 
countries and continents, at Samoa, Australia, and tiie Cape. 
While in South Africa he visitotl Mr. Krugcr, who was greatly 



108 



LITERATURE. 



[August 11, 1900. 



Idc«imhI. «ppar<>ntly. w-hcn hU fririid Judfro Bej-era remarked 

- •uimI the A\'orI<l. " Not row iid 

il, " that is iniiKM.sible ; yon 

'r IIm> «.-x-Presiiknit «-oulcl have it that 

The nc\t v f Messr>. 

upcarp, uml«>r t; , .1 «HJitor>lii, 

*• Koinoo and Juliot," o<Ut«i by Professor Dowden himself, and 
" Kins Lear," edited by Mr. W. J. Craig. 

"Atlanti'i: the Book of the Angels " will shortly bo pub- 
li.shr«i by Mcsspk. Sijnnenschein. Tho author, Mr. D. B. 
Metoliin, deals with th«> antwlilnvinii worlii, giving the Ishuid ns 
the Hoencof th# d. ' up to the Klotnl and 

showing why it w:is .  < , under the form of an 

historical romanee, the nuclei of tlie later develoi)nient of human 
affairs, and a clue to many of the myths of the ancients. Tho 
narrative is )»cke<l by very old and curious treatises, by Biblical 
nnd A|>ocrypbal writings, and tho most ancient customs aii't 

ltJ,-ill<l,S. 

Three volumes are announced by Messrs. Sonnenschoin fci- 

their Social Science Series — " Commercial Colonial Policy." 

I of the New Brunswick L'niverMit>- ; " Work- 

1 for Injuries," by Professor .lames Mavor ; 

i.-y, anti its Kolatiou to Prices," by L. L. Price (a new 

Mesisrs. Sonnenschein also announce, among numerous other 
books for the nutamu, a translation of Beowulf into English 
prose by Dr. Clark Hall, a translation of Schoi)cnhauer's 
" Essay on Morality " by Arthur Brodrick Bullock, M.A., a 
volume on " Commerce and Christianity " by G. F. Millin, and 
a translation of Clara Tschudi's Lifo of tho Empress Augusta 
by Mils E. M. Co|)e, uniform with tho ssinio author's " Mario 
^ ■•'," " Eugenie, Emitress of tho French," and 

 n's Mother," throe of tho most successful of recent 

1,- ._' n ,i.-S. 

All :iutumn book which is sure to arouso a certain amount 
of curiosity is " An Englisliwoman's Love Letters," to Ijo pub- 
lished by Mr. Murray. It is obviously necessary, as tho 
publisher states, that tho letters should bo anonymous ; Mr. 
Murray himself does not know by whom they were written ; but 
he believes that their special characteristics will be considered 
to justify their publication. 

A volume entitled " North Americaas of Yesterday," and a 
comparative study of North American Indian life, " on the 
theory of tho F^thnic Unity of tho Itace," will l)o published in 
tho autumn by Messrs. Putnam. The author, Mr. Fr<>derick S. 
DeUanbangb, accompanied the second expedition under Major 
Powell, which explored the Canyons of Colorado and tho south- 
wosU Volume IIL of Professor Blok's " History of tho Nether- 
landa." translated by Kuth Putnam, will also be ready in the 
■.i IS well as the second volume of tlie official " History of 

1 of Trinity Church in the City of New York," dealing 
Willi the j>crio<l )>ctween 178Ii and 1810. 

In the autumn tho s-tmo firm will publish an authorized 
translation, by Frances E. Skinner, of " Tho Forest School- 
master," by Peter lioscggor. This is believed to be tho first 
Kngliah version of tho Aastrian novelist's work. It is a strange 
story of an isolated forest commiuiity, civilized and regenerated 
by tlic lifo of one man. 

Professor Gnu avoided tho conventional method of 

psychology in his . ing work on " Tho Soul of a Chris- 

tian," which Messrs. .Mc- ui ii :irc to )>ublish. Wo ani told that 
instead of taking the in<ll\ iihi li alone the author regards him as 
•bowing in and contributing to the Catholic tradition. Tho 
book thus deals not only with tho average religious life, but also 
with the less familiar experiences of tho mystic, the visionary, 
and tho symbolist. 

B. L. Stevenson's Imoks* have still a vogue in France. 

Tbo latest of his travel l>ooks to bo translated into French is 

that dmting with his canoe trips on the Sambro and tbo Oise. 

station by M. Lncion Lcmaire, with a frontispiece by 

' rane, haa just been published at Fr.O by Lcchuvalicr. 



Edcoationai.. — The most important item among Messrs. 
Mothtien's educational announcements Is a new edition of "Tho 
Captivi of Plautus," with an introduction, textual not-f-s. and a 
1 ' v. TheeditorisW. M. Linds;iy, Fellowof Jesus College, 

< lo has n^K-'olIated all the iin|M>rtant M.SS. An api>endix 

with the accentual element in o;»rly L:itin verse. "A South 
in Arithmetic," by Henry Hill, IJ.A., Assistant Master at 
Worce.sU'r School, Capo C'olony, which has lM>en siwcially 
written for use in South African schools, is again included in 
tho list, while a German Commercial ICoader, by S. Bally, M.A., 
is to Ih) added to Methuen's commercial series. 

Mr. Murray announces a "Commercial French Course," 
in two |>arts, by W. MansHeld Poole, M.A., AssI ' 
Master at Merchant Taylors' School, and Michel IJ. 
Professor at the Ecolo Alsaeienno, Paris. Part 1. i:> 
in active preparation, and consists of simple jiassagcs in 
French, examples of business lett<'r>, and a system of French 
grammar, with s|)ecial ix'fereneo to tho verb. Part II. will com- 

 an advanced connnercial reader. Mr. Murray also has in 

I a " Tochnical School Fi-ench (Jnmnnnr," by Dr. W. 
■xii-.(li, p^xaminer in Modern Languages to tho Midland 
Counties' Union of Etiiicational Jnstitulions. 

" Tho Honianco of tho Earth," by Professor Bi''-'''''^" of 
Canterbury College, New Zealand, to lie pul>lishe<i  
Sonnenschein, is a popular account of tho geological :■„ iiv 

work in tho formation of the earth and also of the evolution of 
animals. 

In tho autnmn Mr. Gilbert Parker's new novel, the first 
that ho has wTitten since 1897, entitled " The Lane that has no 
Turning," will Ik; publishinl. The scene is laid in Quel)ec. 

Messrs. Methuen are about to publish a new volume of 
stories by Mr. Kicbard Marsh, entitled " Tho Seen and the 

Unseen." 

Books to took out fop »t ono*. 

FlfTIOX— 
" nil- Seen anil thr UDseco." By Richsrl Marsh. M«thu«-n. 8k. 
" Ni-ighl>our> : Being AnnaU of » Dull Towu." By Julia M. Crottie. 

Uiiwln. fin. 
" Tales of the Pampas." (Overseas Library.) By W. Bulftn. Uowm. 
la. 6<1. auii '2s. 
HIMTOHV — 

"Norway." (Story of the Nation'* Scriw.) By Pmf. H. H. Biyc.iipn. 
UuwiD. Ss. 



XFW EIiITIOK— 
' The RotnsDcv of a Mi.lshipman. 



By \V. I'lark Ku^teil. L tiv. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



BIOORAPHY. 
Llfeof Slp Thomas Nicholas 
Doufflaas, F.I ^ rhomai 

K'lV/iam-. 7; '■ _ . 

. 3i. 6d. 

CLASSICAU 

Cicero's Letters. Vol. III. Tmn-- 

lalod by >■'. .S. Hhuckburali. 7i - 
IJln.. 381 pp. iMl- ^'■ 

ECONOMICS. 
Natupal Economy. Hy A. H. 
(lihsoii, VX..\. SixSiiu.. 134 pp. 
ItiiiiiiriKlmiii. Corni.sh. 

EDUCATIONAL. 
A Short History of the British 
Empire. 11> O. h'.. (irern. TJx 
iiii., iii pp. Di'iit. 3(1. 6d. n. 

FICTION. 
The InHuenoe of Mars. By Kta 
An.Htriither. 71 «»iiri.. 1S.S pp. 

(imTit Kii^bsrdrt. 34.6(1. 
The Belle ofToorak. By K. H'. 
llornung. "i . .'iin.. -'26 pp. 

(irant Kiohard'<. 3-. 6tl. 

Ths Dean's Apron, lly ''. T. 

Wi/Z-iand (i. Hurrhrtt. Tjx jjiii.. 

388 pp. W'linl. Lock. 3... 6<1. 

OEOORAPHY. 

The Tpln!'*-^'l i3r.\'W.M/«n for 

iBoa < 1" 

Kvtrtlf.. !'• 

»' ". 

HISTORY. 

Parts d« 1800 k inoO. IVapr.>< 

lesKaUii' 'lu 

Tenps. '«« 

la dlroct: I'l. 

lU>'7Jlii..'.iiJiii '■>. 

Etlsnn* Mai' ia 

Kranti- au Mi)j. Kd. 
With KosrsTiiiK... U/ J. JU.clitUt. 
7lxl|lD.73»PP. P«ri«. 

l.a'.minu ly'vy. Fr.3.30. 



LAW. 
The Constitution and La«VB 

of /%'■-■---■-:•--. •'., itir 

3ft. '■ Khan, 

F.K 

 :■,:■ ,-. .-i.6d.r. 
LITERARY. 
Chaucer Memorial I.eotUPSS. 
I900. Kd. !>)• frrcl/ »('. ^mu, 
K..-5.A. !•• fiiii. ITI up. Asbcr. 

POLITICAL. 
Ths Orlfln of the Anslo- 
Boer War Revealed. By C. 
H. Thovia*. 71  .'>lin.. vll^ pp. 

Hwl.l.T it siuuk'lituii. M. 6d. 
REPRINTS. 
The Queen's Marlss. (Ubrary 
Kd.) By u. J. WhyteAUlviUe. 
8x6iln.. 427 pp. 

JVnrd. Lor-lc. S«.«d. 

Trav '   ' I ' '■ I . '^. \  .\a- 

vll » 

»■. 11. 

As  .ir 

Al: ■•■■I 

by ; IP. 



A Napra 
China. 

yrd Kd. S- j^ia.. iS5 pp. 
Murray. 
SPORT. 



Z>. 6d. u. 



Hunting. Kt J. ' 

ill.uldon Hull Libr» l. 

:<« pp. I..I. 

THEOLOGY. 
Man and the Spiritual World 

Hy lirv, f. tlinmljrr^. r}xSin., 
aw pp. •r.iyliir. ."h. 6d.n. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 
9utton-ln-Holdernass. rhmp 
Kd. Hy T. UlaHhUI, K.lt.I.B.A. 
SixStln.. 30Jpi>. .Stuck. On. 

TRAVEL. 
Northern Osrniany. Dy Karl 
IJaedfKer. G* ;<«iin.. »3<)pp. 

Oiikiu. S*. 



^itcnituuc 

Puhllshed by ZliC ZimCB. 



No. 148. SATURDAY. AUGUST 18. 1900. 



CONTENTS. 



PAOB 

Notes ok thk Day !•*, 110, 111 

Pkrsonai. Vikwh— " a History of BnKlixh Litfralui-e," 

by Prtjftvssor K. Dowilfii 112 

PoKM— " Bv thf St-a," hy Lniirie Magnus 113 

Nkw LieHT ON Sir Waltbr Ralkioh, II., by F. 8. 

Bo«8 11'^ 

The Real Puisoneh of ('iin,i.oN, by Fi-uncU Gribble lit 

"Till-: Passion ok tiik Past," hv f. Fisber 116 

The Deatk-Ksell ok Frkxch .Syntax 118 

Reaikws— 

Christianity and Mythologry J}' 

For Enf{laiid".s 8aki- 117 

Fiilhaiii, Old and New jl'' 

Our Foivsts and Wootllnnds 119 

HuntinK 1\J* 

The History ot Ancient Philosophy 13) 

A History of Modern Philosophy 121 

Oriirin iif tfw Aiii;!" Tln.r Wiir Hi'vonlw} A TTt^toryot Kpic Poctr>- 

I  r. u \Vlth-A HUtorj 

121, lis, 123 

I.: - Trivlnl Round— 

N'.iiiiu .^ I'ruu lu iliu UuUiin; uf lliu Scii One of Many— Tho 

Keiiutlfiil Mrs. Lcnt-h 123, 121 

Liukaky Notes 124 

I'oKRKtiPONDKXcE— "Iji Vie F>t Vidne' 125 

ACTHOIIS ANIl Puui.iaHERs 125, 12fJ 

List of New Hooks and Reprints 12ti 



NOTES OF THE DAY 



Captain Julicn Viaud (Pierre Loti) was clioson by Admiral 
Pettier as his first aido-d<vo!inip, and is now on board tho 
Redoutable, en route for China. 

•  » • 

The annual conforcnco of the Institute of .loiirnalists, which 
begins on Sopteinhor 8, is this year to be held in London. There 
is nothing in tho programmo so iutorostiiig as tho visit of M. 
Zola, which was tho cjoii of tho conference of 1893. But there 
are to be sermons by Canon Scott Holland, Cardinal Vaugban, 
and Dr. Parker, a garden party at the riverside residence of 
Sir John Whittaker Ellis, and excursions to Reading, Windsor, 
and Woolwich Arsenal. Among the papers to be read is one 
by Mr. K. T. Rood on some subject connected with pictorial 
humour, illustrated by lime-light effects. 

   • 

To-day is the fifty-ninth anniversary of tho birthday of Mr. 
Robert Buchanan, who begins to bo one of our veteran men of 
letters. Veteran is the word, for Mr. Buchanan has always 
been a fighter in tho literary life. Perhaps the l)est birthday 
service that one can do him to-day is to remind tho younger 
generation of tho poetry he wrote in his earlier years. It is now 
nearly forty years since he published his first voliuiio of poetry, 
called " Undertones," a pretty title, not at all prophetical of 
tho somewhat militant and assertive manner that \N'as in after 
years to mark tho poet. It was followed in a year with a 
volume of " Idylls and Legends of Inverburn," and a few years 
later the poet may bo said to have come to his own with his 
volume of " London Poems " in 1860. He was already safB- 
ciently a literary personage to attract the genial banter of Mr. 
Matthew Arnold, whose references to the " iugeniou^ young 

Vol. VII. No. 7. 



Sontoh poet " are well kiK>wn. A colUwted (xlition .>! hi-. 
pooniH, in three Toliimeii, wm pilblUhod In i>*7i md »n»«her 
collected etlltion, in one volnine, in 18JC». 

• • • • 

Mr. Buchanan has not unnaturally sullentl in pnbli.- <»««i- 
mation on account of his anonymoun attack on KinMetti In lu 
article in tho Contemporary R«yi>u), of Ootoljor, 1871, porport- 
ing to bo writUm by a Mr. Thomas Maitland. and ontiUod 
" Tho Fleshly School of Poetry." The natter baa bee* ■ofully 
discussed in tho mass of literature that has gathered about 
Rossetti that wo will not do more than refer to It. But it U 
only fair to recall tho graceful way in which Mr. Boehaiuii 
made peace the yoiir licforo Rossctti's de;ith in the " Dedication 
to an old Enemy " of his novel " God and tho Man." 
I woidd have snatclietl a bay lonf from thy brow. 

Wronging the cliaplot on an honoured head ; 
In peace and tenderness I bring thee now 

A lily flower instead. 
Pure as thy purpose, blameless aa thy songt 
Sweet as thy spirit, may this offering be ; 
Forget tho !■ 'no that did thoe wrong, 

And take ; .n>m me. 

After Rossctti's death Mr. Buchanan wrote that thoogh 

liossotti's namo did not ap|>ear iu the dedication, as it woold 

certainly have done had he poasosscd more moral courage, it 

was a melancholy pleasure to himself to reflect that Boaietti 

had understood the dedJontion and accepted it in the tpirit in 

which it was offered. 

  • • 

We congratulate Miss Jane Harrison on her appointment to 

a fellowship of Newnham College, and we also eongratolate 

Newnham. The value and imiwrtancc of Miss Harrison's 

contributions to archieolojty arc undisputed ; and we have no 

doubt that she will render further nrvioes to that science now 

that her restmrches are, in a •.<'iw<», piuLiwiwl. 

• * 

The Students' ' • wi 

compri^rf-d fifty deb .. i . : ; . • . to 

the Sorbonne their various costumes looked most picturesque. 
First came the Parisians, most of them wearing their black 
velvet Tain o' Shanter, with its tri-colonred cord, and carrying 
banners. Tho Belgian reprcsentiitives of the var: ,••» 

followed, then tho delegates from Bohemia, Irom Engl.... , . jiJ, 
Cambridge and Edinburgh being w?ll represented), and from 
Spain. Greece, Italy, Holland, Sweden, America, SwitaerUad, 
Hungary (tho Hungarian delegates magnificently arrayed In 
velvet knee-breeches and embroidered cloaks), Finland, Russia, 
Australia, and Egypt. Tho r. 'fives of the varioos 

French Universities wore a s;i lie arms or ooloars oC 

their towns or cities. In the evening Madame Sarah Bernhardt 
gave a free performance of L'Aiglon, in honour of the students, 
and was presented with a bouquet. On leaving the theatre 
her carriage was accompanie<l by tho procession, most of the 

students carrying Chinese lanterns. 

« • » • 

The copyright in Balzac's works expires to-day. It I* * 

gootl illustration of tho ct»iteatioa which hu tat«Iy 



110 



LITERATURE. 



[Augxist 18, 1900. 



CBphaaiapd bj Mr. hutg and other prcmiinciit aion of lottcra 
tk«t in the eaae of men of nenins thoir xn^rk is likely to be at 
tb« MAith of its rcputatinn vrhon thoir |>m|H<rty in it comes to 
an «nd. Xercr, pcrhaiw, fiinco he flmt ina<Io n name nt nil has 
Balno'a fkme stood hif;hor than it do(«s to-day. As M. Boiirfjet 
writaa In this months nmnlior nt ^^un*rlJ'» Mngarinr, lM>th tho 
aelMWia b e t wee u which KnMioh flotion hns OM>ill»to<l thro(i);h Iho 
p<>ntunr aolaM>«rled(^> Rtlxac. From one jxiiiit of view there is 
no more chatneteristio fruit of French romantieism than BaJKac ; 
yet it is from Balcio that all tho greater Frejich " roiiliNt.s " 
have sprung. His faiilt.s are not less oonspii-uous than thoy 
were to earlier eritics ; but at tho distance we have since 
traTellod we get a truer measure of the bulk of the man com- 
pared with his former, if often more faultless, contemporaries. 
The Socit^te ilea Gens de Lettres a little while ajto threatened 
to boycott tho theatres which should refuse to pay tho theatrical 
dues on Balzac's works after the expiration of the copyright. 
Baa any analogous step been taken with regard to tho purely 
literary work, which one would supijoso to be of greater 
moment ? .\t any rate the Arm of Calmaun Ijovy, the owners of 
the copyright, are preparing for ttie crisis by issuing a new 

edition. 

• • « « 

The aiitnmn season at the theatres begins next week when 
one of two Nell Gwyn plays will see the light. This will 1ms 
the adaptation of Mr. Anthony Hope's .Simon Dalr, made by 
himself and Mr. Edward Rose who was so successful in drama- 
tizing TJif Prisoner of Zcnda. ^\^len ^f r. ITojw made a play out 
of Rupert of Hentzau by himself unaided, he came near failing 
altogether. The piece will Ik? called KtigUnh AVI/. Why it 
ahoold so Ije calletl, it would l)e difllcult to say. Nell Gwyn 
waa never known as " Fnglish Nell " any more than she was 
known as Street Sell of Old Drttry, which Is the title of tho play 
on the same snbject that Miss Jalia Neilson produces at tho 
Hajmarket about the end of the month. Plays must be named 
and the toak of finding names is hard. But it seems a pity to 
give misleading titles to dramas centred round historical 
characters. 

• • • • 

Mr. Alexander starts at the St. James's Theatre on 
September 1 with A Debt of Honour, an enlargement by Mr. 
Gmndy of his one-act piece In Honour Bound. Nothing is said 
about the probable date of tho production of Paolo and Frrtiircscn. 
Mr. Tree, however, seems more in earnest aljout TTcrod tlie King, 
tho other play by Mr. Stephen Phillips which is awaiting per- 
formance. N' ■-spoken of as the likely month for this 
interesting <■ Tho fact is Mr. Tree has a part .after 
his owTi heart, while Mr. Alexander would scarcely bo a success 
as Paolo. But the elder brother would offer Mr. Alexander fine 
chances and suit his stylo well. Even then, however, there is 
a diiDcnIty about the Francesca. 

• « *  

Mr. JuKticc Day's questions " Who is Sherlock Holmes ?" 
and ** Who Is C'onan Doyle ?" arc the more interesting from the 
fact that her Majesty's .Judges are generally reputed to Ije 
great readers of contemporary Action. The anecdotes show them 
•eeking information from learmsl counsel al)out skirt dancers and 
racehorses, more often than al>out tho luminaries of tho literary 
)M>mi«ph«>re. At all events the ignorance of Mr. .Justice Day 
ith tho up-to-dato knowledgi- shown by 
. whoso death wo have to deplore, in a 
case in which Mr. a. U. Sims was called as a witness. " You 
are, I Ijclieve, ' Dagonet,' of tho Referee T " was the question 
with which Lord Russell of Killox\'cn set that distinguished man 
of lettM*! at bis ease. 

• • • • 

In anothe r eolnmn we are reviewing Mr. Henley's patriotic 
poMna. In the current NintteenOi Century there is an a<lmirablo 
Mirvcy of tho patriotic poetry of tho Victorian Era by Mr. 
.1. A. R. Marriott. It began, as we are a little apt to forget, 
with Tennyson, aa a protest against Cobdcniam. A Cobdeoito 



suggestion that Canada might just as well be independent roused 
Tennyson to vehement indignation : — 

.\nd that true North, whereof we lately heard 
A strain to shame us, ki>ep you to yoursj-lvos : 
So loyal is too costly ! friends, your love 
Is but a burthen : loose the bond, and go.' 
Is this the tone of eni])ire ? hero the faith 
That made its rulers ? this, indeed, her voico 
.Knd meaning, whom the roar of Hougoumont 
Left mightest of all i)eople8 under heaven ? 
What shock hath fooled her since, that she should speak 
So feebly 7 Wealthier — wealthier — hour by hour I 
The voice of Britain, or a sinking land. 
Some thirtl-rate isle half-lost among her seas ? 
« • • * 

This is the " Imperial note," but, as Mr. Marriott points 
out, it is not quite the same Imperial note that is sounded by 
Mr. Kipling. Ix)rd Tennyson's Imperialism is instinctive ; Mr. 
Kipling's is reflective. The main idea in Tennyson Is that " it 
is a mugniflcent thing to be an Englishman " ; ho dwells upon 
" the glory and the glitter, the sparkle nnd the splendour, tlio 
I)omp and pride of empire." Mr. Kipling realizes these things, 
but also realizes tho responsibilities of Empire, and " tho idea 
of the possibilities it opens for service to mankind." Tho poems 
which occur to every one in illustration of this statement are 
" The Recessional " and " Tho White Man's Burden." But 
the same thought is pi-esent in earlier ix>cmis, as in the linos : — 

Fair is our lot, and goodly is our heritage, 

Humble ye, my people, and be fearful in your mirth, 

For the Lord our God most high. 

He liuth made the deep as dry, 
He hath smote for us a pathway to the ends of all the earth. 

Yea, though we sinned, and our rulers went from righteousness. 
Deep in all dishonour though we stained our garment's hem. 
Oh, be ye not dismayed, though we stumbled and we strayed. 
We were led by evil counsellors, the Lord shall deal with them. 
» * « • 

Kipling was not the first to write a fine hymn before action. 
Among the many patriotic passages scattered up and down 
Shakespeare's historical plays there is Henry V.'s prayer before 
liattle, which is quoted in Mr. J. L. Etty's study of that play 
in the current Macmillan : — 

Oh ! God of battles steel my soldiers' hearts ; 

Possess them not with fear ; 

Take from them now 

The sense of reckoning, if the opposing numbers 

Pluck their hearts from them. 

• » * » 

The miin j)urposo of Mr. Etty's article, however, is not to 
illustnitfl patriotic jKietry, but to vindicate Shakespeare's 
characteri/.;itiou. Shakespeare's conception of Henry V.'s 
character has been questioned as unhistorical, and for this 
reason. 

It is possible to prove from State documents that Princo 
Henry was in command of the forces on tho Welsh border at 
the time when, according to Shakespeare, he must have been 
living a life of riotous extravagance in London, and that ho 
was a valued member of the Council at the time when he 
is accused of striking Judge Gascoignc in Court. 

Seeing that Shakespeare was writing a drama nnd not a 
history these little inconsistencies do not matter. It may 
nevertheless be true, in spito of them, that Henry V. lived 
riotf)Usly in his youth, l)Ut reformed himself when responsibili- 
t ii's impressed him ; and Mr. J'ltt.y maintains that Shakespeare 
liadows the future Iviiig Henry V. in his treatment of 
! -. Princo Hal. He builds up his case with quotations 

from Henry IV., and concludes thus : — 

There is at least no inconsistency between the Prince, 
whoM excessive vitality in youth must find its vent in cxtrava- 



August 18, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



lU 



gnat picn.surcs, and tho KiiiK, whow dUiH-nibuiuliirit fnorny 
hurrivM him into an uniniual wor witli Franco, uiiwlentillcally 
carried out to a mofit »iifcc>»tiful Issue, nor lM«twc<>n tho 
enthusiasm for cxpcrlnnoo in youth and tho idoalistic detarh- 
mont of satistli'd manhood. Tho ascvtlc, somowhat narrow- 
mindo<l KinK H«Miry tho Fifth of tho pii-turo in tho National 
Portrait Oallory is tho siimc man as tho glorious youn^ Princo 
In golden armr>iu- in tlu> hall of Qucvn's Collcfto, Oxfonl, tho 
Princo of whom the rolnd Vernon cries : — 

I !mw youuK Harry, with his Jjcaver on. 
His cuisM's on his thi|;hs, gallantly arm'd. 
Uiso from tho ground like foatlior'd Morciiry, 
And vaullod with sui-h ous<t into his soat. 
As If an aiijccl ilropp'd ilown from the clouds. 
To turn and wind a lli-ry Po;;asus 
And witch the world with noble horsomanshlp. 



An interostiuK American explanation of literary " Ikkiuis " 
la citwl and analysinl in tho Dailu (iivijidiV. " Difluse«l hypnotic, 
uuggestion " is tho formula by nu-ans of which the philosopher 
over tho water endeavours to account for the way in which the 
public rush with one accord to l)uy a i>articular novel when tho 
Htern eyo of the critic is unable to si-<> any pnrticidar iHtints 
about that novel dill«'rent from any other novel. The explana- 
tion, however, ri>ally explains iiotliiuK, but merely raises tho 
further (luestion. Who dm-s the liypnotixiuK '' A- hypnotist who 
could specialize in this direction and show tan;;ible r«^nlls 
would bo able to cmnmaiul far hifthcr f<vs than do the hypnotists 
who merely sucRcst to drunkards that they slioidd (ti^o ii|) 
drinking and to idle boys that th<'y slioidd try to learn their 
lessons. Tho theory, in fact, is pretty much on a level with tho 
fashionable theory derided by Mr. Percy White in " Tho West 
End " that it is tho f.iithhealcrs who make the leaders of 8m:u-t 
society look younger than they are. 



More Interest iiiK, however, than tho " liooms " which occnr 
tinnceountably are the lM)oms which are obviously enpine«'red liy 
" boomsters " ; and tlm most intereslinft feature of these is 
tho manner in which tho " boom " is often help<Hl alon^ by 
considerations which have nothing whatever to do with tho 
literary nieiit of the lM>ok. Xot every author has tho stroijtht- 
forward candour of the popular novelist who sent for an inter- 
viewer, showetl him a manuscript, or a bundle of proof-sheets, 
and frankly announced. " This is a colossal work." More often 
tho author, or some one actiu); on his behalf, endeavours to 
awaken an inteii'st in his compositions by means of purely 
irrelevant [R^rsonal or biof;ra|ihical details. " Yes, your hair 
will do," was the answer of an American impressario to an 
English poot, who had asked him to arrange for him to deliver 
a course of literary lectures in the United States. And now wo 
find an American publisher issuing a " puff pn-Iiininary " of a 
new novelist in which he claims a hearing for his client on tho 
ground that he decided to " try his hand " at writing " after 
a year's cxiH-ricnco as corresponding secretary of a sash and 
door manufacturing concern." One has only to iniagino tho 
process inverted and a tradesman pulling his wares with 
tho announcement that, after a year's experience as novelist, 
ho had resolved to try his hand at making doors, in onh-r 
to realize tho cynical contempt of the boomster for tho 
reading public. 
 

It woultl 1h> ovi*r ^ang■lul'.(^ iiuv.i'ver, to ini:i^inf lii.ii \m- 
havo yet heard tho dcriiicr cri of tho .advertising author. Ono 
of these days wo shall wake up to road the annoiinceiuont that 
Mr. So-and-So will write tho last chapter of liis groat novel in a 
shop window in Kegout-strcet. .\.nd, when this is done, tho 
public will never suspect that tho man who do.es it is a 
charlatan. They will, on the contrary, be filled with admiration 
for tho nobility of character of the man who aibnits them to his 
lUorary workshop and docs not charge gate-money. 



ApmiKwof tho St range lit Id) of inok*, o( wbiclli 

BppOniHMl !m f it.-nit iin' 1i«r \M.«'L-, :i i-. .m.«IMffultf>ni ■tf*nflfl Ihik 

following : 

Blasitit ' • ou M? viiyciil li 

veiuint ih<H <l uC Junmis boniinv U' 

ni fenano plu-i pudii|u<-. 

Tho author of tho wi>rk thu<i <|uainlly <' 

(tuilhiuino Pnrndin, Dean of Benujeu, anil aulb»r . 

dt- .Savoye," which contains the earliest known u<->' rijn .■•u <>« 

the Savoy glaciers. 



The Dill/!/ .Vi-ir* glve?« publicity to tho complaint .. 1- 

roading correspondent that tho heroiiMn of Hctiim »ro de- 
teriorating. They are, «ve aro amurcU, st oooo 
Dhagreeable less lM>autiful, less lovable, ond \cm Udy-Uke 
Heroiiieh. thon they wed to be. It l« a swcopinu generall- 
7jition ; and wo fancy it could cmly l»e sapportod 
from tho works of lady novelists. In Knglish Action, at all 
events, wo know plenty of male novclistn wbo pcr«i«t ia making 
their heroines charming, sometinios in new ways, bat often in 
oltl-fashioned wsiys. Sir Walter R-snnt's bcroincn, for example, 
aro always charming — .s<i charming, Indeinl, that tho world ba» 
continmsl to welc<mio them for twvnty or thirty yoara without 
nnirmuring becaus«! they aro all exactly alike. Mr. Hartly's 
"Tess" was also charming --much more charming, in fact, tlian 
any real dairymaid wonid probably Ikj found to bt: .\nd wh"> 
shall s;iy that Dolly (of tho Dialogues) or Phyllis (ol Philistia) 
were not charming 'i Indeed, it is tho general custom of the 
masculine novelist to make good women charming because he 
likes them better so, and to make fniil women fair iKNJausc their 
fairness helps to make their frailty cxplicalde. Where ho doe* 
not do so, the fault is more often in execution than in intention. 
Ontheotherhand.it cannot Imj denied that tho mo«lcrn lady 
novelist has ac<|uiri><l rathi-r a habit of ilrawing heroines who 
arc either ugly, or di.sagree-.ible, or Iwth ; ami it w»>uUl be 
interesting to discover why. It would Ije ungiillant to seek the 
explanation in tho fact, if it Iki a fact, that they know their own 
sex so much In'tter than men know it, and wi«h to show as 
what realism rejilly is. Tho phenomenon is more prol>Bbly ot 
the nature of a reaction, or rather of a revolt. Clever women 
resenle<l tho idejilis:ition of the insipid woman alike by Thackeray 
and by Miss Austen. They ttK)k to novel-writing in tile true 
missionary spirit, and deliUTUtely gave the Itrnu rile to women 
of a different and, as they de<'me«l, a higher typo. If they 
made their heroines physically ugly, it was for the purpoae oC 
eoncentr.iting the attentitm of tho reader on nd 

intellectual l>eanties. If they inatle them di- is 

because they wantixl combative and aggressive hen>ini-» in order 
to prove their |)oints. Tin- revolt may Ik- siiid to have befcnu 
with Miss lihotla Brtmghton and Miss Helen Mathers, who 
ideali7AHl tho hoyden. Wo rather liki-il those hoydens, and wu 
do not complain. Whatever their faults, and however pro- 
nouncetl their addiction to being misunderstood, they wtre not 
continually trying to show how clever they were, or under- 
taking to demonstnite that theirs w-js fli- ' r sex. Tho 
nKxIern lady novelist, with exceptions, is r  •• do both 
these things. Sometimes, as in t; .Mi.-v:. Fowler, &he U 
anxious to prove that women can .nlly ; and then she 
is apt to mako them talk rather more brilliantly t i- 
sisteut with good manners. Sometimr-i -he wishes t'> il 
woman is tho moral sui>erior of an ~ not encourage 
her to neglect her household "'lU' ->sc of address- 
ing public meetings on subjc fret! ansuitable 

for mixed audienct>s ; and are apt to be 

IKHlantic and aggressive. There Is, of course, no reason why 
lady novelists should not establish both these theses in •'■• 
novels if they can and care to. The end may justify the 
But, if wo may judge by the results so far a. 
disagr<>eable heroine is a me-.ins wthont which t 

bo achieved. 

13-2 



112 



LITERATURE. 



[August 18, 1900. 



BY THE SEA. 

  

Daep calls to deep. Tho azure oC the sky 

Call'd to thp il<»op bIiK» net. 
And, lUt'niiiR to thoir riarion voicos, I 

O'erlioaH a o.ill to mo. 
Not then tlio alioii clamour of the mart 

Deafen 'd tho Inn-nrd onr; 
I w«« mibdiHM) to nat«r«>. and my heart 

Grew aenaitive to hear. 

My feeble tl:' <• fait 'ring mist, w^as fused 

In the f;i' I hat shone; 

It vma not only 1 who stotxl and mused. 

Though I stooil there alone, 
Bat spirits n>ache«l thoir hands up from the deep, 

Or f«ll on quivering wings. 
And I wan viKite<I liy Death and Sleep, 

And jMit off mortal things. 

Oat of th« lusom of the sea aroae 

The Patience of the sea, — 
She bade me live, nut by the good I chose, 

But by the goo<l for nie. 
And Peace desc<'n<le<l from his high abode. 

Till, in that hour sert-no. 
To Peace and Paticnco I transfcrr'd my load, 

On their twin str<>ngth to lean. 

LAURIE MAGNUS. 



personal IMcws. 

—  — 

A HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

The completion of the great " History of French Language 
rind Literature," published under the direction of Professor L. 
I'ltit do .lulU'villc, cannot but awaken in Knglish readers a 
^ ii-o of onr own deOcicncy. Nearly three hundred years have 
ii:i---j'd since B:icon noted as a gap in studies the vacant space 
wtiich v)i<,nld have l>een occupied by a description of tho general 
^t:it<- (if 1. m age to age, "without which tho history 

1 f ttif w.. li to mo to 1)0 as the statue of Polyphemus 

with his eye out, that part being wanting which doth most shew 
(he spirit and life of tho person." The history of what Goethe 
f .lUi'd " world-literature," attempted in part by Ilallam, is a 
l>roject too ambitious for an age when the conception of world- 
literature embraces the East as well as the West; but it does 
not se<in vain to hope that what has been achieved for France 
may, by nniti-d and wiMdy-dirivtetl effort, he accomplishfxl for 
<jur own country. During upwards of three years a fasciculus 
of M. Petit de Jullerille's work has appeared on the Ofth and 
■'•twentieth of e.ich month, and now the final volume — tho 
• ^•itli — has brought the work to a conclusion. The story of a 
litentare of nine eentarics has been told with adoqoa to learning, 
excellent Judgment, and literary skill. " I thank the public," 
writes tho general editor, " for the reception it has accor<led to 
our work. At a time when commonly l>ooks find a smaller numlK-r 
cif readors In projiortion to their bulk, this has been read ; and it 
hM quickly gained a position of antliority. To my /.calous fellow- 
laboarem tho honour U due. Their special com|>etcnce in tho 
•ercral matt4>rs with which they have de.tlt constitutes tho 
originality of tho work ; their good understanding has ensured its 
unity, in so far aw unity is possible." T' i- has modestly 

passed over what was of capital iini his own wise 

t Iiuning of the whole, his choice of competent workmen, the 
trectioro which he granted, and the control which he exercised. 



If I were a great publisher instead of a poor professor of 
Knglish literature I think I should Ixs stirred to emulation by 
the success of M>L Armand Colin et Cie.'s enterprise, and 
should feel some pride in celebrating tho o|)ening of the 
twentieth century by the design of an adequate history of 
Knglish litenture. Compared with such vast co-operative 
labours as the " Encydopn-dia Britannica," the "Dictionary of 
National Biography," the " New English Dictionary on His- 
torical Principles," the undertaking would not seem 8tujv'ndou!<. 
Valuable as arc tho chapt«>rs on tho history of the language in 
M. Petit de .luUeville's work, corre«|K>ndinK chapters might 
jierhaps be omitted from a history of our literature, and thus tho 
task might bo somewhat lightened. One comprehensive mind 
should preside over the whole, the mind rather of a man of wide 
culture and sane judgment than of a spocialist. The name of a 
general e<litor under whom it would be an honour to serve, 
nnd whose generous guidance to men of letters has been recorded 
in a hundred prefaces, will, perhaps, occur to my readers. The 
list of M. Petit do JuUevillo's collabunvtevirs comprises fifty 
scholars of distinction. England, aided by American and 
Colonial scholarship, might yield an equal nuinlM>r of skilled 
workmen, and the disbanded army of writers for the " Dic- 
tionary of National Biography " would furnish not a few who 
have received an admirable training. No division of the work 
so largo as a literary period should Imj entrusted to a single 
writer. Each eminent author should lie dealt with by a 
specialist, and by a s|)ecialist who iwssesses literary feeling as 
well as exact knowledge. Minor writers should be grouped 
under tho literary species to which they belong. It is true, aa 
M. Petit de .Tnlleville observes, that such a classiflcation is 
sometimes arbitrary or conventional ; a WTiter of comedy may 
1x! really a preacher of morals with tho stage for his pulpit ; but 
the classification is inevitable and is convenient. What is dead 
should l>c allowed to remain buried, unless it liappen to have 
some historical significance ; a history of literature must not 
become a museum of curiosities. 

The conception of literature should, however, be liberal. I 
romemlK-r that I excited some indignation many yi-ars ago by 
protesting against what I called " the belles4ettre» heresy " ; 
but I remain still of my old opinion. To write a history ot 
literature, as I understand it, is to trace the stream of the 
national mind as seen in books — not meroly books that fall under 
the head of brUes-lcttreg, but all living liooks that have in them 
at once something personal to the writer and something common 
to tho general heart and mind of man. " The study of litera- 
ture " — I ask pardon tor quoting Iroui my lorimr s<'lf — " is not a 
study solely ol what is graceful, attractive, and ))leasure-giving 
in iKioks ; it attempts to undorstAiul the great thoughts of the 
great thinkers." And, desiring to put my view in a somewhat 
aggressive form, I went on : — " To know Greek literature wo 
must know Aristotle ; to know French lit4.^rature wo must know 
Descartes, lu English lit<'raturo of the eighteenth century, 
Berkeley and Butler and Hume are greater names than Gr.iy 
and Collins." I do not mean merely that the study of sjx^cula- 
tivo or philosophical literature indirectly throws light ui)on the 
literature of imagination in the same period. It is obviotu that 
St. Thomas had no small hand in tho wonderful structure which 
we name "The Divine Come<ly"; that to understand Pojhj aright 
we must know something ol the philosophical views of Shaitcs- 
bury and Bolingbroke ; that to comprehend tho thonght of 
Shelley wo must examine It in si(«, that is, in the "Political 
.Justice" of his master, William Godwin. But I go farther than 
this, and maintain that a body of ]ihilusophical thought, largely 



August 18, 1900.] 



UTEttlTrf?r. 



1 1 a 



(l«TJvoU from mid coIiuimmI liy tlio !• "':>■ of iU aullior, 

iiiUNt uo<hIh Imi itii-lutlcil iiiidtT tbc I- ' aiirt-. Indcvtl, I 

^vondo^ that it in not fc^^iii'iiilly |)orovi\'Cd tbat not a few Hyutt'nifi 
I'f hiiiimii philoHophy apo in tho trnciit dOiiHo worjcn of art — 
Npiritiiiil tomplivs or ciitlicdruls in wlilc-b men's lilglic^t (liou(;lits 
.111(1 iispirnt ions (Ind (>xj>rc'Hsiou iind And Hheltor ; they the liico 
ijiiii^Ntii- I'Nlmlutionx, 

With tho sound 
Of diilfct symphotiics and voices »wi'«t ; 

and Komctimos, like oxlinlatiims, thi'V hooonic tho sport of winds 
of cliangi'. 

One ^'llill:ll>U* aid lo mihIv, wim-li iia*-. Ix-eii put to use iiy 
M. IVtit i\r Jnllcvillo, and, in his recent " History of French 
Lilenitnro," I)y M. FaKiiet, lies In jiictorial illustrations. They 
must, of courHo, lie of historical authority and faithfid in e\ecu- 
■tloii, Gortnan students of litoratnru are even more liiwrally 
tau((ht through tho eye than French ; but as yet little In this 
Uind has Imh'u done in our own country. In the New Hi{;h 
School, Nowtonvillo, an Anu>rican teacher, Mr. A. J. Georjfo, 
has an " Kn^lish Uoom," devoted to the pictorial Ulustrntion of 
our literature. Authentic jwrtralts, pictures of localities 
associated with great writers, reprotluctlons from tlluiiiinMted 
manuscripts (where tho grace or tho naiivet«5 of the design 
illustrates like qualities in the text), facsimiles of title-pages, 
contemporary illustrations from books in which eminent 
<'iigravors had ii ])art, pictures of tlie stage at various immIikIs 
with it« characters and its costumes — all these (and the list 
could be enlarged) bring the history of literature nearer to us, 
and render it more living for our imagination, whether we lie 
young readers or old. Only they must be kept In sniKiitIi nation 
■So what is of liighcr import, and be viewed not ns an end in 
themselves, but as means to an end. 

KDWAKD DOWDKN. 



NEW LIGHT ON SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 



II. 

Next to Ironside's " relai-ion " of the theological di'bato at 
SlrtleorgeTronchurirs — descrll)e<l in the first (wrtof this article 
— the most important of the dispositions atC'erno is thatof Nicholas 
Jeflerys, parson of Weeke liegis.who relates a sad ex|>orieuoo: — 
" Some three years pastti coming toBlanfordu out of Hampsh<4re, 
Iiis horse was stayed and taken for a jioste horse by Sir W. Kawleigh 
and Mr.Careweliawloigli; where this Dejjonent en treat Inge to have 
his horse released, for that he was to ride home unto his charge 
(from whence he had ben some time absent) to preach the next 
day iK.'ing Sundaye— Mr. t'arowo Kawleigh re))lyed that he 
might g>K! homo where he woulde, but his horse shoulde preach 
befoi-e him or to that e(Iect<'." How tho worthy jiarson must 
have enjoyed at last having his revenge by pouring tho talo 
into tho sympathetic ears of tho Commissioners ' Jefferys also 
states that ho has heard of Harriott having been " convented 
before the Lords of the C'ounsell for donyinge the resurrecion of 
tho bo<lyo." This is imiK^rtaut, for it is tho Orst allusion yet 
found to an appearance of Harriott before tho Privy Council 
to answer tho charges made against him at tho tiino of Marlowe's 
arrest. 

There is another member of Kaleigh's retinue about 
whom we hear — a Thomas .\lleii. Lieutenant of Portland Castle. 
He is probably to bo identitieil with Thomas Allen, tho dis- 
tinguished s<n<aiif, a Fellow <if Trinity College, Oxford, and an 
associate of Harriott, of whom Fuller relates tliat" he succeeded 
to the skill and scandal of Friar Bacon." Jeftcrys deposes that 
Allen " is a great blasiiliemer and leight esteemer of Keligion, 
and thcrabouts comtlh not to Bovine service or sermons." 



Tob.it't'ii oil " — |M'rliap« 1 

meiit uf tlio nefarious n 

I M-arlett, the iiiiniaUT of HIierlMiriic, ri-lntp* alM'<..:d 

li ly that Allen, " when hu warn a b;i»^'-'"t- ■•• i • 

rayiied," had cried out tliut " if (lud uvre in Uf 

would pull him out with hU tM>Ui." Ar-l 

rejH'ats, also from heanwiy, the still iiH>ro >•■ 

how Allen, " wIhmi hu uus like to il 

make himselfe re<ld,ve to (iiNl for hi* ^ 

" he would carry his aoiile up to 

GimI, and riiiine Uevill, fetch it tl. 

faim> was s|iar<>d, as was connuoii in !■' 

Ullivi'r, to whom is attriliiited a IiIk' I 

crilictMii on the Old T<-stuiiieiit, uttered  

from a sermon in the company of two gixul L. < ; 

wh<.>reat, we are informed, " their eares did glowc," and ooe of 

them told him to " gov home uud uluep." 

What inferences may we draw from the " rxamiiiaf'. • ■."? 
First, we may conclude from the Milence of all the 
on the snbj««ct that even popular rumour did iiof 
Haleigh's " .\thciimi " with tho revolutionary prillti- 
altribiit«'d t<i Hichard Chomeley and his oonfeder.i' 
wv may diiuiiss more eonflileiitly than l>i-fon> th< 
gations made against Marlowe, Harriott, and ' 
of Ualeigh's circle. For in the report of the •• . 
we see side by side, In instructive ' 
and authentic |)ersoiial testimony, 
facts the mort! favourable in the liglit in which I 
friends a|i|)ear. Iroiisidi^'s narrative t<'aclies us li 
the charge against Sir Walter of ke<*ping " a school of Athe . ' 
at his house. Clearly the scholars who g.ithered thef -■ I 
by the Kenaissancc Hp<-culativo Impulse, were wont t I 

things — to test by stringent dialwtic the : 
lions. The " Atheist lecture " read by 
was thus probably a chiwly reav 
form of religious first iirinciples. 

Iliids utterance in the opening sci iic of llie di'a;t..»visl'a Uf, 
l''iiu»lu» : — 

Settle thy studies. Fanstus, and iM'gin 

To sound the depth of that thou wilt profi-s-s ; 

Having coinineiiced, be a divine in show, 

Yet level at the end of every art. 

And live and die in Aristoth^'s \vork>. 

Sweet .\imlytics, 'tis thou hast ravishf<l iii<'. 

For Kaleigh and his brother Cir.v ♦liK kiml > f th<vi1<->c!'-al 
disciissimi seems to have had eoi f 

Sir Walter not long after the " ex ^ 

up all night to discuss rellgioU!< topics with a .lesnit. A: 
John Harington, writing In UHK), says of him that " in r«-;.«.. .. 
he hath shown in privnt«r talk great depth and good reading, aa I 
once ex|)eriencetl at his own house Iwfore many learned ir -" 
The words might l)e applie<l to the disputation at Sir (• 
Trenchartl's. 

It is easy to sec how " the common voice of the con; 
would label ISaleigh and his circle as .\tlieisfs. Bi 
jecting so crude a designation, one has to admit the <i 
reconciling the scepti<-al |>osition adopleil by Sir W. 
dialogue with Ironside with the orlluHlox tone of his j.... 
works. Kaleigh in his " History of the World " draws 1. 
upon the St-riptural narrative .is one of hi- ' 

who had told Ironside that he could not " 1 
God Is " thus elociueutly in the same work Ucisviibi.: U12 :.un- 
butes : — 

" God whom the wisest men acknowledge to be a p 
uneflable, and virtue infinite; a light by abi!"'< '" • 
invisible ; an onderstandiiig which itaelf can onl. 
an essence eternal and spiritual, of absolute p.. 
simplicity, was and is plcusctl to make himself kit' 
work of I lie world; In the wonderful magnitude wiktc 1 u>i 



114 



LITERATURE. 



[August 18, 1900. 



i«%k>h ho cmbraccth, flileth, and Mn^taincth) wo Imliold tho imnico 
«( that glory which rannot bo mcaxiircd, and withal that one 
mad nniTcir<<al natiiro whirh r.iiinot bo dofliiod." 

IVMsibly thcMo ronrludiiij^ vxinlN throw li;;ht on thodifflonlty. 
lo Uw diapatetion at V° ' . and doul)tlt>H<( on othor occa- 

sAms, lUMgh «•• I'hici' kmI with thn critical unalyoi!< of 

■oraptod " dofinitions " o( irlij;ii)ii'. <••■■ But in an ago 

I did not puth their s|Mvnla( i ' is to their losioal 

• httMMy linvo acropttwi on fnith beliofs for which he 
found innSeient warrant in tlio |)roco!<s«'H of tlu> reason alone. 
One would like to know the full si;;ni(lcanee of an admi.ssion by 
ooeottho de]Mnents at CVrno that "ho heartle ISfr. Carewo 
ICalpigh cayo at Oillinsham tliero was a Owl in natnn»." And 
if " A Trcatiao of the Soul." printtnl amouK Sir Walter's works 
from a MS. in tho Ashniolean, lie authentic, we And tho 
•Mptical inquirer of the OxfortI and th<> Slierliorne days 
dMtonstratinc in detail by quotations from Si-ri|iture and tho 
Fathers the nature of man's soul, and crying shamo on thoso 
'* who hare called the souls of women into qui-stion." 

But whatever view is taken ou tho complex subject of 
Kaleigh's innermost religious l»eliets, tlie "examinations" at 
C-crne — alxtvo all Ironside's " relacion " — thnnv fresh lijfht on 
bis biography. An<l one |K)int, in concliLsion, deserves notico. 
As far as we arc axiiire. no action was taken as a result of tho 
investigations. But lialeigh must have known of the in(|uiry, 
»nd his mettlosonic nature doubtless chafiMl at the alTront of his 
table-t.nlk amoti;; friends b<'ing rigorously sift4Hl. The souse that 
even in his Wot-counti-y retreat he was not safe fi-om pryiufj 
e.vos and ears must have i|uicken«l his longint; to set sail 
" tnwnrds the sunset." And so within a year he was afloat on 
^h main, with his s|icculative euergies divorte«l for tho 
< 1 tho search for metaphysical tlrst principles to the 

quest of the e<|ually intan;;ible, but more illusory entity, tho 
labletl gold of the Empire of Uniana. 

FREDEUICK S. BOAS. 



THE REAL PRISONER OF CHILLON. 



|Bv FRAXCIS GKIBBLG] 

Ono is apt to think of Francois do Bonivard, Prisoner of 
Cfaillon, merely as the man who was chained to the pillar on 
\ 'l«?rn tourists are forbiddi-n to scratch their names 

I n of pros<'cution with the utmost rigour of tho law. 

-•*> I  :..ffi.' he was a much more coniplica till character, 

■•■•'•'' ' 1-1 II- Ixii-r claims to Ik- reuiemix'red. Ho was a i)rior 
(tli"uuhnot in Holy Order.) who owctl his income to eccle- 
hi;.>ticj| abuses ; ho was tho father of history in ?'rcnch 
.Suiizerland — tho father of lies also, according to certain of his 
critics ; and he was the typical ensy-going man whom tho stern 
(I' .rlplino of Calvin put to inconvenience. Jt is worth while, 
' 'f his imprisonnu'iit, and, locking at him 

' ■■', enih-avour to see him as he really was. 

t>l Ills (n-if(.iiii.iiict.-!> as a prior wo can say little becaust! we 
1 f -<  iie\f to nothing. We only know of his making one new 
' 'ic lM'tt<-r government of the priory— a ruh- to the effect 

' i-'ver a new monk was admitt<><I to the piivileges of 

I >Thood he Hhould |Kiy his fiM>ting by inviting all the other 

1 - to sDpiier. Shortly after ho had made that rule he was 

\ .Id fill a country roiid by an eccI<>siaNtic who threjiton<>d to 
1 '-r him unless ho i«ubscrilje<l a lUssl assigning the iM-neHco 
t .. This B<mivard did; but a little later w«! Und him hiring 

I • .1 of iiH-rcenarics an '  a private war in the hope of 

.v^ the )M'neflc<- In. ilis commanfler-lii-ehlef was a 

, wlio ha<I fle<l from Berne lj<>caUHe 

il made it illegal for mistresses to 

' ; the MH<ond in conunand was ,i Canon 

"> 'I friar. The campaign, however, was 

•ill and Inglorious, and wtj need not dwell upon this 

1 111' viibjecf. 

•' "T** during the sis years of his eonflnement (from 

IXJO ... ....... that Boiiivard discovered his litorar%- abilities. 



At all events, it Is not known that he wrote anything before hts 
imprisonment, and he has himself told us that ho occupied him- 
self at Chillou with the eom|>osition ol " any number of trifling 
fancies an<l ballads in lK)th French and Latin." One of these 
was a lam|x>on on tho Duke of Savoy, who had looked him up, 
conchuling with the striking couplet- 
All honest men he d(K>s confine, 
^ But asks dishonest men to dine. 

Tho poem was not a work of genius, but it was calculated to 
give pleasure to the author's fellow citizens. When they 
«l<H-iile«l that the history of the city should l>o written, they gave 
Boiiivartl the post of ofllcial chronicler ; and the IJegisler ot the 
Council gives us several iiiterostiug glimpses of the historian at 
work. 

The first entry, October, 1542, is merely to tho effect that 
" FrjinQois do Bonivartl is ordered to work at tho Chronicles of 
the Town." It appears side by side with an intimation that 
Calvin is to Ije pi>esented with a cask of wino in consideration 
of his public st'rvices. The second entry, .lune, 1,'>4<!, records 
that " a lx>x of sw(>etnieats is to lie given to Frani.'ois do 
Bonivard, who is working at tho Chronicles, and his servant, 
who writes at his dictation, is to Ixi given a pair of boots." It 
jostles a resolution to the effect that, as Farel, tho Ueformor, 
is more shabbily tlressod than bi»comos a minister of the Word, 
li«) shall Ik! presented with a new suit of clothes. In 1547 wo 
have this entry : — 

" Fi-an^ois do Bonivard begs the Council to assign him, for 
the coming winter, a room, more convenient than his own house, 
to work in. He cannot, he says, write conveniently, and com- 
l»ose as he should, in tho room in which ho and his family take 
their meals." 

Tho reijuest \\t>s granted. Bonivard was allotted a room 
with a stove in it, and got his lK)ok flnislied in the course of 
15.")2. The question of printing it was referred to Calvin, who 
<leei<led against tho application on the ground that the stylo ol 
the chronicle was inconsistent with tho dignity of history. 
From Calvin's own point of view there was something to bo 
said for tho verdict. Ho was a stylist who WToto tho language of 
tho schools ; Bonivard was no stylist and wrote the language of 
the streets. Ho was the sort of writer to call a spado a shovel, 
ami prefer a homely metaphor to any other. Ho said, for 
instance, that the Dukes of Savoy loved Geneva "as the glutton 
loves a gooil plump fowl " ; and to show his readers how closely 
circuniscrilx><l wei-e tho Genevan territories, ho observed, " Ono 
could hardly spit over the wall without spitting on tho Duko ot 
Savoy." Moreover, when ho wished to mark tho hour of tho 
day at which any event occurrc<l, ho never s|K>ko of it otherwise 
than in its relation to " dinner time " or " supper time." 

One can understand that this sort of thing jarred upon 
Calvin, who had neither apiietite for food nor s<miso of humour, 
and whose own prose stylo was markiNl by classical precision and 
st^vere restraint. It jarred U[K)n him, no doubt, much as tho 
writings of Mr. Kipling jar uixin the English disciples oC 
Flaubert. But Calvin was wrong — misletl by that personal 
e«|nation which misleails so many critics. Ho had no right to 
judge Bonivard's b(H>k by tho classical stanilards of Franco, for 
the go<Hl reason that it was not tho work of a Frenchman, and 
claimed no relation with French literature. It was {Jcnovan, 
racy of tho soil — almost the only, and certainly the best articu- 
late expression of Genevan thought and manners in the days 
iH^foro tho invasion of pastors and |)rofessors had l)egun to break 
down the barriers and make Geneva an intellectual depondeucy 
of France. Moreover, the stylo was the man, as it always is, and 
the man was a man with a sin;;<i!arly acute mind, and a keener 
capacity for i>enetraling so|iliisins and seeing things as they 
n-ally were than any other (Jenevan man of letters ot his |)eriod. 
Calvin, in short, never showiul his limitations more clearly than 
when he forbade the printing of tho Chronicle of Bonivard. 

It was not, however, on questions of literary taslo alone that 
Bonivard's and Calvin's opinions clashed. Qnestlons of conduct 
also came between them; and the study of tho archives shows us- 



Au^'ust i», I'jno.] 



LITERATUllE. 



11^ 



Boiilvard ii|i|)c»riii(; iipiiii anil iif;ii!ii iMtforo tlii« CoiiHiNtory, or 
t'oiirt of I'lccUwliisticiil DlHfiplliut, of whlrli C'nivin «ii« tlio 
inovliif; H|)lrit. Hit* Knivi><it (lolliiqiH'iicy ymn an net of Kiilliintry 
wltli n iiiiiid Horvniit, which rfHiilt«<l in hU Im<1iik forliidilpii to 
havo niiiid HiM-vuiits liviiiK in 111" Ikuimi' ; bnl. tlii'i-o with othiTM. 
On OMo ofuBHion wo Oiid liiin in tmnlili' for phiyliit; lmrkff:iiiiinon 
with ('ii'«ni<>nt Miirot, tliiMintlii>rofthi« first in«trii-al vi-rttiori of tho 
PHiilnis. On another m-casion ho wan acciiM«'«l of iM-iitinjc IiIh 
wifi- ; liut tliix tinii> ho (h-frmlcil liiniHclf sncccssfiijly, proving 
that till- lM>alinK liad lu-i-n doM-rvcd, witli tlio result lh:it it wm 
tho lady wlioni tho iisHoinhlod ininistci's adinoiii->lic<l. Tho 
PXCiiMos which ho olTcroil to a chnrRo of almcntinK hiniwlf from 
church woru Ions aocoptalito ; ho was told that ho had iH'ttor 
Rot Hoino ono to carry him, n.s ho had dono whon ho wont to tim 
town-hall to look at Honio ni>w docorations. Finally ho watt 
found guilty, in spito of Htrcnuons denials, of lum|K>onin(; 
Calvin, and was s<'ntoncod, if Hio roj;isti'rs may lio iH'liovod, 
to riH'<>ivo tho Koly Connniniion hy way of punishniont. 

Saddest of all, however, is tho story of tho int<>rforonoP of 
tho C'on>iislory with tho historian's matrimonial alTairs. At tlio 
nc;o of (H), iH'iu}; then, for tho third time, a widower, ho had 
Kiven shelter in his house to a nun who had lately run away 
from a convent. Tlui Consistory promptly informed him that 
this was contrary to pood morals, and that ho must lairry tho 
ycmnj; woman witlKUit delay. Bonivard objectiMl. }Ii» relations 
with his proli'fii'r, he pleaded, wero Platonic ; his apo and his 
inflrmiHes wero such that they could never be anythinj; liut 
Platonic ; consoi|uontly ho liORped U> l>o cxcnsi-d. Tho minist<>rs 
re])lied that this excnso was frivolous, and that Bonivard's 
iidlrmitios uocmI not hinder him from entorinj; the holy ostiito. 
JI(! yielded to their authority, if not to their Ix-tter Jnili;mont ; 
and tliro(! years later wo llnil his wifo arraigned Ix'l'oro tho 
Consistory on a charpo of infldelity. 

It V11S not Bonivanl who brought tho eharfro. On tho 
pontrary, ho appeared as a witness for tho defence, tostifyinK 
that ho had found nodiiuR to complain of in his wife's conduct, 
except that she had urpiMl him to Ik- more devout than he eare<l 
to Ik>, had tiiuntod liin\ for not i)reaehinK tho (ios|iel, and had 
lH>nton him for invitin:; his friends to droj) in n|>on him and 
drink a class of wine. His evidence, however, did not save hor. 
Her cuilt was proved ; anil, in accordanco with tho cruel custom 
of th(< ape, she \s-iis sewn up into a sack, and uhot, like a load 
of rubbish, into tho Khono. 

So, none of his niarria^fos havin;; brought him any childr<>n, 
tho old man's old ago wiis lonely. Ho wjis 72 when his fellow 
citizens put his wifo to tieath, and ho di'apfjod on for Hvo years 
more. B<\vonil the fact that tho most comfortable house in tho 
town was given him to live in, wo havo no knowledge of how his 
iloclining days woro passes!. Tho Consistory, at any rate, 
ceased from troubling him, and wo may hoiMi that tho ministers 
Htrained a |)oint in his favour, and allowed him to slay away 
from their sermons when ho was inilis|)osod, and to play back- 
gammon whon he felt inclined. But this is mere conjecture. 
Vo oidy know that ho died, in 1370, at tho ago of 77, and, in 
spito of weaknesses and eccentricities, left an honouit>d memory 
behind him. 



morn n|i| 

H' :>l,.l I.. 



"THE PASSION OF THE PAST." 



Keadeis of the Mou\oir of tho lato Lord Tennyson may 
recollect a conversation r<>corded theiv, in which the poet 
alluiU's to an influx of fecrnnj often I'xiierienced by him in 
boyliiMxl, and sununod up in tho signillcant phrase " Tho 
Passion of tho Past." Ho has given oxpr<'ssii>n to this fwllng 
in mow" than ono poem, notably in the " Ancient Sage," anil 
in that exifuisito lyric " Far, Far, Away." It is a finding 
not unfamiliar to a fi>w imaginative |K>i-soiis, wIiom; childluMMt 
was at all solitary, and whom the dreamlaiul of their own fancioH 
oft<>n called away fi-om the eag«>r and engrossing pleasnivs of 
their mon> instinctive compiinions. 

To the majority of the young, however, the words of Amlel iu 



tl 

•^r 

'••n 
\o 
■d 

ih.-lr 

Thn 

■l.o 

-< 

y, 
ith 



hilt .loiii I 

consists 

of niatui 

ftgf*. li'n 1 III' i '.»-*! >%.!-, im- ,ir,-,iMi I »i .111 I 

placed their Mtato of perffs-t<sl happiiiewi 

** Tho Ooldcn Agf," ntiil iiinilo the 

regret tho inenHiin^ of it* dislnnco from tin 

mini' ••r>« <m In 

Hpn "ith its I. 

a (ioldeli Ago <l< 

coidil not oven tin ' 

exchiini, as ho watched tlio liltlo child tliuit nioiuUttOK awl 

forcstiilling the futuru : — 

AVhy, with Hiich eumeiit piiIdh doHt thon provoko 
Tho years to brii iko. 

Thus blindly Willi : strife? 

These wortls carry xw back to tho tender and |mtlietie iitrain of 

tho groat Uoman !--■' vi u ..,.,i.,...ri i. ;,, i.;. i . , 

siiecially loved : — 

Optima quaei|iui diis nii.x'iis iik' 
Prima fiigit ; HulMMint niorbi, li-i 
Kt lalrar ; ct durae ntpit iiiclcmeiitiu mortiH. 

Linos like thi'si" probably hit tlw hiimmI of more p«>n.iii>. inm mn 
over-eonlldent optimism of Browning iu " l{abbi-B«,'n-Ky.ra "; — 

Cirow old along with mo ! 

riio lM>st is yet to 1h', 

The last of life, for which the flmt was m.ide. 



.r forniH in diHeront 
thf*H«< can 



Tho " Passion of tho Past " 

minds, and during tho succi life. All 

lie illustnitod from the piM'ts iu wlioiii lurlicular ph ' l« 

Passion aro Ixvst typified. In K<<at.s it sdnm-il no 

form of a cniving for the Idi-iil B«MUty •  ii 

a'ud rcaroil amidst unlovely surroundings In „ ir 

humanities of old religion for type;) uf that lM*auty, which tbu 

actualities of tho pn<scnt failed to HUpply. Hence it wa« that 

ho exclaimed in his sonnot " On sociug tho Elgin Murblua " :— 

Such dim i- 
Brins mil 

V 

'1' .  ' 

M.isting ol old Time —with a billowy uuiu — 

A sun — a shadow of a magnitude. 

In this KcatM is eminently typical of tho artiittio npirit in 
youth, and of youthful i^ 1 ; for rarr-, ii- it 

that we como across a !■■ : , i" whom li .o 

instinct is so dominaiii in o.iity life that the \ o 

Future throws the Past eiitindy into the «hndc. y 

•Iwarfs the Living Presi>ut. It is true I' d 

" The still. s:td music of humanity " w.i o 

it.s«>lf heard in his strains, but his |>iM*tic life as n ^ ■■( 

a.s its simu \vu!i — is a supi-etiie example of tho " Pa^ 

Piuit " taking pott-scssion of a most richly cndowxHl 
awaking its dormant powvrs, and kindling them into a i: 
energy, which impress«Hl itself upim fonus of iraper 
lieauty, that have cauglit some of the I i  ' ' I 

from those ancient realms of gold tl! '■( 

travelleil. Poetry, in short, for Ke.il--» w.ia " ;ii 
•listanee," and the dist:inco was in tho Past. T 
altitude, too, of CI 1 1. who by a sort of inv. i» 

backwards, and CI Hi Miturity with aniiiiuity. i - 1 

frtiin Wordsworth's impressive lines on " Memory " might liavc 
I ' "i-iitcn for Lumb : — 

That smoothes foregt>nc distron, tho lines 
Of lingering care suIhIuc~i, 
Long-vanishiil happines.H refines, 
And clothi-s in brighter hues. 

It is of this refining, softening and toning power uf the Put 
that Charles L;imb was thinking when be wrote : — " I have 
almost ceased to hope ; and am anguine only iu the prospects 

11 



116 



LITERATURE. 



[August 18, 1900. 



«rf oliM>r (forn»er) yoir«. I |i)uiik<' into t >n'K<iiio virions iiiul 
««MiellMhMiib 1 tHioKUiitor pt<ll-iii«>ll with iHiHt <lisii|i|i<)intiiifntH. I 
mm armour-prtMif nBaiiiNt old lUM-ouruKt'imMilN. I furKivc, nr 
ux-crt>oiiM> In fancy. oUI wlvonarU**. I play civor ajcaiii for loi<e, 
aa Uie gaaM>«t<>rH phraan it, kuhh^h for whit-h I oii<*t> ]mU\ m> dciir. 
I KtMld aeartH' now h«v«> any of thoNO iintoxtiinl acculcntH niiit 
«rveatii of my lifo rovt>rM<d. I would no more alter tlioiii (liiiii 
the inridontit of koiiic \\f ll-oonlrivitl iiovrl." 

In maturity nnil nii<l<llo iipo the " Passion nf tlio Past 
oTtpn takpii tlip form of Kcsrot. Tlu-n tho loss of lh«> Imnndinj: 
oiM^rjrioK o( youth, tho disilhisions which pontart with tho world 
hao canMHl, tho disappointim^nt of hojies. tho faiUm- of aspira- 
tions, tho Intw of friends and rom|Hin ions prcKlin'o a feolinp of 
xadncm. which ovi n when eniliittcMHl by no slinfrs of n-niorM- 
has all the intensity and din-ctness of p<nuine passion. This 
sadn<-^<< was felt l»y Tennyson liiniM'lf, and takes the form in his 
poetry <«f l«leal Ke^T^-t. its nKMsl is lulthriilly r«'fl«H'ti'<l in such 
liuoH as tho following : — 

Doar as romcuib«>red l<i->->e'. ;iiiit ihmiIi, 
And swe«'t as tli<>M> liy li<>|M'Iess fancy feignc^d. 
On lips that are f<ir others ; dt-op as love, 
D«>op as llrst love, and wild with all ri'gret ; 
Oh Death in Life, tho days that are no more. 

Bnt, after all, it is lioniorso that intwisifles KeRM't and makes it. 

terrible, and for the I'assion of a passionless J>es|iair it wonUI 

be hard to match thetie lines fi-oni Byron's " Stanz:is for 

MiMie " :— 

Oh could I fe<'I as I have felt — or Iks what I have l)eon, 

Or weep as I could once have wept, o'er many a vanish'd 

acene ; 
As sprinp* in deserts found seem sweet, all brackish though 

they l¥>. 
So, midst the wither'd waste of life, those tears would flow to 

me. 

In old age the highest fonn the " Passion of the Past " fakes is 
the Passion of Peace. This, the reward of a life spent nobly, 
and in devotion to noble ends, has ))een wx-ll illustrate<l during 
the j)resenf generation by the old age of two great men. f'irst, 
liy that of the great po<>t who towards tho clos<> of his days 
tonche<l ag-.iin uyKin themes that had dcIight<Ml his youth, and 
reafllmiecl and jnstilleil his lifelong i)ursuit of the Suprt-nie Ideal 
in his " Merlin and The Cleain " ; aiul, se<'ondly, by the old 
age of the illustrious statesman, and friend of the poet, who 
after sixty years of public life, devoted the evening of his days 
to the study of thos<« lit«!rary and theological works for which 
<|aite early in life he had showe<l snch a decided l>ent. For 
tbotie who have never lost the sens<> of continuity Ix-twxvn the 
•lilTerent stages and experience's of their life, whose years have 
MHm a stosuly progressi<m <if or«lerly development, for whom 
there has lun-n " no paus<> in tln» leading and the light " tho 
" Pamion of the Past" Ikh-oi:m'« a Passion of Peace — they, as 
Wordaworlh.uho felt this Passiim in its utmost intensity, Ijcauti- 
folly nays, stj-al to their allotted nook — 

f'c>nfente<l and serene ; 

With h«>artH as calm aH lakes that sleep, 

In frosty moonlight glistening ; 

Or mountain rivj-rs, wlier*' they creep 

Along a channel sniiHith and de«>p, 

To their own far-off munnurs list'Miing. 

C. FISHER. 



THE DEATH KNELL OF FRENCH SYNTAX. 



A phi' Mst taken place in Paris. By 

tb« flat of ,.in Fn-nch syntax is de<-lared 

to have oatiiTral itH time, ib-iieeforth a foreigner writing to a 
FmnebaMUi need not he diK<<nnde<l by any ftyling of false moilesty 
fmoi planning i» mritUin rr* into the intricacies of expn>ssion in 
tAe Ficaek to n gue. If it is not yet quite true that his blumlcm 



in orthography will pass unnoticed, and if there lio still certain 
idiomatic conventions wlii<'h he must olm<'rve, yet in general ho 
is left t4) the largest lilH>rty of uttenince. He nwiX. not have 
any more scruples as to tho agn<<'ment of past participles, or 
hesitiition over the gi'nders of words like »\gHe, loiioiir, oi-jiic, 
tltUier, (iiifomiic, (■ii/iint, f/tvix, hi/iiiiic, crum; or «»•(/<•. He may writo 
them indiffen>ntly in the masculine or feminine. H<* may drop 
the article lH>fon> certain Italian family names as tits>ly as an 
AnghvSaxon ; no longer will it Im- a fault to writ*- Tiishc or 
( 'di-i-cgc instead of le Tii»»r, Ir Cot-rcyi'. Henceforth, l)y tho 
Ministerial <l<s'ree, ilii, <tf hi, or (/<■« may Im? used in place of do 
iM'forea substantive pr«'<-i'<led by an adjective. Thus you may say 
({<■ or till Imti jNtiii, (If boHiw t'liimli' or </<■ In (miiiiic ri<iiii/>-, <lc or 
dcji (m>ms /riiitii. And as lor a whole class of a<lj(H-tives, such as 
iiu./cii, ci'-joiuf, ri-iiicliiK, y compvit, the ignorant French school- 
Ixiy or the helpU>s8 for««igner ne«>d have no fear; thest'adjis-tiven 
may Ixt made to agriH* or not with the noun, just as one likes. 
Thus you may say ;<• iijiot ciii'oii' ri-joiiit, or ri-juiiitf cojiiV de la 
/i/iVc. If you wish it you may i)nt cent in the plural and say 
ijiiutrc <•<•»/.< finite UomiiwH. On the thorny ijuestion ot tho 
agitM-uient of verbs there is the largest licence. You may even 
say wi miitiidie miiit den iiiyx'Hrji and ler ytiiieiiil iiiyc >/i»'(ijiicii 
ugicifm ent Horli ov soiit xiirth. But it is in doing away with 
the heart-rending (lilllculties over the agrM-mont of jiast jiarti- 
c-iplcs that M. L«>ygues' di'cree is a veritable godsend for tho 
foreigner. Nothing has Im^mi changed in the rule that a past 
participle used as an epithet must agn-o with theijnalifle<l word, 
and usihI as an attribute with the verb etri', or that an intran- 
sitive verb must agr»>c with the subject. We are still bound to 
writo lira fniitu i/titffs ; i/s soiif tonilien ; rllen sunt IwtiMrs. But 
when tlie past participle eontiiiuN the auxiliary (ii-uiV, we neo<l 
have no concern as to its agre«'ment. It agrees or not as tho 
mood strikes you. We may write indifferently, la jteiiu- </iic j'lii 
;ii-ij< or priMC ; c/lcit hc mint In or tiicK ; lex cou jut lyiit; ii'uim iiuiim 
xoiiiiiK'x iloiiiK? or (/oiiiicji. The lu-gativo adverb iic may now liO 
used or not after ciiipi'c/iiT, ile.jendre, ('rilrr que (thus, ilefriulm 
(yu'oii t'ienne or qu'on tic vienne), cmindre, dc'iK'sjwrec, oiKtir 
peur, duuter, roiite»ter, tiiVr fjiic, &c. Of difllculties or 
hubtletics in tlic construction of a Fitinch phrase there remains 
only one class of obstacles — namely, tho choice of the preposition 
li or (/<• after the verb. 

The plastic, clean-cut quality of expression in French — as 
regards tlie written or the pi inted |>iige — is cert;iinly compromise<l 
by this reform. French prose has always iKisst'ss*^! a greater 
precision and lucidity than Knglish. It may Im that it was 
owing partially to the way in which, by eonst.;int agre*'- 
nicnt, adje<-tivo and verb and noun dovetjiiled into ono 
another. Tho contour of the French proso surfac«? is now 
hhatt«'re<l as by a seismic wave. Xo such revolutionary 
movement has ever Immmi attempted in philology anywhen". 
Ne«Hlless to say that the Ministerial decr<'«' has upset tho 
.\cadeniy, and last Tliui-sday week it voted that it was eiiiinenlly 
desirable that it stuiuld Ih< asked for its opinion before tho 
application of the reform iM'came irrt>vocatile. Koine; of tho 
.Vcademicians, and among them somo of the most emin<-nt 
philologists in France, were memlH'rs of the Tpiwr Board ot 
hxlucation which is res|Minsible for the reform. We may antici- 
pate, ttierefoi-e, an amusing conflict. M. lycygucs, however, 
has signed his di-cri-e. It is lu-nceforth an historic diH-ninent. 
Where Bismarck failed to overri<lo the recomiiiendaHoiis in 
lH70oftlii> Prussian Minist«'r of Kdiicatiim. who by a similar 
<le<'r€M> carri«Hl out a reform which was the result of four yeai*s of 
patient discussion, it is not likely that the Aca<lcmy will 
suceee<t. M. I..<'ygueK. as ono writer has put it. has dm wn up 
the Dec'laniiifin of the Kights of verbs, nouns, adjeclivcwi, 
articles, psirticiples, and ev<'n of adverbs. His decree is tho 
proclamation of the lilx-rty of wortls. The names of the mem- 
l>ers of his cimimission sliould Im" known. They an- MM. (iaston 
I'aris, the president, (in'-anl, tli<> head of the I'liiversity 
of Paris, Cn)is<'t, professor of (ir«'ek, Paul Meyer, the head 
of the Keolo dea C'harten, Henri Bomva, C'lairin, I>eNchat, 
and Comte. 



August 18, 



1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



117 



IRcvicws. 

 — 

THE ICONOCLAST. 

ClIIUSTIAXITY AM) M VIlKII^KfY. H.V .lollN M. nnllKHTHON. 

(WiittH iiiiil Co., 8«. M. n.) 
Mr. KolH-rtNOii in wi'll known us a writor willi a »oin«'\vhat 
pronoiincisl tnst«> for l<-oii<H-luNni. Hut in tli«'s«> nit ioinilistio 
tinii's it is imiMisalhlo t^ iKiioro till' nr^nnivnts of those who nttnrlc 
tli>> NtiHin^^hoUl!! of i'i>lif;!on in n Hi'icniilli' spirit, thonj^h wo nii^ht 
witth nway a cortniii noU» of tnicnliMK-o wliich from tiino to 
tinu' httM chnriicti'rizo*! Mr. HolH-rtHon's iitt<'nincos. Tho 
foolinff of flospondoncy which ho jirofcjtxoH on (;ivin|; to 
tho world the prospnt voliune— a volume represent in({ llftfNMi 
voiirs' hard work— is soarcely what we shouhl Inive ex|H>ote<l 
from tile ant liur. l'rosp«M-tiv»'ly ln> divides liis readers into two 
classes. On the one hand ho Mees a huge urniy of inor«* or less j'dii- 
eated nieii,wli(>s«> interest it is to resist most of liis conclnsionM Ity 
«! very means in their power, and wlio a re powerful liy their nninliers 
anil <>rpini/.ation, and liy the inniienee eM-rcised liy tliciii over 
n larj^e section of the laity. Bishops, and clerjrj", and ministei-s 
of religion ftenerally will either tosM him aside as a ivpiodlK-er 
of cavils which have lM>en refuted over nnil over »(('•<■"• oi" will 
answer him in the tiiiie-hononrod fashion — l»y coiiscioiis sophistry 
ef varioiiH kinds, liy calling; him had iiameM, and hy 
iipp«>als to sentimental tradition. On the other hand, there is 
the comparatively limited body of serious and open-minded 
layiiu'ii to whoso candour and interi-st in the quest of truth such 
works as the |)resent should primarily ap|>eal. " L'nrortunat<'ly," 
says Mr. Uolx-rtsoii, " the open-minded laity are in lar;;e jiart 
satistled to (liiiik that traditionalism is discredited, and so take 
up ail attitude of indilTerenco to works which any l(Mij;<'r join 
issue with it." We <l<i not so read the si^fiis of the times. All 
this minht have Imm'ii said with truth some thirty or forty years 
:ijro, hut, even while Mr. HolK<rtsoii has lioeii writinp, the world 
)ias lioen moviiip. Every one now i-«><'op;iii7.es that the attempt 
to keep the sacii-d writings isolated fiimi tho ffeneral mass of 
litoniry and historical material is a futile one. It was oiico 
thought that all would lx> over when once the fence was 
deiiiolisheii and th<< iMiiiiidary effaced. Xothiiij; is less true. 
The |>rocess of r<>const ruction- of llttiiif; toffcllier the ilisJoin(><l 
fnif;ments of truth, and interpreting ea<-h liy means of its long 
lost complement, and of testing the work when done — is a slow 
one, liecause a ditllcult and lia»irilons one. All who work at it 
with an ade<|iiat(> iH|uipiiiciit for the task may Im> sure that, how- 
ever limited may lio their achievements, and however scanty 
their rewards, their efforts will meet sooner or later with 
recofinitiou, and in this sense Mr. I{olx>rtson may rest assured 
that he has no cause for cU-spondency. 

Mr. IJolK'rtson's volume consists of threj" parts, each con- 
tnining a separate and indi-peudeiit treatise. In the llrst, he 
sketches the history of the rationalistic treatnieiit of religious 
myths from Kuemeros through Macroliins and tho Christian 
fathers down to mo<lerii times, summing up and criticiziii}: tho 
••oiitriliiitions made in previous senemtions by writers like De 
Bross<>s, Diipiiis, Heyiie, and K. O. Miiller, and more recently 
by Max Miiller, Cox, Korloiifr, Tylor, Korchammer, Spencor, 
Lanp, and .1. (;. Fnizer. Part II. is entitled " Christ and 
Krishna," ami is devoted to an oxamination of tho hyjKithosis 
that the Krishna myth is larprely founded on tho traditions of 
early Christianity — a liy|ioth(>sis which most of .Mr. Robertson's 
waders will probably aj;re<> with him in rejis-tinp. Cnliko 
Christianity, tho cult of Krishna is traceable to prehistoric 
times ; and Mr. Ridiertsou even pronounces its earliest fonn to 
be distinctly nou-.\rvan. Instead of the Krishnaito Birth 
Festival ritual and tho pictorial representation of tho bal>e 
Krishnii as suckli>d by his mother beiuR iKirrowinRs from 
Christianity, Mr. I{olM>rtson holds that the corres|)oii<ling parts 
of the Christian leRend are borniwe<l from Krishnaism. 

Xor can wo without defying all probability suppose that 
such motives iis the " ox-and-ass," tho " manper," the *' tax- 
payinp, ' and the " Christopborus " were l)orro»'ed by the 



HinthiM irinu Chrisliunilv, v ! 

li<>rrow<'<l the t\rs» i«fi anil the I 

Mirii \i' third wiis l» I 

the I  •II, ill the pp 

\ttiKi-, in that (lie ul hers nlso uern uiii'ient in India, whciliir 

or not any of IIiimii Iheiico r<>uchiMl Chri^'""' n. ,i. .i 

sta|;e. It is further |Mnuiibl« Ihut the i 

iiit<i the Christiun Itirth-leKeiiil in tlx- lm,-  hum < ■•<'<|> i . '-, 

siiKKONltHl by knowled(;n of the Krinhiia legend. Thi« cjmivit— 

hyiMithexiH liaH Ihs-ii shown to Im< pn i ''" i 

tho massacre of the iiilKH-ents is tli< 

pn^Christiaii in India Imsmiim* it conmi i» ii.iliirull> uiili (bu 

motive of the attenijited slaying of the (.i<Hl-<-hilil, 

In tho third and Inst part of the voliinie, entilletl " Tho 
Oos|M'l Myths," Mr. lioU'rlson resumuN the dis<-usKion of ih«M> 
incidents in the (ioM|H-l story, and ipn^t on t4> iii\-«*>>ti|tHte the nv 
iiiainder of the narrative. He is largely cuhh**! by the principli-, 
sound enough in its constitution lh<iu;;h tiubli* lo ubii<«> in iis 
application, that myth has in general Ih-cii fouiidtsl on i 
ritual on historical or mythical events, and fouiuls his 
mainly on the almost total al>seiiee fnuu tho ini|iussioiia-d uikI 
liiKlily <'ontroversial writings of St. Paul of any accur-.ite kiiow- 
lcil;;u of the (ios|)el history u.s s<-t forth in the (iiM|iel authors. ll«» 
arnnes that the givater partof Ihishistory is mythical, and rvpre- 
s«'nts an accr«»ti<iii of spurious infoniiation ;;rudunlly »ceuiuulut<.-d 
ill res|K>nse to a natural deuiaiiil on th«> ]isirt of early Christian 
votaries. St. Paul kiiowx only an unsucw-ssful " Messiah," who 
)>or«' tho common .lewish name " .lesus," who suffereil death ax 
the conse<|neuc<> of his ambition, but ros<> from tho dead, and 
ascended into Heaven. In UlliiiK up this iu<M(;ro outline th)i 
" Christists," as Mr. Holiortsoii ti>rms them, larjjely lM<rn>\vtr<l 
from the t nidi t ions of other rfli;;ioiis, Iwith of the West and the Kasb 
— I'specially from the latter — whic-ti were at the time coiiipetiii;; 
for the devotion of the Koman world. Thus the Temptation 
lias a close analopu- in the Temptatiun of Iiiiddlia,and a remoter 
parallel iii that of Zar.ithustra ; and in one of its as|Hs-tH ib 
strikingly re<-alls a legend of Jupiter preservctl by tho Christian 
writer Luctantius. Tho Wator-wino miracle, as Dupuis |Hiiiitod 
out long since, may well have lieen adapte<l from the |H>pular 
cult of Dionysus, who, as the uiakt'r of wine, was alwi the foreo 
which changes water into wino by tninsmuting sap into gm|ie^ 
juice, and totally altering the character of gniju'-jiiii-e by tho 
priK-ess of fermentation. The Walking on the W;i' 
conception alrejidy familiar in the myths of i i 

Hercules. Dionysus, agiiii, who gave the ]H)wer of luiracuiously 
pr<«lucing by touch corn, wine, and oil, led his army through 
a waterless fk>sert ag:iiiist tho Titans, " a prwedure," says Mr. 
liolHTtson, " which would involve the supernatural pro<luction 
of liquids " ; and the friendly Libyans, according to tho legend 
as preserved by Diinlorus, furnislie<l his nuiltitudos with food 
" in su|M>rnuity." The Hiding on tho .\s» and Koal may Im> yet. 
another r«>miiiiscenco of the Dioiiysiac mysteries. The Holy 
Supper was [Ktssibly borrowed from the ]M>piilar cult of Mithru. 
Mr. HolH-rtson applies tho same metlnMl to the illustration of 
the parables and the " doctrinal myths " which till so largo jl 
space in tho Fourth ttos|H'I. 

It is impossible to do more than indicate in the space at our 
command the bare outlincsof this work, which has Ijoen oxe<-atcd 
with great thoroughness, and evinces not only learning aixl 
ingenuity, but a determination to get, if possible, at the truth 
of things. 



MR. HENLEY AND PATRIOTIC POETRY. 



It w^^s argucil in a Qunrti'rlij ifrriVic article, on which wn 
comiiientetl last we«>k, that tho Transvaal war is a poor theme 
for jKH'try. Tho dictum is at the mercy of any poet who may 
horeaftor prove that he can write worthily almat the war ; but; 
it has not lioon confuted up to tho pres«»nt, and it certainly is 
not confute<l by Mr. W. E. Henley's collection of verstw, Piiii 
Enolanu's Sake (Natt, Is. n.). This collection does not strike 



118 



LITERATURE. 



[August 18, 1900, 



«• mt b«>liv( worthy nf Mr. H<>iiIp.t'b brat mooiontM. One or two 
of the piM<(ns art- for oxaniplu thu vorKOtt brginuiiig 

ye\t\. fi... •..». (.11, .....lin: — 

VTint hiiTo I done for yoii, 

' nd, my Kiifjland ? 

la tlu- , :Uiuk that tho triumphant spirit in 

which tho author rofianls tho war is • littlo overdone. It 
U only whcro he driips the grai"! »'ylo tluit his verso really 
riofr* tmo. 

In so far as it hn* Imnmi respon«ilil<» for " r<>d ruin niid tho 
brcakin;; up of hoim-s " th!s wir, IndciMl, may lend itst-lf to tho 
pur|i<»s<*s of ! •• wvll an any other war. One felt t hit t 

strongly in • Mrs. .\n><trnthor's >\-ar stories, whioh worn 

poetieal in everytliins: hut form. But tlio war, thoufch noe<»ssary. 
is not one of tin- wars that ap|H>nl on p'm-rul principles to tlio 
iroaci nation. It strikes one as a dissi^nH-alilo duty rather than 
»s an heroic enterprise. It does not seem, lifco the S|>anish 
Armada for instance, to fnrnlsh a really adwinnto occasion for tho 
banKins of the hiirdrnm: and Mr. Henley banjrs the biu drum 
■o persistently that one l>ejjins to wonder what ii'strumeut 
he would have |>erformed upon if he had flourished in tho ago 
of Waterloo. 

Sometimes ho liaupi the drum sanctimoniously : — 

We arc tho Choice c»f the Will : God when ho gave us tho 

word 
That called ns into line, set at onr hand a sword ; 
Set us a Hword to wield none ols<> could lift and draw. 
And bade us forth to the sound of tho truuii>ct of tho Law. 

Soinetiines ho lianjpi it blatantly : — 

By the dismal fords, the thankless hills, tho desolate, balfwload 

flats 
He h.-is sliephenlod them like silly shcop, and cornered them 

1 
Ho li I and herded them strength by strength, as a 

Imntor divils witli liis doer. 
And has (lllod tlio pl;><"o of tlio Iiourt in (Iiclr breast with a 
living devil of fear. 
T' ' ' r  - ,^^,|j ^^ij^ coiisiilers tlio iliiinjc* of Do 

V  lo " inciilents, though it is useful in 

makiiij{ il t IxMieflt Mr. Kipling, whos<> faith in 

England is I than Mr. Henley's, wrote " Lest wo 

forgi»t." In truth Mr. Henley's ]>atriotio poems only j)l<ijse ws 
when he drops tho " high falutin," which ho interlards with 
Oollor|uialisms often landing him in bathos, and essays an un- 
ambitious song. Thev ■•• -f vM .vents, the right lilt and tho 
true toito in this :— 

'ill .' .\I1 Vi.ur Britains ar«> out : 
Sydripv ^nt up with a shout ; 
• their iK'st 
^ J I ;i<- riding Nor* West. 

I c-H. men, (nins for yon ! India's aflame ! 

the lads of Xatal have been playing the g;imc ! 
 Gib to Vancouver, from Thames to Yukon, 
I Ml' livo air i^* loud with you— .Storm iiloinj, Joltn ! 

It is not poetry of the highest gra<le ; but of its kind it is 
gontl. Of the same grade, and also go(Kl of its kind, is a litth* 
sbe«a of war verses that oonK>s to us from Australia, Baij.AIim 
or Battlk, by John Hanik>s (Mellmnrne, Hands and M'I>iugall). 
We have m-en lut Ix-tter l^allad of reci-nt buttles than this from 
which wt« quote, and of which wc should havo likctl to jjuoto tho 
whole. Oom Paul H|icaks : — 

Lay my rifle heri- licside me, set my Bible on my ' -' 

For a numu-nl let tho warning bugle cease ; 

Aa the wntury is chnini; I am going t«» my rest, 
Lonl, lettest thou thy servant jto in |)eace. 

Bat loud thr<" . Ic-ncc- In mine ear. 

And on t; ,,, Ktruutsl. 

Thr- ,,ly I can hoar 



But now from snowniwept Canada, from India's torrid plains, 

From lone Australian outixwts hither led. 
Obeying their eomiiiando. as tlioy heard the bugle's strains. 

The men in brown havu joined the imMi in red. 
They come to Dnd the colours at Majuha U-lt uuil lost. 

They come t<i pay us hack tho ileht tlu'y owe<l ; 
And I hear now voic«"s lifted, and I see strange colours tossed. 

Mid tho r(.x>i baatj<« singing on tho road. 

The old, old faiths must lalter, and tho old, old creeds must 

I hear It In that distant nuii-mnr low — [lail— 

Tho old, old order eliaiigt>s, and 'tis vain for us to rail, 

The p-eat world dm's not want us — wo must go. 
Tho veldt and spruit and kopje to the strangt>r will belong ; 

Xo more to trek lieforo him wo shall Itmd ; 
Too well, Uxy wvll I know it, for I hear it in tho song 

Of tho ruoi baaf jes singing on tho road. 



THE STORY OF FULHAM. 



In the thr«>e hands<mie volumes of Fn.ii.VM, Oi.n and Xkw 
(The LtKidenhall Pi-css, f;} lis. n.) Mr. C'harlos ,Iamcs Ki-rot 
has, once and for all, shown how the history of a London suburb 
ought to bo written. A more eomploto or a more systematio 
example of topographical literature has never IxHjn print«Hl, 
Everything has Ihhiu set fortti in this spacious book, every 
chronicle rouuMubered, every record soiirclied, yet the r<>sult has 
nothing of the stodglness of tho uld-fasliioncd to|K)graphor. 
Tho volumes aro bright and light — in all save avoirdupois — and 
alK>und in good reading even for tlntso who have never set foot 
in Kniliaiii. Mr. Keret's success is tho more remarkable aud tho 
nioM! prulbcwoi-thy since Kidliam is by no means tlio most 
interesting of the famous suburban parishes. It lacks tho literary 
aud s(H-ial savour of Hampstoad or Chelsea, Chiswick or Eich- 
nioiid, and the fact that it is more populous and more inotro- 
politan than most of those classic spots has addoi.! enormously to. 
tho labour and difllculty of dealing with it. 

Mr. Keret meets this dlUicnUy by starting with tli(» 
]iicturcs<|ne central fact of tlie prcsonc<> of tlie Bishops of London 
at Kiilham — a fact around which the whole history of tho place 
revolves, p'ulhaiu Palace has been tho Manor-house slnc(5 tho 
Conquest, or «irlier — Mr. Ker<«t Ihuls, indee<l, that tho BishojNi 
have been seated thei'C for eleven huiidied years at le;ist. It is 
true that it >\ti8 grievously troatetl by Bishop Terrick and Bishop 
Howley after him, and that, so far at all events as reg-ards three 
of its fronts, it is one of the ugliest aud most depressing 
houses in England, a mere box of yellow bricks pierctnl 
with windows. Standing upon tho la«u of Kulhaiii Palace it is 
diflicult to assoclat<> the ruflianly B<mner or the g<-ntlo Laud 
with such a sceno of elijhteentli century banality ; but tho 
(ilaco is overflowing with historical remlnlst-enccs nevertheless. 
There is still tho famous cork tr«-<i planted by tho botanical 
Compton, and tho dismal apartment round which is rangetl tho 
library eollecte<l by Porteus ; in tho FitJijaiiies Quadrangle aro 
tlie rooms in which Land live<l and still, they say, haunts ; liar«l 
by is the orchard wlii-ro Bonner sc<mrged his unhappy prisoners 
with his own hands ; around the domain runs the moat which all 
authorities ascrilie to the Danes. On tli<^ other side of It lies tho 
parish church with its ancient tower and very iiKKlern body, full 
of interesting old moniiinents carefully preserved and removed 
from the foniwr building — those of Morilaunt and Uaiielagli 
.loni-s, sundry Bisho|>s of I^rfmdon, and tin- son of that Colonel 
t'arloH who went into the Itoyal Oak with Cliarl<-s II. Lying 
within a few yards of the river, the churchyard offi-rtsl exce|>- 
tlonal advantagt>s to liody-snatchers, and there is still living th« 
in<-vit'.ible " oiliest inhabiUint " who witnesseil tho last exploit 
of tho M'surrtH'tion-men, while it is little more than half a 
century since newly-made graves had to Imi watihed lest tho 
eoiiveniciit ThaiiiCH should brln« wmie Biirko or Hare the llrst' 
ihirk night. Kullmm, like ChelNoa, hail some ol<U>n disllni-tion 
for it« jHJttery, anil the ware which Dwight priMlui-ed is. to 
judge by the bi-st-known examples, well dociving of the high 



Augu.st IS, 1000.] 



T,fTrn\T[^RE. 



no 



prlcpfi wliicli ciilU'ctDiN ;ii'o \filliii;{ li> Kivr for It. .loiJii l»VM-lit 
haduNtr.iiiKo ami |Mirv<TM> iriiini.i for liidiiiK HiiiiKM in liin (Kittcry 
at Kulhiiiii. ll« ooiico:ilo<l hl-4 t<xiU iiml hoiiik of his H|M>finicii-<, 
untl stowi'd iiwny iimin'y in pvi>ry rniniiy that wan caiinbln i>f 
rocoiviiiK it. Ill hiilcH iiiiilor llro-phtcos, la coriicnt Ix'hiiiil 
doors, niid iiiidor fiiniaoos wore tin* and jxittt full nf |fiiini>ii<>, 
and his privnto nottvlMMik (•ontiiins iiiiniito arciniiirH of the o\act 
IKViition of those hoai-ds, and tho dales whoii thoy wore coii- 
fcalod. 

As olsowhoi-o within tho motrojiolitari arou most of tho 
historic h<>iis<>s of Kulhaiii havo ilisapiM'ansI, y<,'t tho Htory of 
tholr Rlorios and of Iho oarivrs of thoso who livisl in them pro- 
vides niat4>i'ial for sonio of tho most atlrai-tivo |K>rtions of Mr. 
Kfrret's book. The most notabln liti-rary rosidont tho parish has 
over ha<l was Saiinud KichariUon, wlio livod suoccssivoly ut 
Tho tlranno in tho NortlM-nd-road ono-lialf of which was 
occupied in our own liiiM' by Burne-.lonos -and at I'arson's-Kreeii. 
Braudenliurffh-hoiiso, ho\vever,\vas uiuiuestiomibly the most famous 
dwellinK-placo in Fiilliam, with tho sIiikIo exception of tho 
episcopal palace. There lived that ambitious and sycophantic 
mediocrity, IJeorKo Bubb Dodin);ton, tho romantic Marjcravino 
of Anspacli, wliuso autobioj;rapliy is so (h'liKhtfully self-con- 
scions, and afterwards the ill-regulated Queen Caroline. The 
house has vanished, and hero (for the only time) we have hit 
upon somethinj; that Mr. Keret omits to tell us— viz., that 
tho staircas)' down which Qiuhmi Carolino was carried to her 
stately funeral is now in a count ry-liouso in a Northumbrian 
village. Another interestiiifi; building, happily still standing, is 
Loiisdale-house. We have it on the authority of Mr. (iladst(mo 
himself that he pi-ojiosed to Miss tJlynne on the lawn there and, 
ho added, nearly half a century aflerwanLs, '• I could point out 
tho very siiot by tho yew trees." At Pars<in's-;;reen abo<le Imtli 
Mrs. Fitzlierbert and .Mrs. Jordan; while, as in most other 
fashionable London suburbs, theii> are traditions that Nell 
Uwyuiie once lived in the parish. Mr. Keret has naturally much 
to say of HurliiiKhatu, anotlutr lino house which, thanks to the 
love of polo and the less defensible " s])ort " of pij;ts)n-shiM)tiii(^, 
still exist.s, a beautiful oasis iii a district which has lost an 
enormous proportion of its uiuenities during the last quarttT of 
a century. 

Kniham is fortunate ind<H>d in its historian. It' most of its 
historic sites havo vanished, tho memory of them is presi'rved in 
this book with a fulness of detail and a scrnpulous accur.icy 
which are beyond praise, and have obviously entailed tho most 
minute and pains-taking labour. Well-written, admirably ami 
systematically arrange<l, iH'antifully printeil, and embellished 
with some live hundred illustrations, this is tho im>st all- 
ombracin^ book of parochial topography with which wo uro 
acquuinteil. 



THE "HADDON HALL" LIBRARY. 



Oup Forests and Woodlands. 

Tho various uses of forest trees are of such importance in 
tho economy oC a country that tho attempt made by Dr. , John 
Nisbet in Ouu Foniisrs am> Wooki.anos (The Ha<ldoii Hall 
Library) (Dent, 7s. lid.) to improve their condition deserves all 
encouragement. l!)n;;land may bo said to owe her proud imsitioit 
among tho nations on land and soiv in no small degree to her 
forests and wo<Mllands. Her old archers, taught their trade by 
hunting tho deer, were always at hand to i-eiider yisniian's 
service in her early struggles, while her hearts of oak are 
naturally associate<l in the mind with tho gh>rious times of Blako 
and Nelson. And though bows and arrows havo lK>come merely 
playthings, and British oak has had to give place to teak from 
India and Burma, the uses of the forests remain, and our love ot 
sjwrt, with tho skill in markmanship it involves, is still helping 
U.S to win our battles. 

It is tho duty ot a physical geographer to point out to ws 
that, instead of impoverishing tho snrfaeo soil, plantations 
actually improve it by their autumn fall of leaves ; that thoy 
sereiMi tho soil from the heat ot tho sun's rays, and give shade 



ariit -Ik It'T to men and !>•■ i I that Hi- ' '" tll« r«lo. 

distributing It again num y in thi- 'niiMl mt 

their liuM-, and ill tho iiu)is(iiri: i<ka|M)mlf<l I 

Ind<>ed, the fuinine still raging in India Is 

unhappy elearinR ol mountain iilo|M-t, for ■•»t» 

al>s<irlM'<l much of ilie ntiii whi<-h iiou c" ■• 

Knglaml. like mott other rniinii ' I i -ii rockiOM in 
disalloreHtutioti. As Dr. NLsbot navt ; 

Our humid clinmtn hiM iiarnti u« from tho airrtpuUnnl 

cons<s(uene«"s of pj[c«>s»ivo c|i>arunci? of woo«l|»n«l" arw 

now pis>b»bly very ntom nlMiiit to r«>ap cominen w» 

have sown in thi' wholesale destruction of tiin!" ■. 

It fiirnish«>s foo«l for n-Ocction that we hIimhI.I h ,•.•■ piid tn 
other countries nearly twenty inillionx sterlini; in 1W1I for pli>«« 
anil llr wimmI, while at the Naiiio time some sixt(H-n million acros 
in (ireat Britain and Ireland are now lying waste, which could 
quite well grow all tho coniferous tiiiilM'r we r<><iuire. 

II«'roic measures to replacM> the wrHMllnnds «le«lrny«»<l can 
only Ik> undertaken on a siilli ing 

considerable encouragement ai 

but private enterprise can do n good ileal, partly in replanting 
waste lands, but chiefly in improving the womls wt> have. For 
though we have often lxs>n stigmatizi-d as a nation o( ahop- 
ke«'|MM-s, yet in the matter of pl;it .1 proMTving our 

wiMHilaiids Knglish landowners \ui\' far more of their 

Ijoauty and of tho enjoyment to Ui goi tmt of thorn than of 
their commeis-ial |K>ssibilities. Kvery country house is flankeil 
and gnartled by its magnilb'oiit old trees, and every small 
villa has its shrubs around it, many of them of rare bcanty. 
And when largo plantations are made, the irovorts are usually 
so nrrangeil as to attract and hold as niany game birds as 
IMMsible, and to enable boaters to drive them out on all 
suitable iK-cusions, without ony regard at all to the amount 
p«.>r cubic f<K>t which tho trees may ultimately fet»-h. Habblts 
ai*o eiicour.iged in every way, though the mischief they do 
even to largo trees in a hard winter is incalculable and 
irremediable, and all the fori-stry work h.is to l)i> crowile<l int<» 
February ami March, so as not to interfere with tho shiwting 
or the nesting season. 

Tho inteivsts ot tho forester, however, need not be 
antagonistic to those ot the sportsman, though they can never 
)>e identical. If they are to work hanuimiously together, tho 
simrtsinaii must agteo to keep rabbits down, and to allow 
summer pruning and thinning, and autumn preparation (or 
sowing, while in return the fon'ster should give up spiH-ial plots 
in largo wooiLs to Im reserveil ami specially tr<>ateil for 
pheasants. Both should combine in the making of broad rides, 
which ar<» always useful in tho Ijoating on' are 

ius'i>ssary for the proiM'r conduct of fon-st 0|" ing 

to a (IxihI plan. In making fresh plantations both wvuld agrei^ 
in the planting ot coi>so wxxkIs, with ix-casional standartls ; for 
copses furnish one of the best wniys of growing oak. ash, and 
larch, and all trws which demand plenty of light, and at the 
same time are better suiteil for pheasant shooting than any 
other system of management. 

Ill private plantations some snch rules of Kiv(>-and-tak9 
may be foUowitl as are here sketchixl out, but t' " 'ing 

ot largo wastes, which can scarcely be uii. 'Ut 

State assistance, is tho point on which the wriur justly lays 
most stress. This great work will have sixin to bo takou in 
hand with all tho scientitlc exactness ot method in which tho 
Cierinans have much to tcicli and wo to learii. 

Hunting:. 

Wo have rarely met wi" ■; on hniv 'ler 

lleld-sport, so fi-e<» from cm Mr. .1. Oi  ^T- 

IN<; which, is also published in the " Haddon Hall " S«Ties. Mr. 
Paget shows considerable kuowUxlge l)oth of the practice and oC 
tho literatui-c of thesp<>rt. Throughout Mr. Paget trusts more to 
his own experience than to traditional views, and his remarks on 
the much voxeil nuestion as to whether certain pastimes, snch •» 
hunting tho cirtcil stag or shooting pigeons from a trap, can bo 



120 



LITERATURE. 



[August 18, 1900. 



rm»r«led a* aport arc tliOM of ft writer who liun thought tlie 

I lie carted »lng mid tho dra^ may Itc plennant 

and harinli«« aniiisoiiicntii, but they ar« not ^port ; iiiitl tho 
Mae may Iw Maid ot a ba^^K^l fox. To further iUuHtrnte my 
nManinf;, I HhouUi luty it is s|K>rt to hunt tho mt with torricnt 
on hia owu irrouiid, but to flntt CAtoh thnt animal nnd tlicn 
turn bin out bofor«> dtifr* i" Not 8|)ort. Shooting piifooiiH from 
a lni|> ia certainly not »|iort, but it in u very iiioo |H>int wlioro 
the liue klioold be drtwu in ithmitin); phc.isiuits (luu only tlio 
evening boCoro have fo<I from tho k<M>|K>T'ii hand. Of cnurM' 
it is onljr the feclin;; and tho idea, but if onoo n man sli(x>t.s 
for any other reaaou than the lovo of N|>ort, lio loses more than 
half the pleasnro, and is no lon!^.^r a s|>ort.snian. A littlo com- 
petition certainly «Mihances tho pleasure of all siwrt, but t«>o 
luucb may destroy the real thing alto(;cther. They who bunt 
solely for tho pleasure of a ride should devoto themselves to 
drag-hunting, and they who sh<M>t to exhibit their skill should 
And as much sntisfaotion in shooting pigeons ns any wild pimo. 

Mr. Paxet's practic^il point of view is no less marked in de.iling 
■with the fanner problem : — 

I bare heard it said [be writes] that the farmer ought to 
encourage hunting bo'ause of the money it brings into tho 
country. . . . The money thus spent may eventually help 
the sale of some pro<Iuot that a farmer grows ; but it is only 
one in twenty that feels the direct bunoUt, and the other 
nineteen may very likely see their farms more ridden over 
than the lucky one. What advantage is it to Giles who h:is a 
graaa-farm across which hounds run every week if his ueigb- 
boar sells oats to a hunting roan ? 

In a note on this subject, the Editors of tho "Haddon Hall" 
Series, the Manjuis of Granby and Mr. George A. B. Dowar, 
state that " the damage done to l)oth farmers' stock and crops 
by thoughtless persons is often considerable," and Mr. Paget 
thinks that, among other things, " what the farmer w".ints is that 
all forage used in hunting stflbles should bo grown in the ni-igh- 
boarbood, and not imported from other countries." But it is 
difficnlt to sec how that plan could " work out '' in the event of 
farmers demanding a higher price for their for.ige than tho 
current market price for the same (juality of " foreign stuff." 

On introducing us to tho hunting field itself the author has 
moch to say on tho etic|Uottc of the flcid which young huntsmen 
would be wise in consulting. Coming to the actual working of 
the hounds, and the tactics of foxes, he s:iys : — 

I am quite ccrtiiin every fox has a different scent, just ns 
everj- human being has, hence the jxiwor of a keen-nos<,>d dog 
to trace its master even though his " »c«.'nt " may have been 
croMcd hundreds of times. In the case of the fox the iiujKirt- 
ance of liearing that fact in mind comes out in tho 
chase. ... I hare endeavoured to prove that the hound 
poaaeaaes tho power of distinguishing one scent from the 
other, and our task is to instil it into him that by noting this 
diHtinctioD and adhering to one lino be is most likely to catch 
his fox. 

The duties of an M.F.H. are well explained. It is no great 

-*•■'""■— ••'Ml to say that " to be jMjrfect " ho " must embody all 

- of a saint with the commanding genius of a Kitchener 

' t of a diplomatist." But we are not so inclined to 

Mr. Paget in tho statement (hat there are no g«o<l 

" L'ntil," he writes, " there is a 

1 1 who is a skilled workman with 

ue can never liujie to see a hound painted with life 

'ry." Ccrtiinly no gisxl photograph of a hound has 

■en, but surely the late liosa Bonhenr's flgurcs 

-■: perfect, Mr. J. Noble's " Otter-HouniLs at 

Kent," nearly so, and Mr. Arthur AVardlo's illustrations to 
Jjte't " Modem Dogs " l>e:iutiful and accurate iu every detail, 
in general fonn and natural expression. 

N' '1 hunting is • without a go<Kl story or 

tiro, . b one wurt. ., about a lux " playing 



I>ossum " (shanuuiug doath) wliiuh, as it is short, may be ro- 
pro<luco«l : — 

I put tho terrier in the earth, nnd a few seconds later a 
1>onutifnl fox was noosed by the hiintsuian's whip, but as there 
w-.us still another inside, we decichMl to catch Imtli and sacrillce 
the worst. 1 therefore held tlio llrst fox whilst tho second 
was being capture<l. Beftiro tho second had l>oItod into tlio 
ileftly hanilletl noose, tho one I was holding hud apparently 
dit-il from strangulation by iny whip. I was very much concerned 
at having, as I thought, killed a fox, and loosing the whip, 
held him up liy the ba<-k of tlu^ iiccU. Tho eyes were close<l, 
the jaws ga|KKl, and tlie IkmIv hung limply down from my hand ; 
every ap|K'aranco of th-atli was tln-re. 1 laid him down on tho 
ground, as I thought, a corpse, but tlie instant I let go of his 
ni'ck he juinpetl up and dashed off into tliocovort. There was 
no doubt alMiut it In-ing a cast« of shamming death, and tho 
only iiuestion is had he reasoned with himsolf that this might 
pi-ovc a means of escaping. 



HISTORIES OF PHILOSOPHY. 



Ancient. 

Of histories of philosophy there is no end, but the merits of 
Professor Windelband's " Geschichte dor Altt>n Philosophic," 
forming part of the series of Mailer's well-known work " Hand- 
buch dor klassischen .Mtertumswissenschaft," have long since 
bwn recognized by all comiK'tent scholars and his history acknow- 
ledged as a standard book on the subject. Dr. Cushman there- 
fore deserves the thanks of those who aH> unable to |K>ruse the 
original for his translation. The Histokv ok .\xc-iknt Pniu»Koriiy 
(Sampson IjOw, 10s. (kl. n.). He may becongratnlaled.on the whole, 
on tho manner in which he has ac<|uitted himself of a dillicult 
task. Ho has also made some additions, esi>e<-ially in the English 
department, to the fairly exhaustive bibliography which was 
appended to tho GennaiL edition. Dr. Windelband's method of 
ex|H>unding philosophical systems, as part and parcel of the 
gcnenil movement of the ago to which they belong and not as 
isolated phenomena, like Topsy, mysteriously sprung into 
existence, has always connnended itself to ns. We admit that a 
history of philosophy as a process of intellectual evolution in its 
genesis, relationship to each preceding and succeeding stage, 
and gradual development, has its rninon d'etre. But its interest 
would be purely theoretic and academic, and, after all, philosophy, 
unless we confine tho term to metaphysics and its luirsuit to a 
select esoteric circle, is wisdom with some practical moaning 
in it. 

There are two or three other features which distinguish Dr. 
Windelband's work from other books of the kind. In tho first 
l)lace lie separates Pythagoras from the Pythagoreans, discussing 
the latter under " Efforts towards reconciliation betwtKjn 
Heracleitanism and the theory of Parmenides." The distinction 
between the founder of Pythagoreanisni and his school is a 
familiar one to all students of i)hilosopliy. Koeihe, for 
instance, in his " History of Western Philosophy," differ- 
entiates tho master and his genuine disci|)les, whom he 
christens as " Pythagorics," from his spurious followers, 
whose lc!ucliing, made known through Philolaus, so greatly 
inniienred the Platonic iiliilosophy, and was such an imiK>rtant 
factor in the pliilosophii-al eclecticism of .Mexandria at the eve 
of the Christian era. Of Pythagoras himself little or nothing is 
known. A jKjlitical reactionary, as opposed to tho extc  
denuK-ratic spirit ot his day, and a religious mystic. In 
uIkivo all a moralist in whose eyes jiliilosophy was in tho Ural 
jilacc a rule of lite and not a h|>eculalive system. That he was 
tlie founder of tho mathematical school and himself a highly 
distinguished malheuialician, although the doctrine that " num- 
bers are tho principles of all things " did not in all probability 
emanate from him, may be rc.idily admitted. Tho secret of tho 
school api^ears to have been sold as a [lot-boilor : — " Qaum 
(luidaiii Pythagoras opum snorum ja<-luram fe<;isset, conccs'uin 
fuisse humiiii j)ro]itcr hoc infortunium, ut a Geomctria quaui^.iiJi 



August 18, 1900.] 



LITERATUIIE. 



121 



fWCTct." Profotfior WIndHband'ii eontontlon that tho Pythm- 
Koreaii niiiiilM-r thoory viis cliotato<l by » dmire to roodialo 
iMttwoeii tlio Klt>ati<! ilo<-trin<<(>r lioitiK ami" tlie|>vr|H'tual flux niiil 
reflux " of >ii<ruclilUN in v<My iiiKt'iiioUH but PiimiDt Ix- histiirii- 
iilly HubHtniiliiit<'<l. lu truth, I'ylhi^^orcaiiinu, which, nn hiiH 
b<>r-il ithowu, |)ui-tiiki-H of thit iiuluro of u trouHitioii rn>ni 
jihysiolofry t<> uioliiphysii'^, (K-ru|ii<>!( u lower plutforiii lli:iii Iho 
hystein which combiiii'd (ho oiiu uud the lonuy in the higher 
unity of " BfcoiuiiiK-" 

Another of Dr. Windelbauil's iniiovntioiis for which ii {;(>od 
dPiil more mny hn Nsiiit in hia juxtu|iO!<ition of Ik'niiM-rltuH und 
Plato. M. Uroc'hiird in »n intereNting (vsay on " ProluKoruN «t 
IX'moi'rito," writt<'u tut far buck an 1880, in which hu luain- 
tiiined that tho philosophy of Ueniocritus ni:irk<Hl iin ndvuncp on 
(hat of ProtiiKoras inusunu'h as the latt<'r'N th<'ory of n-lutivity 
made any kiiowledne inijiossihle, liiid already (lointitl out certain 
iinalo;;i<-N between the hiUKl>i<>K Abderitu and the !touibr<> and 
severe Plato. " Toux di-ux en eflet out poursnivi le nii'nie but : 
iiiaintenir centre la critique n«''j;i»''v«' du Noj)hi>te le.sdroitN do la 
M'ience. Dans cetteieuvrecenuunne its out du necejtsairenient no 
reiicontrer en bien deji )H>int!< . . . lest deux philow>phii'.s Mint hi 
protestation du (higinntisino idealinto on inaterialistu pontro le 
rehitivismo realiste de Protagoras." It is true that Phito never 
uiukcs the slightest allusion in his writings to Deniooritns. Tho 
author, dismissing the suggestion of i)lnlosoiiliical antipathy or 
literary jealousy, at(ributes the omission to the probability 
that " Atomism " was not fashionable among the Athenian 
thinkers at the [MM-iod, but considers it extremely doubtful that 
I'lato was uuac(|uainti'(l with the works of Democridis. Tho 
reason for Plato's silence must of course remain u matter for 
conjecture ; the interesting j)oint nwre or less successfully 
established by Dr. Wjndelbaiul is that notwithstanding tho 
violent diffeivnces between the two systems there are great 
similarities. 

Another deviation from the ordinarj' presentation is tho 
treatment of the Hellenic-Roman philosophy as " a progressive 
application, llrst ethical and then i-eligious, of science." Philo- 
sophy lost's gradually its speculative character, or rather its 
sjH-culations are made subsi-rvicnt to moral and religious 
exigencies. AV<> have not space to follow Dr. W'indelbaud any 
further, but we have said enough to show the extreme interest 
and value of the work before us. 

Modepn. 

In A History of Moiikkn PHiU)8orHy (Macmilinn, ;{0s. n.) 
Dr. Harald HofTding, Professor at tho University of CojK-n- 
hagvn, whoso " Rsykologi i Omrids," translated by Mary K. 
l-iowndes, was highly coiinnonded at the time, has now laid the 
Knglish public under a fui-ther debt of obligation by alToi'diug it 
the welcome ojiport unity of making tho actiuaintance of his " Den 
Nyero Kilosolls Historic." The author claims for his Imok two 
ilistinguishing features, as ilifTerentiating it from other works of 
the kind. Hohling with Kichte's saying, " Tell me what a man's 
character is aiul I will tell you the kind of philosophy which he 
will adopt," he is of opinion that in the study of a given philo- 
sophical system the personality of its expounder is a factor by no 
means to be overlooked. He accordingly jirefaces his account 
of the several jihilosophlcal theories with a biographical notice 
:vnd characterization of their respective authors. The second 
rc<inisitc which he considers indispensable to the thorough 
understanding of a i)articnlar body of doctrines is a knowlwlge of 
the intellectual enviroinnent in which it originated. " The 
history of philosophy," he justly remarks, " forms a part of the 
general history of culture." He has therefore devoted some 
space to the consideration of tho intellectual atmosphere of suc- 
cessive periods aiul their influence on speculative thought. Tho 
chief fault of these extremely able volumes is a certain want of 
delinitoness, arising no doubt partly from tho vastuess of tho 
subject, but also from a somewhat irritating teiuleucy to ver- 
Iwsitj-. An illustration is furnishetl by the introductory remarks 
to Descartes, tho father of modern metaphysics. Descartes, 
although bitterly opposed to the Church and the pi-etensions of 
theology to override science, was imbue<l with tho spirit of 



nehnlnatlcinn, and hln ■pmiUtlnn» ««rv intomeed bjr ik» 
ni<>chanical theory of tho world curn-u( in bia duy. Dr. Htfdiaf 
tiiki^ two-and-a-half pugCH to »tatc w> <<■ A* SB 

instance of a la<-k of |M-nipii'iiity, lake (li' ntllnil 

of tho ('art<«ian diK-trine iM \i<- '14 

never gather from Iho accoiiiii »• 

tinctly that the mind had i-cj ' -I, 

of a triangle, and of all n % 

iiiuiiutuble and eternal evM-niMii, anii-eetlent to ' 
Klsowlior<> in the sketch of I»ckc'ii philiMopliy, li 
the uni venality and nt-ceMsily of certain idea* or o( tli ty 

of our knowlu<lg« is not cli-urly brought out. To giv« ..>re 

instance. lu di»ciu>sing Herl>ort Kpcncer'a t<«t of truth «°e 
read: — "The validity of <iur I ' '■ U not abaotyfly 

guarant<<(>d by the fact that it* fin assuniptioiMi mim tte 

result of the exp' ''Oa." Sfwooer't 

criterion is tho iui|<  r r mtmirm ti^htr- 

wise, owing to iniiform • A \i-i.» t, 

too, is given of Si)oncei But, de^i' he 

liiHtk is a |H.>rfuct storehouM) of iufoniiatioo, accor«t« on the 



Vliob 



OTHER NEW BOOKS. 



A Boop Ppo-Bplton. 

Mr. t'. H. Thomas, tljc author of OlitfilX <>F the ANCilxvBont 
Waii UKVEAI.r.lJ(Ho<lder & Stoughton.Ss. (Id.), is a burgher of th« 
Frtre State who, though of Swiss origin, has spent forty years in 
South Afric.i. His book is written to prove that tho Bocra have 
Im'i'U in the wrong throughout their qu:irr«d with n». I  "t 

really t«'ll us much that we did not know U-fore ; bu' id 

have Imsmi ditlicult, seeing that the subject I it 

thoroughly Ihreslu-d out by iiuiny wTitera. t 

thing is that here is a writer who knows the facts, and 
from Imi)i'rialistic bias, endorsing all the gravest ch»i„ 
Mr. Kitzpatrick's indictment. Ho quotes facts to show that 
Boer oflicialdom is a hotlxxl of corruption — e.g., 

On Olio occasion a rather highly-place<l nfllclal obtained a 

contract for repairing certain streets in 1' ''. 

The work lH>ing worth i;20.0(H) at most, tl o 
be shared by the several olUoiul i>articipant«. 

Mr. Thomas demonstrates tho reality of <iil- L h i.ui.icr 

grievances. He ex|H>ses the machinations of tho AXrikaodcr 

Bond ; and he expresses the lK>lief that Mr. (" ' Ui did 

liis best to avert a wiir. At the same tinii' he :i Boers 

are worthy of our resjK'ct for oti   ss 

ill the lleUI, holding that the I!' le 
cause of all the niisi-hief. His cuiielusioii is 

That Hollander element coaipriscs int- mo^i msidioas 
menace, and, like a cancer, must be uns|>aringly excised from 
South Africa, unless eiici>ur.i;;enient is intended to lie given 
for an attempt to go one U-ller next time, with a re|>etition, 
or nit her an aggravation, of the horrors of win- in 

life and treasure. ... As to tlH< Dutch '. .11 

not entail any excessive hardship if it is c<iaally banished as 
an otllcial language, setting that Knglish is, on the whole, not 
more unfamiliar to the bulk of tho Boi-r ixsiple th.in pure High 
Dutch is, and seeing that the dual right accortU>d to Dutch 
as an official language in the C'apc^ Colonies implies that High 
Dutch had yet to be learnt there, but had been intended to 
1>e use<l for Bond objects, and as an instrument for scditiou 
and conspiracy. 

Though writt<<n in qiuiint and rather tanfcled Knglish, Mr. 
Thomas' lM>ok is a notable contribution to the literature of toe 
South African cintnivirsv. 

The Epic 

In A HisTouv OF Eric Poirrnv (Post-Yik<;iuax) (Oliver .ind 
Boyd, 5s.) Mr. John Clark has a great opix)rtunity in de:iling 
with a literary question which h;us been unduly ne^ d 

he realizes the scojic of his task. AVo wish w« could ,: lio 



122 



LITERATURE. 



[August 18, 1900. 



kad folly carried ont hl« conroption oC It, bur, iiiifortunatoly, In 
two rMpertM tio )I(h>h not biiocooI. H'ih taito is rixmI, as wo 
Itladly admit, in a^ranlini; prttino or lilsimo 1<> tlio vnrioiis )>ootM 
whan ktt pMMM nudor rovi<>\r. I{« is jiulifioiiH, (n<<« from 
«sa|Q(M«tlon, and hns .in cyo for ONMMiliuls, But liis di'flnitions 
lark orispiifHS nnd ooinplotont'vi, and his own stylo is afToottMl 
and rough. To doQno tho opif as " u talo of dignity alx>iit 
individuiiU" hnrdly mpotn the case: it doos not insist on unity 
of tttrmo, on rapidity of arlion, or on iKWUty in tlio enilM>llish- 
ments. In his m.-innor, ii;;iiin, thorc is a ((roat doni of hollow 
rhetoric, which |H>rhn|)s ho has c:iU!;ht from the lator Latin opic. 
There is also a pcncral striving; alter ollwt, as in his wor<ls c»f 
Aeneas : — " He wjis not a nioro religious missionor, ami <•(>!- 
portcur of his ancestral ponatos. . . . Ho is not a iK>or littli< 
Trojan monae with a uiisxion." In a wonl, the stylo is ugly, and 
this i* moat nnfortnnato in a critic of stylo. 

But when all is sjiid, Mr. Clark's iiuok is distinctly interest- 
ing. The Introduction, which sketches the rise of the epic, and 
describes briefly the ancient poems of that kind, is indeed a 
triHo inconclnsive ; but tho iHvly of the work deals with writers 
who are not often sfudiiM critically, but ai-o used in N<-holaslic 
work chiefly for " uns«>ons." Plots and charactoi-s are dis- 
cussed, and typical pu-ssitges given, all iH^ng translated. Mr. 
Clark can point a contrast well. Thus of Apollonius lihodius ho 
aays : — 

Jason's prowess, if in part a natural ferment, is also tho 
calm and calculating virtue that is shown by a heart fortilled 
by a Iwlicf ill tho offensive science atlopted, in this case, that 
ot "■' Boowuir, though a innutly mail, flgbts tho llre- 

dr.. lit prcarr.ingcmeiits or safeguarding. 

The chann of Virgil he flnds to lio a " thoughtful not a sensuous 
one." Alx>ut Milton he ssiys a new thing, and a true thing : — 

When one roads him aloud, and stops at the pausing 
places, what is a common expcfioiice ? Why, tli<> music con- 
tinues ; it sings on in tho oars, it undulates harmoniously in 
the air, and dies away in a cutbanasy of sounil. 

When he comes to tho lessor lights of the epic, Latin, (Sernian, 
Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, ho is quii-k to seize on an excel- 
lence, and to illustrate it by examples. He is ospeciiilly happy 
on Lucaii, whose int4-lle<'tual stisMigth he recognizes while ad- 
mitting that he assayed an iinpossiblo task. Hero and there a 
acntcDCC is illuminating. Of Morris' Jason, for example, he 
aaya : — " One breathes tho very air of romance, and to mo its 
langnorons verso sounds like tho very diigo of the old epic 
manner." In short, in spito of tho faults to which we have 
allDde<l, there is a gn^t deal in Mr. Clark's book that is worth 
bearing in mind. 

Thpea Little Encl&ndeps. 

Lib>:i:ai.i.->m am> tiik Kmi'Iiii: (Brimloy JohiiMm, .Is. ftd.) 
ronsists of three iiolitical essays by Mr. Francis W. Hirst, Mr. 
Oilbcrt Murray, and Mr. J. L. Hammond. Tho essayists give 
Bs tho impression of iH-ing clever young men fresh from tho 
T" ' i;>s they l>elong to the " inlelloctiials," as 

I :;ed, of the Palmorston Club. At all events 

tiK'y bring a kii<mle«lgo of Crc<'k and Hoinan history to Ix-ar 
upon tho facts which th<'y gjitlier from newspapers and Blue- 
books, and write In a stylo which will s«>em very convincing to 
those who are already convinced. Hoim-liines they actually 
prove tbingo. Mr. Hirst, for example, who writes of " Ini- 
yw-i-ii-.n nnd Finance," provits lieyond tho possibility of confra- 

< it a largo army costs more than a small one, and that 
'  • ••■'', ,t fliiring the 
' I lie variun-i 

. .Mr. liirit's mistake 
i . he li:iN also provtvl 

iv and navy 

< , ,' at all, it 
teaches thai •.t.irvmg ariiiaiiients is laisc oconoin.v— at all events 
when the iIn iiitive of keeping them strong enough to smash 
possible < fcaaiblc. Nor is it quite accurate to say 
that the .... ••-rnaincnts <f '••■•<• Britain have " forced 



tho paco " on (ho Continent. It would bo Just as true to say 
that tho Continent "forced the paco" by introducing compulsory 
military service, or that Fninco " fon-od the pace" by allying 
herself with Itnssia and making it di'sinilile that we should l>o 
prepanil to ims-t tho Fwin-h and Kiissian fleets in combination. 
Hi>wever, though wo do not agroo with what Mr. Hirst says, wo 
admit that bo says it well. His catsixy is the lR<st of tho three. 
Mr. Murray's essjiy on tho exploit.ation of inferior races is too 
aiMdoiiii<r to bo very profitable, and thi're are a good many 
generalisations in it that will not stand analysis. " Knslavod 
people," siiys Mr. .Murray, for example, " very largely tend to 
des|)airand die." On the contmry tho savage p<s>ples that die 
out in the pn-scnce of a higher civilization ai-e just tho peoples 
that are not enslaved — the Maories, llu.' Kskinus-s, and tho Ked 
lii<lian«, for insiaiic<>. The others gi-nerally incr«>as«5 and 
tnidiiply to tho |K)int of prosontiiig ixilitieians with rather a hard 
nut to crack — as witness the "'black jMsril " ((iiostion in the 
United States, and tho rapid incro-aso of tho Btintii race in South 
.Africa. Mr. Hammond's pai)er on " Colonial and Foreign 
Policy " is a violent attack on Mr. Chamljorlaiii, who seems to 
l>o tho incarnation of everything that is objoi-tionablo to Mr. 
Ibiiiiinond. 

Dp. Japp'a Doxy. 

We close Sdmi; Hkiifxikm Dkalt With, by Dr. Alexander 
H. Japp (Burleigh, (Ss.), with a feeling of rogrt?t that a iMwk 
showing so much ability and honesty of pur|H»se should bo so 
liltio calculated to enhance the writer's reputation. Tho 
" heresies " here denouncwl by Dr. .Japp arc tho publishotl 
opinions of such writers as Mr. Andrew Lang, Dr. Westcrinarck, 
Sir Henry Maine, Lord .\vebury, Mr. (ioldwin Siiiitli, Mr. 
(Ji-.iiit Allen, Mr. .\ddis, i><litor of the cln-omotypo Hexateuch, 
Mr. Flinders Potrie, Mr. Hhys Davids, Miss Mary Kingsley, 
and Pr«>fessors Khys and Margolioutli on certain very disput- 
able iKunts of ethnology and history. It would l>c easy to (III 
several volumes on this " omnibus " principle with attacks on 
quest ionnlilo opinions put forth by euiinont writers. It woiibl 
lie ditlicult to crowd into one such volume more blundors in 
taste, judgment, and cloniontary scholai-ship than Dr. .Japp has 
contrivctl to do in this. Dr. Japp apiiears to lie a Scotchman. 
Few of his compatriots, wo venture to say, would bo guilty o( 
such stuff as the following : — 

But to put tilings square al)out a conllnneil and ignorant 
and shameful confusion as regards Jahv«3 aiul Kloliim was not 
a small matter, but radical so far as a large 8o«;tion of Mr. 
Ciraiit Allen's book wont. But Mr. Lniig there knew no more 
than his author. Author and criti<; were aliki^ in their 
noscieuce there, which just shows tho depths to which learning 
and s<Mence have fallen in England ; Aiciitlrn aiiilx) they of 
English igiiorani'O, conceit, pretence, and tin- self-assertion 
to which literary men can show tlienist>Ives capable in thus 
vying, vying outright, with the ixjiiticians and tho " states- 
men " — -so they all hang together — great men and great 
thinkers in England ; J)uf— nowhere else. 
Surely Mr. I^ang is a Scotchman, though wo l)eliove him to 
have Ikhmi educated in England. Wc dai-e say that Dr. Japp is 
right, and Mr. Lang wrong, on the ((iicstion whether tho Israel- 
ites did or (lid not at one lime burn their children as offerings 
to their di'ity or dcitit>s. Y<'t even Mr. Lang has his merits. 
He does at all events write tob'rablo English and put tlio prop«T 
accents on his (irwk. Dr. Japp, for tho most part, prudently 
leaves his Greek uiiaccento«l, and in the rare cas<'s whore ho 
inserts accents the result makes us stare. His Hebrew, which 
ho parados wlierevcr ho has a chance, makes us both stare ami 
gasp. Wo have some doubts whether ho could write otit and 
point corrtH-tl.v tho first dozen verses of tioncsis. Yet ho 
presumes to lc<-tiiro not merely Mr. Andrew Unng, but Canon 
Driver and Profi*s»or Alargoliontli, on tin" origin and meaning of 
the name Yah woh. He is evidently unawan; that scholars aro 
practically agre<'<l that it is a simple derivative from tho verb 
foruietl by tho throe last of its four letters. Tho only question 
is whether it Is a Hiphil or a Qal form— the meaning in tlio one 
case Ix'iiig " the Creator," in the other " tho Eternal One." 



Aii^u^t IR, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



128 



Tha Truth about Baronata. 

A coiisidir.ililc port ion of A HikTOIIT OF Till: BAHONCTACiK, 
I)y Kniiu-is \V. Plxlcy (DiicUwurtli, 10m. M. n.), 1» taken ii|i wild 
)intcnt!4. Olio pntimt nlono oociiiiii-H tliirty-ono pngon of Hinnll 
print in tlio Latin InnKiingo, iind prolmMy could not )>o trans- 
Intotl, even with tli<! liolp of a dictionary, by noma of llio 
liaronotM of tlio pii's<>nt day. Otiior pagCM arc clovolod to 
iT-ports of tlie indi);iialion inoetinffH wliii-li harom'ts hold from 
liiiio to time to prutosl npiiiist InfrinKOinent-i of tlioir priviloKCM, 
and to cori-etiKdidfiico on tlio vexed question wlietlier tlie eldest 
sons of rorliiiii tmniiK-ls are or arc not entllled to receive llio 
honour of lini^litliood without iKTrormiiiK feats of arms, or 
ehanffiiiK their polilics, or «ul>scril)iiij; to the parly funds. Mr. 
Pixley is of opinion that the man who desires a hariinet<'y 
doHiros a ftood thinfc ; and he indignantly repudiates the " most 
absurd contention" that " Baronotcics were indiHcriminatcly 
sold to any one willinp; to j)rovide funds for the Uoyal founder's 
))ecuniai'y nece.H.sitie»." They could not have them without 
<|ualinoati<)ns somewhat similar to those formerly ref|»lr<'d of 
l''ell()\vs of .\11 Souls— Im-hc iin/i(.s, Ac. It is admitted, howevj-r, 
that " jjressure was undoubfoilly iiutupon KfiitloiiU'n of i)osilion " 
to accept an honour for which they would liave to pay into theKx- 
eheqnorthe sumof .^l,()i)5in addition toihe eliarpes of passingthe 
))at«nt — a fact which seems to indicate that the original baronets 
were le88 dazzled by the dignity of the degree than Mr. Pixley is. 

Aftap Mr. Lecky. 

Mr. .loliii I'atrick Gannon attempts, in A Reviitw op Inisii 
llisTonY, IN Hki,ation to tiik Social Dkvfj.oi'.mknt of IitKi.AND 
(Unwin, Os.), to "explain historically some of the dilliculties 
suggested by the present state of Ireland." The b<x)k is a com- 
mentary, or a sort of " leading article" in 282 ])agcs, on the 
liistory of Ireland from the earliest epoch to the end of the 
ninotconth century. Not a single dale is mentioned. Each 
century of the long roll covered by the book is indicated as 
events unfold theinselvos ; but for details one nnist refer else- 
where. In his preface the author acknowledges his indebted- 
ness for the facts of modern Irish history to Mr. Ix?cky. Mr. 
tiannon owes iiioro than that to Mr. Lecky, who is the model of 
his style, and inspires many of his conclusions. Mr. (Jannon 
thinks that Ireland would have had a happier falo had she fallen 
under the domination of a Latin, and particularly a Celto-Latin 
nation, like Franco. But ho advises his countrymen to " bow- 
to accomplished facts." " Obviously it is the interest of the 
Irish people to coinlially embrace Knglish civilization, while 
retaining a healthy Irish spirit, and softening with the light 
Celtic touch the harsher outlines of Knglish life." Mr. Gannon, 
following in the footsteps of his great exemplar, Mr. Lecky, delivers 
his opinions wit lithe cold neutrality and something of the dogmatism 
of the impnrtial judge. But those who desire a rajiid and on the 
whole a sound estimate of the historical causes which have made the 
Ireland of to-day what it is will ftnd it in this brightly-written work. 



FICTION. 



Certain Circulation. 

Their own particular public awaits the btxiks of many a 
novelist, and nothing that the critics may say will check their 
rapidly moving fingers. Among those who " having writ " 
move on to the inunediato prtxluction of another long book is 
Mr. S. R. Crockett, who, in the few years in which he has bound 
to him an enormous following, has produced close on a score of 
books. ".Joan of the Sword Hand" was with us yestenlay, to-<lay 
comes LiTTi.F, Anna Maiik (Smith, Elder, (>s.). Like the books 
that have gone bcfor* it is, in its way, a thoroughly satisfactory 
piece of work. A vigour informs the narrative, there is a 
picturesque feeling running through it, and there is, above all, 
:i sense of what the public wants. If it bo granted that the 
skilful use of the c/ich«j is the last word of the novelist's art, 
then Mr. Crockett will shine among the most brilliant of his 
fellow writers of " historical romance," for he is a master in 
the sublimation of the commonplace. 



ItWMU, 

•dy baaa m 

the agreo- 



Mn.. .1. II. 
perhaiw, Im> Ih' 

IKipiilar author, but, whatever the lime, 
able task of writing her thirty-third mni : 
n<>Hs niid Bvldity. Till: Ko<»tfai.l of Katk ('■ 
old-fashione<l, in a wiuiid, well-made ntnry on  •< 
— HUch a novel as <>n« Iuih some rl^hl to ex|MM't I << 

I>en of the author of " fi<«<irg«' (Jeith of Fen Court. 

MisH Hona N. Carey han a coiisidfrable r<>putaL!i. 
nnderstniid, as a writer of what 

romances." Lifk'm Tiiiviai. Hoimi i: 1 

add to this celebrity, for it is a simpb- pitve of work, in 
eU>ar, and faintly eiiiiTtainiiig, whii'h telU, from a i 
ki>e|>er's [Hiint of view, of a few of the more su|MTlli'i:il I.. •■ .;:>l 
trials of life. TIioho who dread t ho psychologist in i:< 
turn to Miss Carey for refreshment or a tMrdativt-. 
Poaalbta CIpoulatlon. 

Ex|M>rience in novel writing nhould bring canning to tb« 
hand of the writer, but Vaxitv'h PnicE (White, 6«.) goeti to 
prove thot a lady who has written wveral noveiN ean «lill 
present us with a striking example of • i, 

ill-eonsiilere<l work. Miss K. Yolland a 

is dulness Iouk drawn out, her inelho<l of preseniing ; i 

quite unskilful. The iilea of a lady of fortune with :i ••( 

old age and a determination to avoid association with it might 
have lx>en agreeably developinl, but the point is wast«>d. " *Tl» an 
old maxim in the schools, that vanity is the foo<I of fooln," quote* 
Miss Yolland, and perhaps after all she has provided pabalam for 
the majority. 

The exact " ]>lacing " of Mr. Francis H. Hardy's new 
book To TiiF. IIfamng OF TUt: Si:a (Smith, Elder, t>s.) iit rather 
diflicult. Although cleverly writN-n, the straUKO happenings 
wliich befall Carroll Livingston, the soulful adventures and the 
material sensations of a gambling stfK-kbroker, arc not wholly 
convincing. " To the Healing of the Sea " has a mado-up air 
unknown to the most KUCCes.Hful forms of Oction. But the author 
works with a will, and his book, if not a work of art, should at 
least be found interesting. 

One of Many, by Vera Macha (Digby, Ix>ng, 0«.), has the 
distinction of being the most amateurish novel wo hare read 
for many a long day. This is how Ester Annytage, who ' 
her autobiography and draws the picture of her own v. 
addresses her guardian who asks wli- i leavo hi* 

house to go and bo a governess — " Oh, -r '. IVvn't 

make the wrench more terrible. God a -.v 

great the trial is to tear myself away from il 

friends ; but duty sternly beckons, and I cannot, must not, 
turn away my gaze. I mii»t answer to the call." Tho •■^'l "ns 
not in the least imperative, but Ester always puts <t 

way. " One of Many," if taken with sauco of satiriw inmiuuc, 
may 1)e made amusing. 

It is some years since " Lady Aiidley's Secret " set a 
fashion in mclodr.imatic (lotion, but there are echoes of it yet. 
The Beaitikii. Mils. Li:ai'h (Ward, L«iok, Us. (5d.) has some far 
off sounds of that old music, but the style is not the style of Miss 
Braddon. Thus of the heroine — " Cristiua's was a f.ice to dream 
of — to glorify, if jiossible, on canvas, from the chin, sweetly 
roundcil, to the brow crowne<l by wiives of golden hair." Wo 
don't quite know what it means, but we arc certain Miss Winifred 
Graham, the author, feels that she is helping us to realize this 
lady who is capable of " damnable villainies " and comes to an 
honest Adelphi bad end. Those who like weak melodrama in a 
novel shotdd read " The Beautiful Mrs. Li-aoh " ; we think it 
would cure them. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 



The jmblic library may bo said to have reached ita jubilee. 
The first Public Libraries Act was passed on July 30, just 
fifty years ago, and the progress of the libraries since is, on the 
whole, a matter for cimgratulation. At first no gi«at advantage 
■was taken of the powers conferred by Parliament. A few 



124 



LITERATURE. 



[Augutit 18, 1900. 



Ilire •» ' 1 towni« ostaltIiHlio<I liltnrii-M, but in tlio 

rest f)f Rnj^laii n>niiiiiNMl |imclioally :t iloiil lottor fur 

yevs. lit Loiiitiiii, only t>m« piiblio liliniry (>\ist<><l -tho TTost- 
nlnstcr Library, »UrUMl in 1852. Biit.!iinoc I8SI) tlii< piililic huro 
•trnkcDed to tJicir o|>|M>rtunitloH, and in IffilO thort; wvro ko nc- 
thing Ilko 187 libmritw at work. In tho iiant ilooudo thin 
number has incrcA-scd by 130. Tho inotruiHilis is still tlio luont 
inert of a" ";«;iliti«w». 

Ill p to its |>opulation WnloH ha< tho InrKost 

nam' Tho niiniii;; unci ninniirucfiirln); districts 

in h I W;ilo«i are conHidon»l)ly aliiMtl of tho .igri- 

iil anil Ir<>I:md an; backw.ird, but in 
> -rly-iX(|>nlato<l districts niilitnto jfroiitly 

against t' -liincnt of librurit'M, and in Iroland tho partial 

nature of l... .. ::iik .\ct« proves as little induuuincut to tho 
rural districts as did the halfpenny rate In England during tho 
low years it was in force. 

Tho twcnty-flrst anniversary of tho Wigan Public Library 
mw an appropriate <lay for conferring tho froe<Icini of tho county 
boroagh of WIgnn on tho Earl of Crawforil, who is chairman of 
' ichwl it with many gifts of rare books, 

well to rci'ognizo Ivor<l Crawford's many 
MINI. I- 11. r ,.!ily to the nation, in tho em-ouragoment of 
a-'tniMiii.- il -■■iciicc. bnt also to their own locality, with which 
tho Lindsays have long been closely connected. Mention was, 
of course, made of Lord Crawford's bibliogniphical work and of 
his own library, perhaps tho tlnest private collection now in 
existence. The library, which is so well care«l for by tho present 
earl, was begun by his grandfather and largely increa.se<l by his 
father. In an inf4'resting speech Lord Crawlonl spoko of tho 
long-«tandinir intercut of his family in libraries. Ono of his 
anc<- ' rs ago, had bnilt up what was, for those days, 

a ?!■■ f b<M<ks and tho most important librarj' in tho 

This nnfortiinately lK>camo dispersed when 
; , - sufferecl in those turbulent times. 

Tho Guildhall Library has had somo good fortune during 
tho past year. A collection of lxx)ks relating to Sir Thomas 
More, formed by the late Mr. Cock, Q.C., has lxH>n presented 
by Lord Justice Collins and others. Tho late Dr. Willshiro 
bc<jueathe<l his very coiiiplot« and valuable collection of early 
prints, playing cards, and lxK>ks illustrating tho history of 
engraving, and it is propose<l to exhibit wmio of the examples. 
A collection of Cruickshankiana and a library of dramatic 
literature aro other valuable accessions. Tho museum has 
been equally favoured. In contrast to tho majority of library 
reports, that of tho Guildhall records a substantial increase 
In the attendances of readers. 

Her Majesty's Stationery Odlce has decided to make further 
grants of Government records and publications to tho public 
libraries and learned so<-ieties. Tho list includes most of tho 
Tolnmes of tho Rolls series and the Calendars of State Papers. 
It U to bo hopc<l that the fato of these publications will not be 
to repose unseen in out-of-the-way corners on dusty shelves. 
Having receivtNl tho Ixxiks could not our libraries make somo 
effort, in tho shai>o of indexes and annotate<I hand lists, that 
would better a<lvertise their possession of these works 7 

A Bill has been introduced in tho Legislative .\ssembly of 
New South Wales to incori>orato tho National Art (>.illi-iy and 
Public Library at Sydney under ono bo<ly of trustees, and pro- 
vide for the nianag<fiKM!t with an annual endowment of £4,000. 

to carry out conditions laid 
' ) has already presented somo 

lU,i' , and lias declared his intention of ultiniately hand- 

ing(j ^ . Iiolo of his library. It is a collection of .Vustmli-iin 
books of remarkable completeness and world-wide renown. 

The first report of tho Acton Public Library is for the niosi 
part devoted to the history of tho movement which resulted in 
tbeopeni ^' on January 3 of this yi3ar. Tho 

Bgnres in '■r.\t thf library already enjoys a cou- 

•idrv 111 OS Ihu institu- 

tion own. Tho library 

kaa been dcci ;>l from tho payment of local rates. 



(Torrcsponbcticc. 



"liA VIE EST 

Ln vie est vnino — 

Un |>eu d'nmonr, 
Un pen de hnine, 

Rt puis — bonjonr. 



VAINB." 
I>:i vi<- est hr/>ve — 

L'n pen ires|K)ir, 
Un |)OU do reve, 

Et puis— Iwnsolr. 



TO THE EDITOR. 

Sir, — I st>nd you, on tho chance of your caring to niako use 
of them, two versions of Montenalken's lyric, of which you 
publislietl somo tmnslntions in your last numlHM'. Those aro 
select«Hl from a dojM^n (which in turn were selected from nearly 
500) that ap|>eared in the Joiirnnl of Education, March, 1000: — 

Life's fruitless way ! Life's brief delight ! 

A little mating, A little hoping, 

A little hating, A little moping. 

And then — goo<l-<lay. And then — goo<l-night. 

To the second I may now " o»ii up "• : — 

Our life's a stage ; Our life's a gleam, 

A while wo play A swallow flight ; 

At love and rage. We hope, wo droam. 

And then— good-day ! .\nd then — good-night! 

It is, as you say, un insoluble problem, and it is easier to 
point out where your corrcspoudenl fails — by giving up the 
antith<>sis of love, hate, and by substituting " grief " for 
" hojie " — than to " cap " him. 

I believe I was the first to call Mr. Du Maurier's attention 
to the lines which so exactly express his philosophy of life, and I 
remem1)er well his repeating to mo at tho Athenieum the free 
paraphrase which afterM-ards appear<>d as tho epilogue to 
" Trilby," a paraphrase which like Dryden's Huratian Odo 
betters any traoslatiou. 

Yours faithfully, 

Aug. 12. I'. STORK. 



Sir, — I venture to send you another translation of tho 
French verses of which you publish translations in last week's 
Literature, which, if less graceful than those you give, is, 
perhaps, somewhat closer to tho original. 

This life is vain : This life is brief: 

Love's fleeting sway, IIojw's short delight, 

Hate's passing |)ain, A dream's relief, 

And then — good-day. And then — good-night. 

Faithfully yours, 

MARY GRACE WALKER. 
^ TTiinraersmith-terrace, London, W. Aug. i:!. l',K)(). 



Sir, — May I offer a version of " La vio est vaiiie " ? 
Our life is vain. Our life is .short. 

Wo love, we fight, Brief hopes flit by, 

Make up again, Brief dreams, brief .sport, 

And then— good-night. And then — good-bye. 

Yours truly, 

J. D. ANDRRSO.V. 
17, Blakcsley-Bvenue, Ealing, W., August 11. 



Wo have also received two more versions. 

How vain is life ! How life fleets Ijy ! 

Love's little ray — A little light— 

A little strife— A little sigh— 

And then — good-<lay. And then — good-night. 

C. E. M. 

All life is vain : All life Is brief : 

The old, old lay A dreamy view 

Of love and pain— Of hope and grief — 

And then— g'xxl-day. And then — adiou. 

L. BERLIN. 



August 18, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



125 



AUTHORS AND PUBLISHnRS. 

The DiiHy Chronicle xtiiten this wcok that " if Mr. ClminlxT- 
loin ooiittult<><l tlio piililislici-M rlicy would Ih'k liim not to iiiHiht 
on II K<'i>«''':il <'l<'Cti(m tlii-. ;Mitiiiiiii." No doubt llilx i<* truo to :i 
oortiiin fxtfut ; but a Kciioral olwtion is ii m-ct-xMnry evil, iinil 
tlioro ani publishi-i-M, wc Ijnow, wlio think that tho Honncr it is 
ovor and dono with thi> lit-ttor. Tlic cloud wliicli Iiun hnnic over 
tlie book ti-ado for tho past twolvo months seonis likely to 
remain duiiiiK the autuuin ; tho eloctioHH, it U thought, could 
not make mutters much worse ; and it would be a groat relief to 
start a new yonr with a fair course ahead. 

There lias been, as we said last week, some talk of the half- 
crown novel takiuK the place of tho six-shillinR novel. But 
.should this idea lea<l to auythiuK. it will probably Ihi some tinio 
lK>foro it wouUI take practical shape in the majority of publishing 
(Irms. Certainly there is no sif;ii of an impendiuK chauKO in tho 
autumn arrauKements alivady made known, though it has l»oon 
liiuted that Mr. .Murr.iy's now half-cii>wn series is intoDdo<t as 
a step in tho new direction. Wo can state authoritatively, 
however, that this is far from being tho case. Mr. Murray, as 
tho I'ubligluni' Circuldr remarked last week, does not pretend 
to give a tii\-shilling article for two-and-six. The novel of 
ortho<lox length he )iublisho!i at tho orthodox figure, and his 
list pn>ves that he is making a feature of tho six-shilling story. 
Tho demand for Miss Mario foivllis new six-shilling romance 
*' Tho Master Christian," which has compelled Messrs. 
Methuen to i)rint lOO.tKKl copit-s befoit> publication— tho book is 
to ai)pear on the'iyth iiist.— shows that it the public wants :» l..".l.- 
it is prepaivd to pay the regular price. 

Messrs. Hutchinson also have arranged to publish mcmiIv 
thirty now six-shilling novels during the autumn by well-known 
authors. The list includes books by Mr. Richard Wliiteing, 
Madame Sarah Grand, Mr. J. A. Steuart, Mr. Frankfort Moore, 
Mr. Joseph Hatton, Mr. CutcliHo Myne, Miss Arabella 
Kenoiily, Mr. B. L. Farjeon, Mrs. Hugh Frasor, Mr. .J. .S. 
Kletcher, Mr. Tom Gallon, tho late Mrs. Lynn Linton, Mr. 
William Le Queux, Mr. Carlton Dawe, Miss Adeline Serjeant, 
and Mr. Iticliard Pryoe. 

We understand that tho first serial novel to appear in Mr. 
Murray's Moiithlij Mtitjozhm will be a new work by Mr. Anthony 
Hoi)o, entitled " Tristi-am of Blent." Tho motif is that a man 
ra.iy mar his life by doing one great wrong and yet Im< a very 
worthy fellow at heart. Tho story will run through twelve 
numbers of the review, appearing in volume form in tho autumn 
of next year. 

Sir Walter Armstrong's life of Sir Joshua Ueynolds, which 
Mr. Heinemann has in prejiaration, is the most sumptuous art 
volumeyet announced lor the autumn. It will bo uniform with 
Sir Walter Armstrong's " Gainslwrough." Tho seventy photo- 
gravures and six lithographs in colour illustrate the develop- 
ment of the painter and are reproductions, where possible, of 
the less known ami less readily accessible exiimples of his art. 
The excuse for a new life of Ueynolds is that tho century 
and moro which has elapsed since his death has allowvd a " niori? 
Ilnal " judgment to l)e formed, lx>tli of tho man and his art. 
than was [mssiblo wlicu Leslie wrote, or even when Taylor 
prepared Leslie's work for tho press. 

Mrs. Ady's new work on "The Painters of Florence." 
which wo have already announced .is coming from Mr. 
John Murray, will, we understand, differ in character 
from Mr. Berenson's well-known " Florentine Painters," and 
other books of a similar kind. It is not in the nature of critical 
essays, but consists of biographical sketches of these masters. 
It embodies the results of tho researches in the Florentine 
Archives which have been undertaken with so much success 
during the last twenty or thirty years, by tho late Signor 
Milanesi and other German and Italian writers. No Lives of 
Florentine Masters have appeared in English since Mrs. Jameson 
pul)lished her " Memoirs of Karly Italian Painters." Mrs. Ady's 
IxH.l; will be fully illustrated with reproductions of frescoes and 



''O M to 

 ri.l nl 



I- 



..t 



pictures ' • n,. („.,., 

gi^c a H Mvic :, 

the progreskive development of HonaiMtanre art 

Mr. Swinburne :- -•.•■.( i,, i^ making go.~l 
the mvlsion and gi hii vemo for tb<- 

whi<di will prolmlily :ijiiM;ir nevt yo»r in nix or inorti rnlnnwi 
He has also written a dedicator}- poem for a iM<<>ond «<dUi<NI oC 
" R.w.-innmd," which Memm. Chatto and Windiu tre to pvblUh 
in the autumn. 

Another attractive it<>m which Messrs. Chalfo and Windoa 
nro preparing for the autumn is n volnmo of roc..!''- •  hy 
Herman Charles Merivale, entitlf>d " Bur. 8tii«e. 
lectitms." The same publishers now h.ive In the prf«.. \ 
HI. and IV. of tho " History of tho Four OoorKOs." bv 
McCarthy, M.P., and Justin Huntly McCarthy, con. 
work ; and, as already announced, they are prep i 
edition of Volume V. of " A Hist4>ry of Our Own T 
form with tho first four volnmes cf tho Cabinet I 
bringing tho narrative from 1 • Diarooml 

other books include<l in tU: iramo an- 

on Old London, by .Mr. C. W. He<kotl«.rn. entitliMl '• I. 
Memories : Scnial, Historical, and Ty|M.graphlcal," anti .. i..,„ 
edition of Pierce Egan's onco p<ipnlar " Tom and Jerry : Life in 
Londim," with an introduction by John Camden Hcilton. Sir 
Walter Besant's b«H)k on " fiist London." uniform with his 
" South London " volume, will not Imj ready before tho dpring. 
A portion of it has boon a|i|>«arinK 'n Scrihnar'M. 

In fiction Messrs. Chatto will start the season on S. 
berlitU with Sir Walter Besaut's "Tho Fourth Genera 
lo bo followed a week later by .Mark T^^••.lin'» new roloffle, • 
-Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg " and other stories 
skeuhes. On Si-pUnnbor 'Mth they will publish 
Winw.xxl," a novel on the War of Indei>ondenco by an 
author, Mr. Roljert Xeilson Stophcus, embracing r 
occurreil in New York and London during the ye. 
178<(. Mr. Ernest A. Vizetelly's edition of Z<ila'» " ( 
Plassjins " (base<l n|xin tho old i 

early in S<M)temI)er. Tho n>niaii. \, 

new list of novels include " As Luck Would Have It.. ' by W. 
Westall : " The .Second Adam," by M. P. Shiel ; " The Blue 
Diamond," by L. T. Meade ; " The Bag of Diamouifa." a 

volume of four stories by F. Manville Fem, • -Tl,.. str 

Adventures of Mr. Verschoyle," by W. T. 

vMu-> Aiiminl for 1900); and "A Missi.,., ..,,... ,„ .„r^. 
Alexander. Messrs. Chatto, by the way, have token over throe 
more of .Mrs. Alexander's works from Messrs. V. V. White— 
•' A Fight with Fate." " Mrs. Chrichton's Creditor," and 
" B;irbara, Lady's .Maid and Pwress "—and are bringing them 
out in thrce-and-six|>enny editions. 

The end of tho autumn season will seo the first volume of 
the translation of tho Memoirs of Chateaubrian,!. «1,;,.|, \|, 
Freemantlo has in preparation. It is somewhat su: 
publication of a complete translation of tho .,..,...,,, 
biography which Chateaubriand produce<l in his years of r 
mcnt, fifty o<ld years ago, should have been left to the .nf. ; . 
of ono of our youngest publishers. There are to bo si \ v, . an. - 
altogether, to appear quarterly. Tho translation is being dooo 
by Alexander Toixeira do Mattos. 

.Mr. Elliott Stock adds to the I > 

autumn which ap|ican>d in last we. 

mi'ut of " Tho Minor Writings of Cha ),s," lo bo pub- 

lishtHl in the " B»Kik Lovers' Library," i . F. G. Kitten's 

wlitorship. Xow information c^mcerning the more ephemeral 
writings of Dickens is pn>mised, and an appendix will be added 
of tho numerous spnrioos pablications which Dickons 
endeavoured to suppress. 

The third volume of Dr. Hastings' " Dictionary of tho 
Bible " will bo published by Messrs. T. and T. Clark on or 
about Angust 25. The volnme extends from Kir to Plei.idev 

Two of the Norse .Sagas, " Kit' i ' and " A 

to bo published by Messrs. Soi.; : in dram 

written by Mr. F. J. Winbolt. 



Tho 
and 
" Philip 

• ---,„ 
!i 
1 
f 
d 



126 



LITERATURE. 



[August 18, 1900. 



Mr. Hoiiiomann hu In prcparmtlon an Knglixh translation 
cthi •• I^i llciiovatioii <l<« rAs'u"." The iHiok will 

bec<i ••oil liy Mr. Hfiiry Xoriiian. 

A fourth voUiiuo of '• Si\|MMiiiy Bdli-s I.,<'tlros " will l>o 

puMI'JtiP^ nc\t wt>ok «t tlio SIk" "f tln^ l"ni«i>rii. Tlu* new lKx>k, 

■hrrt' whioli |>rc<'ralixl it. is thi« work of Mr. T. W. 11. 

1 . :iiillior of •• l.ifortry l'ar:il>U>s." It i» to be ciilliil 

•• Xl" • ' ' S'- ri^." jimI \ I ; ...ii-i-t i-titiroly of sorioiis i)i<H'i>s. 

Ti • ; " .iu;..u.i..i i;. Mi.j's Boki>." of St. AUmn*. 

pabl: ir» ago by Mr. Klliot Stoi-k. is lK>in{r n>- 

iHlxv. I- form, with tlip lato Win. Bliidos" originul 

preface. 

Mr. (inoTfe KcnninR, the Masonic ))ul>llshcr, is bringing out 
• ^^  Musinini," by r>r. Chas. F. Forshaw, of Bradford, con- 

Avards of two hundrod i)ocius lioving Freemasonry for 
lliL'ir topic. 

" A Spidcr'a Web." by Mrs. Aylmer Goring, will shortly 
appear in Mr. Burleigh's "half-a-crown series of Uction by well- 
knowu authors. 

" D'Aubise : a Reminisoenpo," is the title of a new novel 
by John C. Shannon, to Ijc published by Mr. Burleigh. 

Messrs. Jarrold and Sons arc publishing a book of .adveu- 
tnres on the Broads entitled " Buneo the Bobby and the 
Broads," eont.tining some 40 humorous illustrations by the 
author, Fritz Zoru. 

Books to look out fop at once. 
aiooaAPHY— 
•* Ricfaeliaa " (Heroes of the Nations Scries). Bj Dr. Jbihos B. I'eikins. 
Potasa. 6s. 
ricTios — 
••Aff«i™ of the Hesrt. " By Violet Hunt. Freemantle. Cs. 
" Brothers of the Chain." Hv < I curse Griffith. White & C«>. 6«. 
•• D»uiuit'» Tower." By ^ ~ -eant. Wliitf k Co. 6s. 

" Allen Lome," By Alex ngsll. Fisher I'liwin. 6s. 

"The Aulobiogr>phy of ~ ^ ' By S. ^V.■iI■ Mitilietl. I'ishcr 

Unwin. 3». 6<l. 

JIIUTARV— 

*■ Fsmotu British Kegiments." By Major Arthur tirifliiks. Fither 
Uawin. '2s. <Ui. 
y i.sciLL AK rxirs— 
*' Tramping with Tramps." By Josish Flynt. Fisher Unwin. 6«. 

por" V - 
••In ng Time of War." By Aubrey N. Hildmay. Swan 

> a. •J». M. 



M 

••Tl;. 

K;..- - . - . - 

Loekbart'f "Life of Scott." \ola. I. and II. (Library of English 

Claiuici.) Maomillaii. .^n. 6<l. net each. 
*' A Man of Mark." Hv .\ntbuov Hope. Hethuen. 6d. 



iiple" (Second Edition Reviied.) Bv Principal .lobn 
J. Brynmnr Jones, <^.C., M.P. Fisher l/nwin. 16s. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



BIOGRAPHY. 
Jool Dorman Steele. Hr Mrs. 
tj. AnhibaUI. 71 • 
(. 
Tho Walkers ol ' to. 

A Kumou-i Up "f 

<"rtckeltr«. Hy M". .1 li. 

SxMn . Oi pp. -■> 

CLASSICAL. 
Exerelsen Jn the Syntax and 
Idlt ' - - - : r-.., iiy 

W I. 



KDUCATIONAL. 
Una Joyauaa Nlch^. Mr Mmr. 

K. iU l-rr-- n " ^rn, 

Langoase Hcrl)'- I < ip. 

Open  ■' " F'pan'jBi!** ur^ 

di- ' I'arir. '.'. Ilitrtoy. 

; . Itlack. li. 

FICTION. 
Ttas ntant Oat*. Ily Ti'jhc 
Uopkiiu. ;; • .'..:■. '-•-•■ :.T, 

On Parol*. I: irn. 

W. ( . Vtjungf. , . 

Tbo Wab of Lif< 

lltrrUk. - . i; 



POLITICAL. 
Russia Against India. By<4. 

n. (.ol'iulioun. Ti'illpi., 246 pp. 

Harper. Us. 

REPRINTS. 

APeoi ' a, and oilier Tmcls. 

ll> . (Tiinpic ( 'l«s-i(.si. 

•1 ' Dfiil. 1h. tkl. 11. 

Tully'K Olllces. Turned out of 

I.HlTn into KiiKlish by E. H. 

i:!'.-!rnn!].- I'l'c'UipIc f'lajislcs.) 

*>  1 Ill-Ill. Is. M. n. 

In til >f the Sea. Ily .S. 

//' . U^din.. Un pp. 

Mrlhmn. 6d. 

Stoptea fpom the Diary of a 

Doctop. Hv /,. 7'. Mraitr and 

Clifford Il(LlK,ltij:. iii . iljlri., 188 pp. 

NfwncH. (id. 

THEOLOGY. 

The Neo-Chi'i plstles. 

Hy //. .S. thru, 



Cod' 



■''MIS: 

Id. 



- - By 
Adatn. 
Libratr 



niedw 

MM. Boomr. 
J'etiar. *«. 7i 



And- ^ . ...ur. 

2 Vol-. .,,. 

'1 . 2111. n. 

TOi _ .....ii'HY. 
The Annulbol Bi-lstol In the 
17th Century. Ily J. iMtimrr. 

I   J. If. 

 '"I'P. 

■■I. 

«l- 

..-., Hy 

-ipp. 

•■sii. 6d. 

• i.A , i..L. 

The Antarctlo Kearlons. Hy 

J>r, K. J'nikT. !»J . iljin., '.W pp. 

t>oii»tn«ciiclii. 7". W. 



Farnham and Its 

incs.<ll '' 

(Jordan i 



CHESS. 



Address "Oieitt ": Liteuatuhe, iVInflng Hoiiite Sqxiart, London. 



I-KOIIIJ'.M Na XLII. 

Jly H. OTTEN, N« York 

HlJkCK. 



I'BOBLEM No. XLIII. 

IJy H. OTTUN, Xi'ir York. 

BIJifK. 



 


 


 


 


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WHITK. 
White miitM in lliree moToft, 



WUITK. 

White miitos in two mores. 

Dkatii ok Mit. SiKixiTZ. — Mr. William St(>initz, tlio cele- 
brated fliess uinstor, died in an asyliiin on Sunday last. He was 
born in 183(1. In 18(52 ho t-amc to Kii(;laivd, and in 18('>C playoil 
Aiidorsscn a matoli, by winning which Slcinitz bocame world's 
c'h.-inipinn, and ho tnaiiitnincd this position for noarly twonly- 
pi;;lit years. He wroto clalxiratoly on Ihc pime, editing clicss 
lor some time in the Field. For fifteen years his homo hatl l>oeii 
in the I'niteil States. 

Problem No. 44, bv O. Duras, Prague. — White (4 ])ieees), 
K at K 11 3 ; Q at K U 8 ; B at Q 3 ; Kt at Q (5. Blact 
(6 i)iecos), K at Q U 2 : Q nt Q 4 ; Kts at K Kt 2 and QlHi; 
B at Q B 4 ; pawn at K B 2. White to play and draw. 

The Kahly Days of Ches.<*. — The following is thoconelnsioii 
of the not-es by Mr. Branch: — Chossraenof ivory, now at the Kast 
India Mnseum, were found in Sind, India, in 18,5(5, in excavating tlio 
ruins of a city destroyed by earthquake in the Plighth Century. 
With the chessmen were Arabic coins of about 750, also hiimmi 
bones, pottery, dice, carvings, &c., all deep under ground. The 
Aral)s had, not long before the earthquake, invaded that pari of 
India. But the chessmen and a fragment <if a board are 
Ijelievcd to bo Indian. If it could be pi-oved that the Ai-abs 
brought them (here, so much (he bc^tler for (he argument for 
greater antiquity of chess, becatise it is certain that chess (li<l 
not originate in Arabia. You will sec a note on these chess- 
men in the August JiritMi Clieitx Mtiguzine. To sum up — Chess 
wa.s inventod in India probably before (he Sixth Century. It 
was brought to Eastern Kurope, Italy, and .Spain — jiossibly Spain 
first — I think in the Eighth Century. It was known in the Soitth 
of France soon after it was well known in Italy. I( was 
knowii to the Danes and Norsemen certainly in the Elevenlh 
Century, probably in (he Teiidi, and [Missibly Ia(e in the Nlntli. 
It is generally agret'd by modern authorities that it was i)robal)ly 
known in England aliont the year lOiKl, and I should rather lie 
disjMscd to llx the date of its introduction SOorlK) yeai-s earlier. 
There are referene<'s to chess in MSS. written in England 
soon aft*^^ IKK), and we never find any nu'ution of i(s being a 
new game, or of its having be<^n i-ecently bmught from another 
country. Ther<! are <'arlier references to chess in (lie IKeraturf 
of Italy, Sjiain, and Germany, and never anything imjilying that 
the game was new. 

Then, it is not likely that wo have, still preserved, all the 
Europ<'an MSS. (hat contained references to chess. Many 
works an' lost ; many, no doubt, that once existed have never 
Ikxmi heai-d of by the modei-ns. Ther«^ may well hav<' been in 
Italy, Spain, France, &c., allusions to the game, or directions 
for playing it, or problems, written down earlier (han (he oldest, 
reference we know of. That, in Euro|K>, is said (o be of O.'iO. 
It is Latin, wri((en probably in Norlh I(aly, and found in South 
(iermany alxiut 1840. Another, (Jerman-Latin, is of 10;KI-10. 
V. de Linde admitted, art<'r he had written his first work, that 
chess was known in Spain early in (he Ninth Century. 

The Mlxich Tolunament.— This tournament is in the main 
concluded. A curious result wjis a tie of three jdaycrs — 
Maroc/.y, Pillsbnry, and Sohlechter — for first prize, wliich will 
have to Ijo played oil, as the first prize winner takes the I'riiice 
Kegent's silver trophy and 1,000 marks. Mnroczy retired after 
one defeat by Pillsbnry. Schlechtcr anil Pillsbnry then began 
a match of four g^uics, of which Sclilcchter won the fii'st. 
Scores : — 

A. Halpdn . . 6 



C. Ton Ilsrdcleben . . 


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V. jMiowiki 
(I. Mvco . . 
U. Mwoczj.. 



10 
12 



H. N. riUtlnirr 

1. TOD Popl«) 

C. HchlM-btfr 
J. W. HhowalKr 
U. WulS 



12 



?:^ 



literature 



Published by Zlbc ZimCB. 



No. HO. .SATl'RDAY. AUGUST S, 



CONTENTS. 

PACE 

NoTEH OP THK Day 127. 128. 131 

Prrmonai. Vikwb— "Tlw French Schoolboy." by Perey 

White }2' 

PoKM— "To-Slorrow." l>v F. B. Doveton 1*' 

The Latk Sik Hknuy Paukiw. by A. Piilchett Martin Wl 

TllK Mi'vifr OK VowKi.-SoVND. !)>• hhhcl Wlii-eler 182 

A >^ ': \i-FmxsiMKL, by J. P. Collins - 133 

Bo. li i.v IWM 1** 

(iiiiiiaii Art ill I hi' Niiictoenth Century — !•» 

EflucMti..ti.il I!>ri.iin in Fninrp — 

)£tt\> cmdnt bnii* mir la PHycholoitIo rte I'Enfnnt 

1 ilo IKufiiiit- ObHcrvalioiir'Kur 111 ItAfornio 

.1. V,..., 13fi 

r»<u! Historv 187, 138. ISP 

(kmic !.• Fc>i,'(ir 130 

1.0.-I ■•■< 

(I'UIl til.. . ---„.-- .. ' .  . Ill 

Sloole— Hfoof tiii' Juuicn NiclioLu* UougUtr*.— lJoul<*i:lic rru.-ui, 

kc 13B. 140, 141 

The Silent <:-•■ T'- Father Conf"-'- ii... •i,-.,.„ri„t,of Hulh- 
anna A i Norlh-Th of the 

I'lNipl.- V e of Yesi rs-Tho 

  ^ .-..oil— On Aliii. ■.....,- il., — ...wi rown— 

t HI, 142 

C'lir; Ww LlRhta on Sir Walter Kftlcinh " (Mr. J. M. 
.Sic.M. i Kiii.iui anil ilu- I'lionoKrapli " (Mumk. A. Hamonetl— 
•• XlillciV Textual tomniuiitary" (Probondary Miller) 142, H.*? 

AUTll()K« AND PlltHMHKRS 143, 144 

List ok Nhw Hooks and Ukphints 144 



NOTES OF THE DAY. 



General Cliisorct, whose ilo«th is nnnoiinooil, was one of 
the generals of the Cominuno, and also a Fenian, and an 
organiser of strikes ; bnt literature is indebted to him for 
a volnmo of nienioiri*, containing much interesting information, 

published in 1887. 

» « « » 

The Daily Expixss is rosponsiblo for the statement tliat the 
nuthor of that charming book " £lixaboth and her German 
Garden," which was followed by the equally charming " Solitary 
Summer," is Princess Henry of Pless, who until sho married in 
1891 was Miss ComwaUis West. If this be a fact, the Princess 
is to bo congratulated upon a most delightful stylo and upon 
having won tlio hearts of thousands of readers. A year or so 
ago every one who keeps up au acquaintance with current litera- 
ture was talking about these fascinating records of ont-door life 
in Pomerania. " Elizal)eth " had an original vein of humour, 
as well as a pen skilled to transcribe the varied harmonies of 
nature, and she and her babies, and her husband, and hep 
garden and her neighbours, provided material in plenty for her 
two volumes of desultory musings and recollections. The 
Princess might well paint for us other aspects of German 
domesticity, though now that she is known her cheerful garrulity 
may i-cceivo something of a check. 

•  « # 

M. Marcel Provost has recently been explaining his views 
on the novel of the twentieth century to a representative of 
the Temp."!. Ho notes that recent French stories are ceasing to 
bo merely love stories, and deal with moral, political, or social 
questions. Witness M. Prevost's own work. Moreover, French 
writers are no longer afraid to imitate Englishmen, and to 

Vol. VII. No. 8. 



ubiinil'!! ih<< form of Uio coul« wbicu do JtlMipsMAot liid h> 
inciiiii|>ar.ii,ly for mof MttoM •tadlM, with » wWtor fiwf oC 
obNorration. M. Pr^vont oitm M. Pknl A4bb and D'AMHUaiak 
but again he might qnito vt wvll Imre eited liJarMeif. He h 
indignant, as might bo expected, agmlnat the niMii*, m be 
calls it, of certain i-riticM to blame French uovelUt* for thalr 
frociucnt hiatoires (I'lulultere. The subject *' est lu pea 
epuia^," he aaya : — 

A propoa, oea Tortueox romaaa anglais <i tine a 

nous objector (Aimm B«de, le Viemtrm dr i, Unl 

d'cpuvres de Meredith) ont gittinlvaimat des nutiures aaM 
scubroasea en somme : one sMaetioa de jeone flUe, aae 1«U« 
pc^rillcano entre lo devoir soeikl et U paitiaii. . . . Bnt 
I'instant, nos romanciers, noa paychotoipM* d6lahmm»t 
I'adultcTO ; i1« ont I'osprit toupn6 vers ailleurs ; Bais rtca ua 
prouvo qn'ils no se rcprendront point un de oes joer» tmx. 
sujets de ce genre, et, alors, Us n'en aoront pi 
conscience d'aocomplir bomiMeiiMiit tear beaogae de 
dcs mojurs. 

M. Prdvost believes, however, that the next contory's 
novel, or rather the novel of the immediate future, will bo mote 
and more sociui. This will not prevent the advent of s great 
scientiHc novelist. And as for the stylo it will be mace aad 
more what M.PniroBt calls cursi/. M. An»toleFran3e,he remaricB, 
suggestively, has really found in anticipation the form and style 
which are to suit the taste of the future, in his Hiftoire Co1^' 
temporaine. On the French woman novelist, M. PnSvost says : — 

Notons, en torminant, un ph^nom^ne carieas, l'«at(4e en 
scone, chcz nous, dcis femmes romanciers. EUea arrivcBt, 
iunombrables, k I'instar de I'AngMorro. II faat admirer leor 
lalx'ur ingenn, leur feconil -< ont d'obaerrer 

les tW)s pctites choaes. Ki i, pourrn qa'eUea 

eons<^ditent b no pas fairo << -> d'htwunoa, h ne pea 

ruser, ponrvu qu'elli's so i' • fiiire geotimeat daa 

ronuuis do femmes ! 

   • 

The 12!>th anniversary of the birth of Sir Walter Soott was 
not allowed to pass without notice, in Edinburgh and Glasgow 
at least. In accordance with a practice of recent years, the 
Edinburgh Sir Walter Scott Club placed a large wreath at 
laurel leaves, draixxl with lioyal Stuart tartan, on the pedestal 
of tbo monument in Princes-street. In Glasgow the Seott laoaa- 
ment was decorated with flowers and foliage, the baae being 
festooned with wreaths of holly and other evergreens. Among 
those who sent flowers were Lord Rosebery, Lord Aberdeen, Sir 
John Stirling-Maxwell, and Dr. William Jacks. In the erooiag 
the Glasgow Male Voico Choir sang several choroscs at the base 
of tbo monument, and the baud of the Ist Lanarkshire Volunteer 
Artillery rendered several pieooa of instrumental aniaie, chiefly 

Scottish. 

• * * • 

The changes which the Corporation has daeided to aiake oa 
its Bloomsbnry estate will probably sweep away seTeral houses 
which are filled with literary associations. It is proposed to 
do away with North and South crescents and carry Alfred-plaoe 
into Tottenham-court-road at two points, and this will probably 
involve the demolition of the small houses at present stand- 
ing in Alfred-place. It was in Alfred-plaoe that Thoava 
Campbell had lodgings, a few years alter resigning the editor* 



128 



LITERATURE. 



[August 25, 1900. 



kUp of Cidbani's New Monthly Magaxine, Xow that we are 
wkittnK to MW how another poet, also o( a patriotic tarn— Mr. 
Newbolt — will «dit another new monthly magazine it Is not 
onintereating to eonpnre Campbell's experiences in this rCle. 

m * • * 

His ■ervie«a were engafced by Colbum in 1820 at a salary of 
£500. No doubt Mr. Newbolt will succeed as an editor better 
than poor ** Procrastination Tom." He is not far fn>m the 
befcinning of his literary career, 'whilo Campbell was nearinft the 
end when he edited the New Monthly and had reached the limit 
of his powers. " The Pleasures of Hope," " fo Mariners of 
Kngland," " The Battle of the Baltic," and the poem which 
Scott voted " the flneat Terses that have been published these 
fifty years " — " Hohenlinden " — had all been written a score of 
years or ao before, and the next best period of his literary life 
cloaed in 1819, when Murray ])ubli!ihi'd his " Specimens of the 
British PoetA." Yet it was during his editorship of the New 
Monthly that he brought about " the only important event of 
his life's little history " — as he was fond of putting it — the 
foondation of the London University. He was not a success on 
the New Monthly, though be managed to All the post for ten 
years. ** Though a great man," says Mr. H;ill in his " Retro- 
spect," " he was utterly unfit to bo an editor." He was 
sacceeded by Lord Lytton, then known only as Edward Geoi^oio 
Earie Bolwer, and a few years later he accepted the editorship 
of the Afetropoliton Magazine, which proved a failure. 

  « * 

Sheridan Knowlee lived at No. 29 about the same time that 
Campbell had lodgings in Alfred-place. His father, James 
Knowlcs, the lexicographer, who did not begin his dictionary 
until he was seventy years old, and then suffering from a painful 
B, died at his son's house in 1840. Later still came W. K. 
; Ralston, the Rossian scholar, who lived in Alfrcd-placo 
for aome twenty yean and died in North-crescent about ten 

yean ago. 

• « « « 

A list of " seqnel stories " which Is being published In 
instalments in the Library World shows us how ingrained is this 
habit of writing setiuels in the novelists of all ages and all 
countries. Critics, it is true, are rather apt to censure them 
for indulging in it, bat they refuse to be intimidated by the 
critics ; and the critic, in his more human moods, must admit 
that there is a go<xl deal to be said in favour of the policy. 
There are limits to the inventiveness of all writers, even the 
most imaginative. Even a Dumas cannot be continually 
creating new characters as striliing and attractive ns 
d'Artagnan ; Dr. Conan Doyle may despair, for a period, of 
improving on Sherlock Holmes. But it is only natural that a 
novelist should wish to regard the inventions of his youth as 
enduring tools for the work of his later years. He is repeating 
himself, no doubt ; but, in the other arts, it is the rule for the 
artist to repeat himself. Corot painted the same pictures over 
and orer again. The same cornfields reappear year after year 
on the canraaaea of Mr. L<;ader, and the same white marbles 
and bine skiea figure in many works of Mr. Alma Tadoma ; and 
the public welcome them as old friends. Why shoald it bo less 
prcq>er, and less artistic, for the story teller to pursue the 
fortunes of the same personages throngh several volnmca 7 
« « • • 

The nsnal allegation la, of course, that sequels are con- 
apleooosly inferior to the stories to which they are tacked on. 
'TUn is by no means invariably the case. There are tboso who 
prefer " Twenty Yean After " to "The Three Musketeers." 
Many yoang readen differ from the critics in preferring the 
second part of " The Pilgrim's Progress" to tho first. Alike 
in the Chronicles of Carllngford and the Chronicles of 
Barcbwtar some of the later volumes will stand comparison with 
the earlier ones. And every reader will bo able to cite similar 
instanoea of pleasing sequels from bis recollections of his own 
reading. But even If the allegation could be susUined, it 
would not constitute a very grave objection to the sequel. No 
■orelist flan be always at hit best ; and it is Joat as well that 



he should be^ at his second best in relating tho " further 
adventures " of characters in whom he has irilorcste<l ns, tlian 
introducing new characters Nvbom we may not greatly care to 

know. 

« « • • 

One thing one notices In tho evolution of flio sequel. 
Originally it was more or less of an afterthought. Tlie writer, 
casting about for something to write, would have a happy 
inspiration, and say to himself, '* Suppose I invent another story 
about d'.\rtagnan " — or Christian, or Ei-nest Maltravcrs, or 
whoever it might be. In theso days, however, flrtion, like 
history, tends to become " scientific," and the so-called 8e<iuel 
is. In many cases, tho premeditated development of a deliberate 
philosophy of life — a Ke<iuel much in tho sense in which Mr. 
Herbert Spencer's *' Principles of Ethics " is a scqtiel to his 
" Principles of Psychology." Tho example was set, long ago, 
by Balzac ; imitations have recently l)eeii very numerous. In 
France there have been, and are, Paul and Victor Margueritto's 
cycle of novels on tho Franco-Prussian war, M. Huysmann's 
cycle of novels on lioman Catholicism, and M. Marcel Pr<5vost's 
cycle of novels on feminism — to say nothing of M. Zola's cycle of 
novels on things in general. In England there are, among others, 
Mr. George Moore engaged on a cycle of novels expounding 
his views concerning the artistic temperament, and Mr. Morley 
Roberts producing a cycle of novels to expound his attitude 
towards Imperialism and tho political situation. That the 
experiment is e<iually interesting in the cas<>s of all of the 
WTiters we do not assert. But it is a development of the 
practice of the art of fiction which it is interesting to note and 
necessary to respect. 

•  *  

A correspondent sends ns the following Notes on some 
recent Finnish literature: — " Tho literarj- activity of the Finns 
does not appear to have been appreciably lessened cither by 
their recent political troubles or by the severe censorship of 
their Press. Some of the Finnish novels and tales, however, 
published In 1899, have a distinct bearing on political events, 
and this feature is markedly noticeable in .luhan! Aho's " Kata- 
jainen kansani " (My Elder-Bush Nation). This volume is a 
series of patriotic tales, some of them de))icting the feelings 
aroused, first in 1891, by the direct attacks of the Russian Press 
on tho Finnish Constitution, and lately, in February, 1899, by 
the issue of the Imperial Manifesto. The characters of the 
tales, though supposititious, may be easily indent.ifled. Aho 
brought out also a fourth series of his " Lastuja " (Chips), short 
pieces of great descriptive merit, especially as regards the 
forest and its associations. Under the title " ivunnan niiehiii " 
(Rural Politicians) Kallo Kajander published a sketch of pro- 
vincial life ; and " Huutolais-tytUi " (Tho (Jirl Sold by Auction), 
a narrative of hard times, was produced by Heikki Merililinen. 
The earliest part of this last work is full of promise, but the 
interest is not sustained throughout. Among other writers of 
tales may be mentionocl Aino Suonio for her "Kuloa ja kcviittjl" 
(Autumn Leaves and Spring), a set of novelettes, which, if not 
deep in thought, arc at least clear and good in style. 
» » » • 

" Among writers of verse attention may be drawn to .luhnna 
Benrik Erkko, whoso " Runoelmia ja njatiOmia " (l'o<^mB and 
Contemplations) are full of poetic feeling. Larin Kyiisti, i.e., 
KyOsti Larson, in his ** Ajan kiiantecssii " (,\t the Crisis), has 
produced patriotic songs and ballads, of which many have 
already become favourites. His " Kulkurin lauluja " (A Vaga- 
Ijond's Songs) arc a collection of lyrics, several of thorn <-omposed 
in the style of folk-songs. Eino Leino also has ])ublislied a net 
of patriotic odes, stylctl " Ajan nnlloilta " (From the Billows of 
Time), and a dramatic i)oem, entitled " Tuonelan joutw'ii " (The 
Swan of Tuoncia), tho subject being taken from the episode ol 
Lcmminkilincn in tho Kalcvnla. Among recent original dramatic 
writers we single out Jalraari Hahl for his Fran^oise 
d'Auhigni, In five acts, a play constructed on a singular 
subject for the Finnish stage, but not without merits as an 
apology for Madame do Maintcnon and as a description of her 



AuRUHt 25, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



129 



tImoB ; Arvid JUmofclt for hla hl»Urio»l play, In four ncU. 
cntitNvl SamuH Crw-ll, in which tho author, n champion of 
Tolstoi's principlos, ap|)0!irH in tho now Kuisc of a (Iraiimtitt ; 
AliKJ NoiKtnon, whoso tragody of Atuib, in flvo acts, tliouRli 
|)ootical in diction, lacks oriKinalily of tlioiiRht ; and Tcnvo 
Pakkala, for his Tiikkijorlla (On tlio Lofc-l-loatint,' Rivor), 
a popular eoraotly, in four acts, which vividly dopictn rural life 
and ban boon often producod on the boartln of Finnish theatres. 
« * * • 

" As oxaniplos of works of a more serious character may bo 
mcntioiicl HanTics (ioliliard's " Maaiiviljolijilin ylnoisloiminnaHta 
ulkomailla " (AKi-iciillnnil l'o-o|K>ratioiis AI)roa<l), a rpiiiarkal)lo 
pro<luc(it>n in tho Held of national economy ; " Uudomnian 
lllosonan historia," the Urst part of a coniprcliciisivc " History 
of Modern Pliilosopliy," by Arvi Cirotonfclt, fonnilcd to itomo 
oxtont. oil his own iiivosti>;ations ; " Mordvalaistcn pukuj:i 
ja kuoM'jii " (Dresses and Oniamonts of the Mordvinians), by A. 
O. Heikel, an ailmirablo ethnographical work, bronfcht out under 
tho auspices of tho Finnish-L'Krian Society, with doscriptions in 
Finnish and Gorman and coloured illustrations ; and tho 
" Suoiiien kartasto " (.\Has of Finland), piiidislicd in Finnish 
and Swe<lish and in French by the Finnish Ceourapliical Society, 
and coiitniniiiK oro^raphical, k<'o1"K''"''' un'lisn-olojficnl, botan- 
ical, a),'ii<'ultural, statistical, and many otiier maps of tho (Jrind 
Duchy, witli a volumo of text in Finnish, Swedish or French." 

 »  « 

Wo aco glad to hear that there is to l>e a now oiUlion of Mr. 
Whym|H>r's " SciiimbUfs in tho Alps," in the autumn. It is tho 
best of all tho dinibiiip; lHX)ks, and it has l<)ng I)een out of print, 
with tho result that copies fetch about fliirty sh!llin|;M in tho 
auction room, and a pood deal more in the booksellers' shops. 

    

There arc a pooil many more books, however, l>elonRiiip; to 
tho period whoi\ climbing \\~as just iK'^iiniiiiK that ou|2;ht to Ih) 
roprint«Ml too. We have those of Mr. fjoslie Stephen, an<l 
Professors Forbes ami Tyudall ; we want to see announceimMits 
of Wills' " Wanderings in the Higli Alps," {iirdlestone's 
" High .\lps Without (Juides," and King's " Italian Valleys." 
The last-named book is, wo believe, otit of copyright. Will not 
sorao publisher oblige 'i There aro also some privately printed 
Alpine books that shoidd b«< published — notably, A. W. Moore's 
" Alps ill 18('>4," and Mr. Freshlleld's " From Thonon to 
Trent." Both books aro wanted by collectors aiul are practically 

unprocurable. 

» « « • 

Never, |K>rhaps. have so many foreign works of fiction lieon 
translated into Freuch as during tho last few years. " W'itli 
Kdged Tools," by H. S. Merriman, is to run shortly as a serial 
in the Kclio dc i'uri.t ; " Now Grub-street," by George Oissing, 
is also to bo publislunl in the sanio way in Lea Dubois ; and 
" Tho Unelasscd," by tho same author, is now being translated 
for publication by Ollendorff. 

» »  * 

Mr. Gordon Craig's magazine tho P(i'j<', which we notice<I 
not long ago, has an imitator in tho TitUp, a quarterly, which a 
little band of Oxford uteii, determined to bo in le dernier bateitit, 
nro producing botw(>eii them. The woodcuts, all by tho same 
hand, aro grolcsquoly ineffective. Mr. (iordon Craig's attempts 
in this lino had somo cleverness, but his imitator, like all imita- 
tors, copies merely their bad points. Tho rest of tho magazine 
suffers from tho same defect of amateurishness as the cuts. 
There is a nice littlo amateur song, somo quite inoffonsivo 
amateur verso, and an amateur mystic fable, which suggests as 
much and means as littlo as oven Mr. Arthur Synions could 
desire. This is tho longest contribution to tho Tulip, and it is 
announced that the writer, who veils his identity under a moiii 
de guerre, will contribute a complete story to Oiich number. Ho 
certainly has a faculty for picking up with somo cleverness ii 
current fashion in tho minor literature of the day. But exjieri- 
nients of this kind are seldom sincere and never very interesting. 
Wo fear tho Tulip, which by the way is published by Martin 
Klingcndcr at Shortlauds in Kent, is not a very hardy s|)ecimcn. 



Though tbo Intiaiatlon that oo« at BaIsm'* botoU U to b« 
dnimatlMxt for tho Knglinb Ktage aroiuoa hopM, It abo Mooaw 
fcan. Balzao'it work i*. In * MOM, dmakUe, bat 



Suirit '^ '"* "'^^ theatrical. It ■boauda, that U to Mjr, In 
dramati* idua<i, but not in dramatic •liaatlam; mwl 
it is of Hituations and not of idisOH that pluyn ara made. Ono CMS 
Imagine a dramatist i i . » to 

iUnstrite them ; Imi' vp, 

would li •••r- 

iiions ol I 'li»- 

parago Balzac. Thearioi li ;i»t 

are two very different arts , ' t of 

any conn)e ton t cr i tic that, given tho conditions of the «-«>ntflmponiry 
atage, tho art of tho no%-elist is tho higher of the two. Tlui 
novelist is not trammelled by tho exigencies of stag** carpentry ; 
ho is not obligtxl to write down to the level of the moKt stupid 
man lH>for<< whoso notice hazard may bring his work, but may 
wait for tho right reader to pick it up in a nympathetic 
mo(Hl ; he noe<l not sacrillce subtle points for fear lest thoy 
should bo missed in the gallery ; he has not tho aamn 
temptation to be obvious, and to flatter tbo vulgar by 
reiterating hackneyeil sentiments. Ho can criticize life 
with a freedom and, altove all, a completeness, which the 
dramatist docs not enjoy ; and tho mor«! thoroughly and con- 
scioutiously ho avails himself of his superior opport an i ties th«i 
less likely is it that a dramatic adaptation of his stories will do 
him any sort of jastico or give real pleasure to tho play-going 
public. It is true, no doubt, that many novelUts of great 
eminenco have not been satisfle<l with writing novels, but have 
hankered after the triumphs of tbo stage ; but om> imagines that 
it is tho p<>rsonal rather than thi> artistic tri lpc^^ 

them. It is tho kind of triumph that is mo^ 'h" 

vain man's vanity ; and most authors, even 
something of the actor in their pom|x>sition. I 
of now philOHophies most sigh sometimes for the li' ^ Is 

freely paid to the writers of new farc«*s ; and t; s of 

novels are naturally more anxious for flattery than philosophers. 
Tho fact remains, how»>ver, that, though many novels have been 
dramatized with conspicuoas succ(>ss, the most suee<>«sful adap- 
tations have l><H>n thost^ of bad, or at any rate of indifferent, 
novels. If th)>re have bcsm adaptations of snch writers an 
Thackeray and Flaul)ort, they hi my 

]>articular attention. Victor Hugo, v. list 

and as a dramatist, did not make his |'< I-; 

and the melodramas which other peoph- li i " l,-^ 

Mist'rables," though well enough in their way, do not do, and 
could not do, justic«> to Victor Hugo's genius, aiiv ni.>n> than 
Mr. Buchanan's Sopliin did, or could do, justice to , of 

Fielding. On tlie other hand, there is one sort t<, ■. ..aich 

does not suffer by adaptation, and which, when adapted, generally 
succeeds. It is tho novel hinging <m a (urticular kind of false 
scntimentalism which enjoys ait evergreen popularity. Tho 
story, for example, of the erring wife \' ;iies 

homo to dio is equally sure of a eor«lial r ind 

on the stage. Halevy wrote tl\ d FroH 

Fron has run a ko<xI deal loi Mrs. 

Henry Wood wrote the story, s' >l by the ion 

of a cousiunptive child, in " h^i^' ' and the \> the 

largest circulation of any novel in the Knglish Lingtiage. To 
adapt the novel for the stage it was only necess;»ry to cut it into 
lengths and "write in" a comic policeman ; and "when in doobt 
put up K<i»t Lijnnc'' has been thomottoof provincial touring com- 
panios ever since. Analogous cases arc those of .Hothji and La 
Diiiiit! nii.v Camel iiiit. Here, again, false sentiment, though not 
quite the same false sentiment, was tho lever by means of which 
tho world of playgoers ^• i ' ca.so a bad bat popular 

romance made a bailj li . • romance in each caso 

containing none of those that cannot bo rendered 

on tho stage. B;il7.ac, li lias many such subtleties 

and no false sentiment worth speaking of. Consequently, we aro 
not sanguine that even " George Fleming " will make a good 
play out of La Peau de Chagrin. 

15—2 



130 



LITERATURE. 



[August 25» 1900. 



SONG TO-MORROW. 



Oh^ ekild nnborn th:it miTt-iN Iov« to gild 

With Uopo'a »rt' aNlioiiiy, 
TiMm nerer art, UioukIi on thy birth nts build. 

Bat ever nrt to bo ! 
Oar thooithM like Horaltln we to greet thee scud, 

X' Ti-om thpo t«> liorrow, 

But '. lip on* wp shall meet, my friend, 

To-morrow ! 

Tboa art » jihantou none may overtake ; 

The •ha4tow of to-dmy, 
So elowly dost thou follow in its wake. 

As agaa roll away. 
We dream of r:^ 'U art sure to bring. 

Bat lo 1 tl,' is sorrow I 

Tinw bean thee over ou his pannelow wing. 



To-morrow 1 



F. B. DOVETON. 



per sonal Di cws. 

THE FRENCH SCHOOLBOY. 

The French schoolboy, especially in private life, is a oliarm- 
ing feUow. Even a penitential syst«ni of education cannot check 
his ikne spirits or his sense of fun. Ho accepts the austerity of 
his school life philosophically, although ho rarely looks back to 
it with the affectionate remembrance common to Knglishmrn who 
have passed through the happy gates of a public school. He 
resigns himself to his fate, and makes the best of his chances 
tit eheetfolness. liis hours are long, his food is coarse, he 
sleep* in s huge " dortoir " like a recruit in barracks, and to 
iiv V illosioo wears s neat uniform, the badge 

of ;i<> is none the less a very human boy. There 

are in France many excellent private schools which are 
ooodnoted in a tar more liberal spirit than the Lycees, but 
wiiether he receive his early training at a great State 
school or at some " Institution " such as that so admirably des- 
cribed by Du Mauricr in " The Martian " the French boy is 
always more or less a cn^turc in half humorous revolt against 
sorroundings in the shaping of which he has no voice. His 
happiness is almost entirely found in his home life; his education 
appears to him in the light of an unpleasant necessity which the 
tmditioos of his country have taught hira to accept with 
Msiglistian. Whilst the surplus vigour of the lilnglish lad is 
absorbed in cricket and football, the energies of the French 
boy which the long hours of the classroom have not exhausted 
find what vent they can in the affairs of the world as reflected in 
bis "dortoir" and schfxilrooin. Often lie is a premature |>olitician, 
tile stodentof smugglml newspapers with fierce views on suchques- 
tioas as the Dreyf um ca>>e orthe general iniquityof British policy. 

It takes some weeks for the foreign professor to get a 
glimpse under the surface, but when ho does he discovers a 
strange world with a life entirely its own. He hears the 
■mrmar of an elst>orat« and constantly changing sch(X)I slang of 
■Jiignlsr ingennity and wit. Ho finds that bis pupils take tho 
me a su re of their masters with surprising accuracy. Instiuct 
tells them who are the Profesnors and nuiitres d'etuden, whom it 
is possible to embttfr. " Kml>Ater le pion " is the favourite 
PMtiaM of ••<•«, and an excellent preparation for tho 

poUUes of I ry. In France the recalcitrant schoolboy 

is on expert at on organized " row." " Chshater " is the verb 
vUcli he nses to descritw 1 .Ho 

COS oiwrtJurow a Proleasarasi jailar 

Ministry. The elosaes arc very large, ood every untried master 



most be tested lioforo bis disci))liuo i -il. Tho custom is 

for tho Professor to dismiss from hi-^ .in tho impivUnout 

pupil, but the little Frenchman plays his game cleverly, and it 
is not always cosy to decide th© point where chaff bopins and 
the dosiro for instruction ceases. Thus it often happens that a 
new nmstor without suspecting it is for some days the victim of 
juveuile irony. But a day comes when his " Silence, Messieurs I" 
is followed by the faint rustling of feet and halt suppressed 
laughter ; the sound gradually increases in volume ; desks aro 
slammed, ribald murmurs reach the angry professor. It is revolt. 
Possibly he dismisses tho class without detecting tho ring- 
leaders, and complains to the Proviseur, in whose bands college 
discipline lies, thus preparing a d^Mcle for his own authority. I 
remember several cases of unpopular or fceblo masters quelled 
by their pupils in a sboer spirit of fun, tiucturc4l with an infusion 
of real malice ou tho part of tho chief conspirators. 

In the well-known college where I discharged the duties of 
junior English teacher my senior colleague was not an Englishman. 
He carried quite cheerfully the ponderous ilame of Raekelboom, 
and came, I believe, originally from Flanders. Ho had married 
an English wife, possibly to equip himself for his profession, and 
si>oke our language with an accent which marriage novcr cured. 
For scholastic purposes his name was even more unfortunate 
than his pronunciation. It was a const^mt temptation to young 
Frenchmen in whom the frolic spirit had destroyed the higher 
virtues of justice and politessc. 

It chanced that there was an annual fair in tho town to 
which itinerant merchants flocked from various parts of France 
to sell their wares. It was not deemed " good form " for tho 
college to have serious dealings with the cheap-jacks who offered 
bargains to staring peasants. My unfortunate colleague, 
however, had no exclusive prejudices, and ho was actually seen 
purchasing articles of crockery by one of the day boys, who 
carried back the interesting intelligence to his friends. Now it 
appears that M. Raekellx>om had discovered this youth a few 
days before in an out-bui hi' vouring to smoke a cigarette 

manufactured from some iir ^ fuel extracted from a pair of 

clastic-side boots. This offence tho Professor indiscreetly 
rejiortod to the authorities. Tho victim vowed vengeance. Tho 
professor's domestic purchases suggested its dramatic form. 
The lad composed the following simple song in two languages : — 

liackclboora ! Raekelboom ! 
Achoto des soucoupes 
To fournishe son room ! 

NNTien the Professor appeared before his class after the nmse of 
mischief had thus inspired his enemy all discipline was de- 
stroyed. " Ua<!-kel-boom ! " niunnured tlio chorus, " l{.ic-kel- 
boom 1 " Fci't were stamped in unison and desks dnunmod ; 
"on chantait," and in tho end tho owner of the formidable 
name fled tn^fore the stonn. The onomatoiKPic fascinations of it 
finally led to his resignation. A hero miglit have carried it with 
dignity, but it was too much for a teacher of English. 

There was a certain usher of melancholy mien whom the iKiys 
identified as " rhermile du gazon," from his habit of marching 
up and down on the same side of tho flagged courtyard. Tho 
" benuit " was very i>opular. So long as silonco was maintained 
in his itude ho made no inquiries as to the character of " tho 
preparation " which he supervised. With Duiwnt tho lazy pupil 

might say — 

Conrb^ sur moh papitre, on secret je lisais 
Des bonqulns do rebut achctt^s an rabais. 
Tho "hermit's" room was the happiest in tho whole school ; all 
manncrofforbiddcn fiction was devoured under cover of to-morrow'a 



August 25, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



181 



f 



)ioKU-<-tod task. One iliiy, however, the ProviMur matin a »udtl«<a 

<lc«ocnt on tills pl<!:isimt o;isIt and line ' „ii. 

iiioir," and till) " JK'riiiit*'" H<M>ii aftf'r ill ii«. 

The oplrit nt inohliiiilinofi*, »o far uh I cuuld nNcortalii, \v«ii 
llon-o^iHtont in our nohool. Th" pupils worn of nil cUnsrs, Imt 
oomplcto p<|uiilit.v oxlst»>d lH'fw«'<'n tlioin. Ono of my hovs of 
the nanio of Hnliy was tho son of a little grocor who sold Mngar 
In his own littlo shop and woro n blouso. Hnby was known as 
" I'c'picior du coin," lint tlio naino curried no visible slii^ht 
with it. A big, fat, };ood-natiiri'd frllow and an extrriif, he UM-d 
to proHont liiH HchooUellows with cakes of chiK-olato looted from 
his father's cotint4>r. His gifts made him highly popular. Tho 
*' th " goniid in Knglish was an insiiriiionntublo barrier to his 
progress in the language, and as a pnpil ho did nie no credit. 
In class ho was somnolent. Wliatcver niny be tho drawbacks of 
the French system tho French schoolboy in Latin and mathe- 
matics and arithinotio is on the whole in advance of his Rnglish 
contoniporary. Mathematics are timght on a saner principle, and 
the decimal system removes a very dismal stumbling-block from 
the paths of tho youngest boys. Modern languages ther«>, as 
vith tis, are tho weakest point. On the other hand Latin 
Is not nearly so dead a language as it seems to the Knglish lad, 
and in the higher classes the meaning and value of style in 
literature is taught, a subject which in English schools is entirely 
overlooked. As a shirk tho lazy French boy is far moi-e original 
than the English. So long as they could keep their names and 
tho nature of their excuses out of niy report book my pupils 
were as daring as the little l>oy in Dandet's story, who discovered 
that tho Pope was dead to divert his aunt's attention from tho 
breach of domestic discipline which his mano'uvre covered. We 
j-cad " Tho I^st of the Mohicans," " Tho Rivals," and " The 
Vicar of Wakolleld " as school books. The last was the Icist 
)iopular. Tho primitive manners prevailing in tho good vicar's 
household e\cit<>d derision. The high spirits of Sheridan's play, 
liowever, were appreciated, and Bob Acre's method of swearing, 
elaborately exjilainod In the foot-notes by the e<litor, created 
diversion. In those days the spirit of tho " revanche " was 
still strong with tho boys. An Alsatian with a large head who 
was known as " le gros Prnssien," much resented the name as 
tris miehant, whereas to lie described as " I't'picier du coin " 
was held to be an inoffensive piece of chaff. Tho Oerman 
jirofessors, who both came from Ilanover, for diplomatic reasons 
pretended their origin was Swiss. For some obscure reason 
they were known as " les mangeurs des ]>ommca de terres." 
The general ignorance of all things English among the lH>ys was 
oxtremo. J had great dillicully in i)epsuading an intelligent and 
inquiring lad who had spent a fortnight at Folkestone that 
croquet was not our national game. He had soon it played with 
hoops and mallets, and cricket also begins with a " c." 

A country probably gets the system of education which it 
deserves, and certainly the logical and alert intelligence of the 
French is in a measure due to theirs. The l»oys are force<l to 
work ; lessons are the only outlet for energies, and education 
with tho French parent is a serious question. Ho expects as 
much as he can get for his money. This attitude also visibly 
influences his son. Moreover, tho shadow of the l>accalauriat 
is always before the eyes of the French lad. " To be plucked 
for an exam " is not regarded across the Channel in tho jocular 
spirit with which it is accepted in the average English house- 
hold. French Lyc(5es have not a little to learn from our public 
schools, but if mental culture be regarded as the main object of 
instruction wo are in no position to bombard them with the 
stones of critical superiority. PERCY WHITE. 



THE LATE SIR HENRY PARKBS. 

♦-- 



tint, 



rininv 

•' l4(« 

ot lU 

-• -n. 



no lesH th.-in live tiiDCH. .\mongtlie  

onterpriking Sydney flrui. m.-^-... 

li a book cutitled An K 

gives a vivid picture of the : 

Fur though the itotential n 

title " t; . 

In this s -1, 

young Wiuv. ui on 

vniigrntiun t<>  hnTo a i 

" still, sad in<»"ic ot iiumanity " than n- of 

liturary artists in fiction can prclucc. Th- . i* 

Ijetters " have l>een preserved and ganieretl with infinit* cant 

and alTection by tho deceased Sydney -• ■•■■ - ■' ''■*■■' -ho 

may take to herself the inirmnl conf I« 

and unpretentions little book she has lai-^Ki tii.- ih- 
ninmnrial of her father, one 1ike\v to outla^tt nil hitot 
sjieeches and literary " ' "ven, in a strnsc, tha 

splendid record of his p ts. 

Miss P;irkf's rontrihiites a brief Preface, u: «• 

of essential Introduction, admirable alike in lA 

taste. We learn that on tho llth .luly, ISW, I ,i 

rlarinda Vamey were made man and wife at I . .....»h 

Church, and that after the almost iinwitno 'ny th« 

young pt^ople slunk back to Birmingham, to <1 ' in 

jiennry in the ono little room where the bri ly 

livo<l alone. She h.id loft her own ho- ed 

county of Warwii-kshirB, o«in^ t"  <•:>- 

mother: her father never a . i her. .A of 

this lowly marriage of nn  ■' and. 8« !jr 

would say, rash improvidoii • . II  : . I' . » was twenty-on«, 
and his wife stime two yo.i.s ■ji.; 1' . ,., ««< l,v trm.1.- aa 
ivory-turner, and very soon after his i U> 

London, where, finding existence as sf k 

problem as in Binninghnm, ho dia-idotl to emigrate :f« 

and young child to Australia, then only known t"> Ik 

as '• Botany Bay "-a happily remote inferno of id 

black-fellows. 

Nearly all of thnan early h'tter« of H<.nr>- Parke* wera 
written durin.- id 

his young wii. i. 

They are addrrased I'or the moiit part to Ir 

sister, of whom at her death, more than twenty . -.:.■« _. s, 

the colonial statesman wrote to his wife in Sydney :— " N«xt to 
yon and our dear children, I have now lost tlie dearast craatur* 
that remaine<t to rao ujxin earth." These |iatlietic worda *vt« 
wrung from Sir Henry Parkes by his dfa<l i . : . y^ 

was then in England with the lato Wi! . a 

political mission. 

The first of the "Home T,«tt'»n» " is datod ^^nnday, 3r*h 
Novemljer, ISJS, and il !y 

train jounioy from Bin .id 

expose<l cattle-trucks reserved for the poor at that time. *' For 
the first fifty miles of the journey." hd «Tit«!8. " tlw rain and 
wind beat through the naked windows." Arrived in tho vast anci 
appalling metropolis, tho sturdy v. ...  i -».».,>. !...■» l,i. ».;••.. i^t 
an obscure C'lffee-house while he - :-^r 

for their heads, which he finally sn "ins somewner* 

in the region of Hatton-ganlen. 

We hive a fumishe<I room :. l iiiliiil dii—illtf 

closet, whore we kue]> our breail an.I < d our coala, Ac,, 

on the fourth floor for six shillings per week, and find o-ir 
own linen and crooks. Staying at the cuffee-house was Twy 
expensive, bat I was afraid of going to atrange lodgings, and 
am cla<l I did not. We have got out of about 'Hb. since we 
have been in London, though we have l>ecn as careful as we could. 



182 



LITERATURE. 



[August 25, 1900. 



ParliM (lid not write agftin till Mtrly the following month, and 
«« at* left to conjooturo tlie manifold rebufl'a an<l Uttor dis- 
•ppoiatoMnti of the univcorded inten-al. It is always the word 
uiwspnMad, the rot;T«t untold, which malces the pathos of such 
• lot. Parkes bid from his sist4>r as far as he cuuld the talo of 
hi« rapidly arriving destitution. >>'hat<>rer may have been hia 
failing* as a statesman— an<l they were not few- Parkes was 
fr«»-«mincntly a n.ii/i. At times a );roan may I'scajMS him, b>it 
how (]uickly it is followc<l hy some wort! of real or assuniod ho]H'- 
fulnees ! Eren when unable to find the money to rmleem his 
Uthe and workman's tools, he yet uTites to his sister cheerily : — 
Mj expectations of London have met with disappointment 
in nearly every particular, but I will not talk of that. V'ou 
will rememlier that I hinte<l to yon that in case I did not 
•uooeed in London 1 should po further. I hnd almost for- 
gotten that I ever had such thoughts among tho fresh and 
matoniahing scenes of this strange, glorious place till it scemtnl 
M if there was no place for me among the countless multitude 
of its inhabitanttt. My thoughts then returned to emigration. 

Though a man of intense, and even petty, {lersonal vanity, 
&ir Henry Parkes had little or nothing of the snob in his 
composition. In conversation he would often tlwell on thi^so 
•erly times when he almost starved in the Hatton-garden 
region : and he uas in the habit of wandering for hours alone 
over London to try and trace the scenes and localities of those 
youthful days of bitter struggle and indescribable disappointment. 
In the midst of thcso early struggles, as afterwards, when his 
life passed in the whirl of public atfairs, there is nothing mure 
remarkable than his persistent and sincere love of literatui-e. 
Tl'.ere is a passage in one of these " Home Letters " which is 
pa:ticularly moving. It is where he briefly writes to his sister 
cf tl.e necessity to sell ufl' his few remaining )>cioks :-- 

With regard to the lx>oks, if you can sell any of them or 
excliange any of them for cloth for shiits, i(c., I should be 
glad. " Caleb Williams " and the " Works of Shakespeare " 
I should like for myself, but, of course, can <lo without them. 

The late Sir William Windeycr, who had known Parkes from 
his own boyhooil, always reganled his personal atl'ection for 
books as amounting to a disease. When Parkes was still a 
struggling workman in Sydney, he has lieen known to spend the 
whole of his week's wages nn his way home on a Satunlay night 
in some second-hand l>ook-shop, which had the same fatal 
fascination for him that tlic public-house ha<l for too many of 
his fellows. Books, literary relics, authors' autographs, rare 
prints and engravings these were the liosetting sins of this 
strsnijo (^^lonial stat<'sman who, to his dying diiy, was always 
i iry ilitticulties : and this, though for the greater |>art 

o lie was a strict t«-«-t«taller, never lielonged to a club at 

Miy perioil of his career, and had tione of the idle, s|«ndthrift 
amuscmente of the bulk of humanity of all classes. 

When Parkes foun<1 that nothing stare<l him in the face save 
starvation in I.,ondon, he at length l>oldly announoe<l his fixe<l 
rfettnnination to emigrat*? : but he does so, not like a beaten 
cniven in the loittlo of life, but mther as a coni|uerlng warrior 
procUimifig a forthcoming campaign. 

I am in high ho{«s of .\ustralin, as well I may Im when I 
compare my chance of living thtre with my clumco of doing so 
here : fiut I cannot give you much information now or I 
*hould be np all night. [ He pmbably had no more to give. | 
Tlte C'luny of New South Wales is three times us large us 
England, Scotland. Ireland, and Wales, and as lM>aiitiful a 
country as this. The 8<iil pro<1iic<s almost everything which 
this producfs, together with poinfgnnate^, omiiges, lemons, 
fig*, Ac. L.iIhI can Ix? Ix^ught in some of the towns for sevi-n 
ponn<U an ucm, in the second town in the colony for tuenty 
pounds, and in *<>me pttrts of the country for five shillings per 
acre. Mechanics can get forty ami fifty shillings a week, and 
>>ciy siig»r for two shillings a |iound : teti for two shillings: 
be«f twopence a poumt ; wine sixpsnce per lottle : rent four 

,1,511; .-,.. ,-pek. Sydney, the capital of the colony, contains 

H-'k'" Unt*. However, my hopes are not extravagant. 



though I make sure of getting rich and coming over soon to 
fetch all of you. I had forgotten to say the climatic is tho 
healthiest in the world. 
However, " red tape " put all sorts of <lifficulties in the wsy of 
his getting a'free passage to this promise<l land : " 

They would not give mo a passage at first because I 
w.is a turner, as persons of such a trade as mine must, when 
they get to Sydney, work on their own account . . . Ther« 
are crowds of applicants every <lay at the emigration office for 
them to choose out of, and they keep tlum back and put them 
off from time to time very vexatiously it seems to me. 
Even the Circumlocution Office could not stop such a man as 
Honry Parkes. 

When he at length reaclie<l Sydney, after a terribly tedious 
voyage, with his brave young wife and sick child, he found tht> 
greatest difliculty in getting a livelihood for them. He was by 
turns farm labourer, tide-waiter, ironmonger, toy -shop keeper, 
journalist, and at length politician and Prime Minister. He 
began to scribble verse in the columns of Uobert Lowe's Sydney 
journal, the Atlas: and, as he always dt-clarod, he was mainly 
instrumontiil in getting the future Jjord Sherbrooke electc<l for 
the metropolis in the old Legislative Council of New South 
Wales. Parkes then kept a small toy-shop in Hunter-street, 
Sydney, and scribbled his amatory verse for tlio Aila* on the 
counter. 

None of these moving themes, of course, are touched upon 
in these beautiful homely family letters of Sir Henry Parkes. 
But even in these early domestic records, in this tale of pt'nury 
and struggle, we get many a glimpse of the real soul-felt lovo of 
liti-rsture and culture in the breast of this virile and giftetl man. 
Parkes published two small books of " occasional " verse, in 
which he displayed a tendency to amntivoness that sometimes 
reminds the reader of an unnielo<lioii8 Tom Moore masquera<ling 
as Thomas Little. But Parkes' love of l)ooks, his devotion to 
his literary ideals, his kindly heli« to struggling local authors, 
were not the least attractive traits in his powerful but complex 
personality, the key of which is truly presented to tlie discerning 
reader of this delightful l>ook. 

A. PATCH KTT MARTIN. 



THE MUSIC OF VOWEL SOUND. 



We are seldom awaro how subtly wo arc InBiiencotl by tho 
mere nuisiu of vowel-sound, which oft4>n holds tho qiiintessoneeot 
the iiieaiting of tho word containing it. Vowel-sounds (inconliiiod 
by their Iwnds of consonants, thrill e.ieh with a single, easily- 
dellued emotion, which rings out even in tho most ineongruoiii 
combinations. The long-«lrawn " o " sounds eiifobi tho melan- 
choly of loneliiiews ; tho " 00 " sounds lull the senses, and 
induce inootis that, have tho soothing iuflueuco of dew ; while 
many of the frail and exquisite things of .\pril uiid of Spring- 
lilies and dalToWils, and slim silver willows lln<l an inter- 
liiiketl swxs'lriess of expression in one eominou vowel. In 
his essays Coventry Patmoro speaks " of sounds having a 
subtle corpes|smilenee to things," He says:— "The language 
of poetry — the only real speech — of all nations anil tinu-s has 
largely consistol of a mixtupo of phonetic and objective 
linjigery." Tho \voni spejiks to tho niinil, but the vowel to tlm 
soni, and «!vcii without digc'iiK '"t" Ihe |)hilology of the matter, 
it. should not t>o difllcult to trace si>me of these mystic parallels. 

At times tho s|«'cial pn-fen-nces of a poet in vowol- 
sounil give a key to his elianicU'rislics. Most, poets, how- 
ever, pr»'fer delicate and elusive oonibinatiims to simple melodies ; 
but even so, one note, not so much by reason of its persistency, 
as by n-asou of its stridency, may often doiiiinat*; the rest. 
In the cxtreim-ly varied anil n-sonimt harmonies of Swinburne, 
it is always tho vowel sound " i " (as in Jire) that rings longest, 
in tho air — a vowel-soniid shining with light and life, rhiiiiin;; 
always a high exhilaration. What vitality is given to his "Song 
of the South-West Wind" by the employment of this vowoU 



August 25, 1900.] 



LITERATURE. 



133 



Wind whoMi mifrlit in fl({lit vnH England'H on hor iiiiRhtlcnt 
warrlor-«liiy, 

S(mtli-w(>^t wiiiil, wlioHO l>ri-sitK for hor was llfo, aiitl Uru to 
soonr(t<* lii*r foe, 

Stud to Hiiiltu, unci dt'ulli to dl'lvo lilin ilowii nil iiiirotiiriiiiiK 
wny. . . . 
This is tlio wind of the " widcilliiK winds K'W'ti'"." of tlio 
*' (liii-koniiiK liri'U's iliviiio." Tli<>i-f is tlio triiiiii|iji and tlio brino 
of tlio s(>a ill this SOUK — tlii> Iiriuhtnoss of salt. To talco u isiii- 
vorso liistanco, Koals' niotaplior of tlio liliiolH'ir " Htipphim 
<|Uoon of tho mid-May " — jars on us, lH>oniiM<) it (Iros a flower 
with ovor-sparlfli' of lK'i»K. 

It. is struii};t> to iliul that this virilo vowH-ttoiind wiis 
Kniost Dowsoii's favourito. " His idoal of a liiiu of vorst<," 
Arthur Syiiioiis lolls ns, " was tlio lino of Poo-  

Tho viol, tho vioiot, and tho vino." 

I (oro, Iiowover, wo notioo that tlio hriuhtnoss of tho vowol- 
ftouiid is voiliMl by' tlio slow lanRiior of tho consonant, and a 
wholly difforiMit Key of iiinsio is thus prodiicisl. Tho iiiiaKos apiMnil 
•>ach with (loliciito iiorsiiasion to tho ilifforont sonsos.and in viow 
of cii'diinstaiipos tlioro is soiuotliiiif: cnrionsly iiatliotic in tlioir 
choico. As wo slirmld ox|M>("t, it is tho consonant nithor than 
tho vowol that alliiros Dowsoii. " Tho lotlor ' v,' " h«' said, 
" is tho most boautifiil oftlio li-tti-rs, and could novor Ihi liron;;ht 
into verso t<M> oft(>ii." As it hn|(|)ons, thoro arc very few lovoly 
wonis in our laiiKi'atco attachini; to this letter ; tho extrenio 
rarity may givo to its um< an ndditionnl thrill. Wo have to seek 
liofoiT wo lliid such liiiOH as " viewless violets," or " quickoniiiK 
with vision tho eye that was veiled." 

Consonants would seem to have loss power over tho " o " 
and " CO " sounds ; they cannot mitigate the cold northern lone- 
liness of tho one, nor vex tho southern softness of the other. 
" O " holds ill its note all tho melancholy of ocean, so closely 
allied to the j;onius of our people ; often we lUid this clearly 
eiiuiiciatod : — 

On that lono shore loud moans the sea 
but so stiH>np;ly is it always iinpiieil that we Iliid a special lltiiess 
in conneotiiifc the tlmuglit of woo with MaetcrliiK'k's linage of 
the ocean : 

" Kaut-il piaindr(< celui qni pl(>iiro pertains soirs, au l)ord 
d'uiK^ incr iiiflnio, oii ci'liii <pii sourit, sans ruisoii, touto sa vie, 
oil fond d'une pelil<' chaiiibre ?" 

The most haunting liiu-N that Keats ever wrote are bipr with 
tho " o " music: — 

Mafjic casements, oponiuff on tho foam 
Of perilous seas in faery lands forlorn. 
" Forlorn !" the |H)ot i-xdaims, " the very word is like a Ih'H to 
toll thee back fnmi tli«H> to my solo self." So funeral Ik-IIs, that 
aiv the vei-y spei>cli of loss and loneliness, in Mi's. Bi-owiiinjj's 
" Kliyiiie of the Duchess May," i-ocurrin^jly " toll slowly." It. 
Is, of course, uniu'cessary to ivfer t4) the birds of loneliness -to 
the " mopiiif; owl," and the" inopiii); heron motionless anil stiH." 

AftiT the lofty asceticism of this vowel how swe«>t to jxiss to 
the soi^tliin^ " oo " music ; to hear IJeorfCO Mer»><lith's doves, 
" TliitiUKh tho long noon coo, crooning through the coo " ; to 
list«Mi when' " the long-backed bre